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REPORT 


OF THE 


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BRITISH ASSOCIATION 


FOR THE 


ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 


HELD, AT 


EDINBURGH IN AUGUST 1871. 


LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 
1872, 


PRINTED BY 


TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 


CONTENTS. 


Oxssects and Rules of the Association ...........00sseesaeeie ee 
Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement .........555 XXiV 
Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 

RGMTAPACHCEIEMY) fs /crels she Sere es biNe a8 oad das tae Gh 4 tgh OA Het Lads XXX 
Biv AOTUTES 6 his bk adh Ais RES Hess Lov ER Wat fatten XXXIX 
Lectures to the Operative Classes ...........05 meee ees acees ‘ xii 
Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at previous Meetings. . xiii 
Treastifer’s ACGOUNE iii ices t kee e case ect sees eel eek xliv 
Officers and Council, 1871-72 cccs ec ic ieee ease ete tte eteeen xly 
Unicers of Sectional Committees 2.0... .. 0. . eect eee xlyi 
Report of the Council to the General Committee..............45 xlyii 
Report of the Kew Committee, 1870-71 0... 0... cece ees 1 
Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science. ii. eid ci eee eee ete ect ease ee lxix 
Synopsis of Money Grants... .... sac vecdeuseuesteecesuss inns xxiv 
General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

RMSE Ss. Fates aot s ers as bis nah, yore kk il 4 ae MOD lxxvi 
Arrangement of the General Meetings ...... Levi tedsssedeus an lxxxiii 


Address by the President, Sir William Thomson, Knt., LL.D., F.R.S.  Ixxxiy 


REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 


Seventh Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent’s Cavern, Devon- 
shire,—the Committee consisting of Sir Cuartus Lyn, Bart., F.R.S., 
Professor Puituirs, F.R.S., Sir Jonn Luszocx, Bart., FR. S., JoHN 

a 2 


li CONTENTS. 
Evans, F.R.S., Epwarp Vivian, Groréz Busk, F.R.S., Witt1am Boyp 
Dawetns, F.R.S., Wreriam Aysurorp Sanrorp, F.G.S., and Wii11Am 
PENGELLY, FR.S. (Reporter) .....0c cece ee cece cece ee ce eisae 


Fourth Report of the Committee for the purpose of investigating the rate 
of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in various Locali- 
ties of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Professor Evererr, 
at the request of the Committee, consisting of Sir Wirr1am THomson, 
F.R.S., Sir Cuartes Lyett, Bart., F.R.S., Professor J. Crurx Maxwett, 
F.R.S., Professor Puitites, F.R.S., G. J. Symons, '.M.S., Dr. Batrour 
Srewart, F.R.S., Professor Ramsay, F.R.S., Professor A. Grrxre, 
F.R.S., James Guatisoer, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Granam, E. W. Bryyey, 
F.R.S., Grorez Maw, F.G.S., W. Peneetry, F.R.S.,8.J.Macuin, F.G.8., 
Epwarp Hutt, F.R.S., and Professor Evurrrr, D.C.L. (Secretary) .. 


Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1870-71. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of Jamus Guatsuer, F.R.S., of the Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, Roperr P. Gree, F.G.S., F.R.A.S., Arexanper 8, 
Herscuet, F.R.A.S., and Caartzs Brooxr, F.R.S., Secretary to the 
Mekeorolapical Sockehy.. =. a\. 5. ei sees Pane stones eee ate eats Siaieeee em 


Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Henry Woopwarp, F.G.S., 
F.Z.8., Dr. Duncan, F.R.S., and R. Eruepipen, F.R.S., on the Struc- 
ture and Classification of the Fossil Crustacea, drawn up by Henry 
RWoopmamn; BUGS BUZ.6. ain oscis oo chino aes eee aes 


Report of the Committee appointed at the Meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation at Liverpool, 1870, consisting of Prof. Jevons, R. Dupiny 
Baxter, J. T. Danson, James Hrywoop, F.R.S., Dr. W. B. Hopeson, 
and Prof. Watry, with Epmunp Macrory as their Secretary, ‘ for the 
purpose of urging upon Her Majesty’s Government the expediency of 
arranging and tabulating the results of the approaching Census in the 
three several parts of the United Kingdom in such a manner as to 
admit of ready and effective comparison ” 


© @ « be « a @ fou "saw 6 ye. © nv) ere eie 


Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of Superintending 
the Publication of Abstracts of Chemical Papers. The Committee con- 
sists of Prof. A. W. Witt1amson, F.R.S., Prof. H. E. Roscor, F.R.S., 
Prof. KE. Franxianp, F.R.S. 


C2 


Report of the Committee for discussing Observations of Lunar Objects 
suspected of Change. The Committee consists of the Rey. T. W. 
Wess and Epwarp Crosstry, Secretary 


Second Provisional Report on the Thermal Conductivity of Metals. By 
Prof. Tarr 


Report on the Rainfall of the British Isles, by a Committee, consisting of 
C. Brooxz, F.R.S. (Chairman), J. Guatsuer, F.R.S., Prof. Pures, 
F.RS., J. F. Bareman, C.E., F.R.S., R. W. Myzyz, C.E., F.BS., 
T. Hawxsrey, C.E., Prof. J. C. Apams, F.R.S., C. Tomnryson, E-B.S., 


Prof. Sytvuster, F.R.S., Dr. Poxx, F.R.S., Rogurs Finny, C.E., and 
G. J. Symons, Secretary 


a ee er CCI aC Ne NCS CC i uC Oe Ph he keene Cheol: bh ta 


SOAPS CE CEE 6 ae 8 e's 6 6 48 Fe. a haw! wien |e 16) © (wins) eens 


Third Report on the British Fossil Corals. By P. Marry Duncan, 
F.BS., F.G.8., Professor of Geology in King’s College, London ..... 


14 


26 


53 


57 


59 


60 


97 


98° 


116 


CONTENTS. 


Report on the Heat generated in the Blood during the process of Arteria- 
lization. By Arrnur Gamexn, M.D., F.R.S.E., Lecturer on Physiology 
in the Extra-Academical Medical School of Edinburgh............ 


Report of the Committee appointed to consider the subject of Physiolo- 
PPE SeICHUMCNGHWON J) 2. ens ee gees Mase cwdt pes erscce. 


Report on the Physiological Action of Organic Chemical Compounds. By 
Bengsamin Warp Ricuarpson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. .0.... eee eee 


Report of the Committee appointed to get cut and prepared Sections 
of Mountain-Limestone Corals for the purpose of showing their Struc- 
ture by means of Photography. The Committee consists of Jamzs 
Tomson, F.G.S., and Prof. Harxnuss, F.RS. 1.2... ke ee ee es 


Second Report of the Committee appointed to consider and report on the 
yarious Plans proposed for Legislating on the subject of Steam-Boiler 
Explosions, with a view to their Prevention,—the Committee consisting 
of Sir Wittram Farrsarrn, Bart., C.K., LL.D.,{F.R.S., Jounw Penn, 
C.E., F.R.S., Freperick J. Bramwertt, C.E., Huea Mason, Samuren 
Riesy, THomas Scuorrerpd, Cuartes F, Breyer, C.E., Tomas WEzsTErR, 
Cr and, Lavineron BE. Frercamn, CB. 20.560 dees toes eccase 


Report of the Committee on the “Treatment and Utilization of Sewage,” 
consisting of Ricnarp B. Granruam, C.E., F.G.S. (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor D. T. Ansrep, F.R.S., Professor W. H. Corrretp, M.A., M.B., J. 
Baitey Denton, C.E., F.G.S8., Dr. W. H. Grisert, F.R.S., Jonn THorn- 
nt Harrison, C.E., Taomas Hawxstey, C.E., F.G.8., W. Hors, V.C., 
Tieut.-Col. Lracu, R.E., Dr. W. Oprine, F.R.S., Dr. A. Vortcxer, 
F.R.S., Professor A. W. Wittramson, F.R.S., F.C.S., and Sir Jonny 
Meenas, Dart, MP. WBS. (Preasurery). . ec ows eee wees wee 


Betters from M, Lavorstmmr to Dr. BLACK .....02 ccc cece ess scccees 


Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Anton Domry, Professor Rox- 
LEston, and Mr. P. L. Scrater, appointed for the purpose of promoting 
the Foundation of Zoological Stations in differert parts of the World: 
See porier,, Dr. DOHRM, oo. pete a ras eeepc HOO Ge canoe ote 


Preliminary Report on the Thermal Equivalents of the Oxides of Chlo- 
qeue, “By James Dewar, F.BSB.. e005 See ts. te eee es 


Report on the practicability of establishing “ A Close Time ” for the pro- 
tection of indigenous Animals. By a Committee, consisting of Prof. 
Newton, M.A., F.R.S., Rev. H. B. Tristram, F.R.S., J. E. Hantine, 
F.LS., F.Z.8., Rey. H. Barnes, and H. E. Drussrr (Reporter) .... 


Report of the Committee on Earthquakes in Scotland. The Committee 
consists of Dr. Brycz, F.G.S., Sir W. Tomson, F.R.S., D. Minye- 
Home, F.R.S.E., P. Macrarpans, and J. BrouGH ......-..+..-45- 


Report on the best means of providing for a uniformity of Weights and 
Measures, with reference to the Interests of Science. By a Committee, 
consisting of Sir Joun Bowrrye, F.R.S., The Right Hon. Sir C. B. Ap- 
DERLEY, M.P., Samvet Brown, F.S.S., Dr. Farr, F.R.S., Franx P. 
Fextowns, Professor Franknanb, F.R.S., Professor Hennessy, F.R.S., 
‘James Herwoon, F.B.S., Sir Roperr Kang, F.R.S., Professor Leonz 


ili 
Page 


137 


144 


145 


165 


166 


166 
189 


192 


193 


197 


197 


iv CONTENTS. 


Levi, F.S.A., F.S.8., C. W. Smvrens, F.R.S., Colonel Syxzs, F.RB.S., 
M.P., Professor A. W. Wrttramson, F.R.S., James Yates, F.R.S., Dr. 
Grorce Grover, Sir Josepx Wurrwortn, Bart., F.R.S., J. R. Naprer, 
H. Drecxs, J, V. N. Bazatcerre, W. Surra, Sir W. Farrzaren, Bart., 
F.R.S., and Joun Rosryson :—Professor Lzone Levi, Secretary 


Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of promoting the 
extension, improvement, and harmonic analysis of Tidal Observations. 
Consisting of Sir Witt1am Tomson, LL.D., F.R.S., Prof. J. C. Apams, 
F.R.S., J. OrpHam, Witr1Am Parkes, M. Inst. C.E., Prof. Ranxre, 
LL.D., F.R.S., and Admiral Ricwarps, R.N., F.RS.....50-:229223 


NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 
OF 


MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 


MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 
Address by Professor P. G. Tarr, M.A., F.R.S.E, President of the Section .. 


MATHEMATICS. 


Mr. Ropert Stawett Batx’s exhibition and description of a Model of a 
Conoidal Cubic Surface called the “ Cylindroid,” which is presented in the 
Theory of the Geometrical Freedom of a Rigid Body ..............004. 


Professor CayLEy on the Number of Covariants of a Binary Quantic ...... 
Mr, W, K. CirrForp on a Canonicai Form of Spherical Harmonics .,...... 
Mr. J. W. L, GuaisHER on certain Definite Integrals .........+.eeeeeeees 


—_——_—_——_———— on Lambert’s Proof of the Ivrationality of 7, and on 
the Ivrationality of certain other Quantities ........cseee ee eeeeee eevee 


Mr. C. W. MerriFretp on certain Families of Surfaces ........0+000+ cous 
Mr. F. W. Newman on Doubly Diametral Quartan Curves ......-+esseeees 
Professor PursER’s Remarks on Napier’s original Method of Logarithms. ... 
Mr. W. H. L. Russext on Linear Differential Equations..........0s0e0005 
——_————— on MacCullagh’s Theorem ...........ssseeeseeee 
Mr. J. J. Sytvester on the Theory of a Point in Partitions ..........++.. 


Sir W. THomson on the General Canonical Form of a Spherical Harmonic of 
the nth Order .,..., STROM E ckea o’ efe\n a a-e ae Ge ans tnd ake retake: «his ga elute setae 


Page 


. 198 


201 


1 


CONTENTS, v 


GENERAL Paystcs, 


Page 

Mr. Ropert Stawett Batx’s Account of Experiments upon the Resistance 
of Airto the Motion of Yortex=rings .....25 becuse ees eetceeclecgerbess 26 
Mr. H. Deacon’s Experiments on Vortex-rings in Liqnids ............. bey P29 
Professor J. D. EvERETT on Units of Force and Energy............0..005 29 

Dr. J. H. Guapstone and ALFRED TRIBE on the Corrosion of Copper Plates 
Rep EAETOL SULUAE  yaraig-etceierorstelelarole love's see he & oldie, ciaverele Phebe ewietsiaeelel 29 
ML Janssun’s Remarks on Physics ........002.ccc cee c eee cveceeueeccues 29 

Mr. T. M. Lrypsay and W. R. Smiru on Democritus and Lucretius, a aoe 
tion of Priority in the Kinetical Theory of Matter...............5. siaisies, 


Professor JAMES THomsoNn’s Speculations on the Continuity of the Fluid State 
of Matter, and on Relations between the Gaseous, the Liquid, and the Solid 


“UNOPS pn gcogeady abate a oeo 6 iS esi OREO eee Sa Debs DEE eee paribus co i 50 
———_—_—_—_——— Observations on Water in Frost Rising against 

Gravity rather than Freezing in the Pores of Moist Earth ............. . dt 

Astronomy. 

Professor CLirForp on the Secular Cooling and the Figure of the Earth .... 34 
Dr. Gix’s Observations on the Parallax of a Planetary Nebula............ 3 
M. Janssen on the Coming Solar Eclipse ........... 0. cc cece cece ee eeees 34 
Mr. J. Norman Lockyer on the Recent and Coming Solar Eclipses........ 34 
Mr. R. A. Proctor on the Construction of the Heavens...............05. 34 
Professor OSBORNE REYNOLDS on Artificial Coronas........... 0. see eee eee 3 
Mr. H. Fox Tatzor on a Method of Estimating the Distances of some of the 

HILO BL, SUTS Shee aa Pe Oke Sie rae ca one Cee ee nemo amemetony 54 
Professor Cartes V. ZENGER on the Nutoscope, an Apparatus for showing 

Graphically the Curve of Precession and Nutation ............eee cers 36 

Lieut. 


Mr. Puttre BrawAm’s description of a Set of Lenses for the Accurate Cor- 
SMP MANGL SISBOh ore yn ues < o s\one osc Sate eae id ee Va Leela cua be 


Mr. THomas“STEVENSon’s description of a Paraboloidal Reflector for Light- 


houses, consisting of silyered facets of ground-glass; and of a Differential 
_. MOTAT Pondoiglad H6abi of Shinto oda up ot opin ooooticlooobinsiac ont 5 ror 


Professor G. G. Sroxss’s Notice of the Researches of the late Rey. William 
Vernon Harcourt; on the Conditions of Transparency i in Glass, and the Con- 
nexion between the Chemical Constitution and Optical en of dif- 


, ©9 
vom 


PMI CIBBEES™ 5), 0... Ss vise teetanles Doses cscs ee vas Brat era. carat veers 38 

Mr. G. Jounstone Stoney on one Cause of Transparency... .eeceseeeeee. Al 
——______—— on the advantage of referring the positions of 

Lines in the Spectrum to a Scale of Wave-numbers.......+.ssseeeeeeee 42 
Professor Wi1LLIAM Swan on the Waye-lengths e the Spectra of the Hydro- 

GLO TOME deb bindebSnapipemodeinc oo unboliveanGonerccpuemommonr oconmboenare 45 

The AsB& Moreno on the Poste Photographique........+.++5 tetveweeees 44 


Mr. R. Surron’s Account of a New Photographic Dry Process.....+...... 44 


vi CONTENTS. 


- Page 


Heat. 


Mr. Donatp M‘Faruane’s description of Experiments made in the Physical 
Laboratory of the University of Glasgow to determine the Surface Conduc- 


tivity for Heat of a Copper Ball ..............00ccecaees Bpoui AanbSt 
Mr. Wirt1Am Lapp on a Respirator for Use in Extinction of Fires ........ 
Professor BALFouR StEwanT on the Temperature-equilibrium ofan Enclosure 
in which there is a Body in Visible Motion.........ccceceeeescccecees 


Professor Cx. V. ZENGER on a new SteaM-gauge ...sscsscsevseevsseveees 


ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 


Mr. Tuomas Bioxam on the Influence of Clean and Unclean Surfaces in Vol- 


LACE ANCIAGIE araee atelete peices fete eteitictee levers icloss «sha Sane COG OUbooaddodae: , 
Mr. Latimer CLarxk on a new Form of Constant Galvanic Battery ........ 
Dr. J. P. JoutE’s Notice of and Observations with a New Dip-circle ...... 
Professor Tarr on Thermo-electricity...........ccceeceee ceeees abbas Be 
Mr. C. F. Variry on a Method of Testing Submerged Electric Cables...... 


Professor Cu, V, ZENGER on a New Key for the Morse Printing Telegraph .. 


METEOROLOGY. 
Dr. Buys Bauuor on the Importance of the Azores as a Meteorological Sta- 
LOL, es assis agep th ety ovals #\sce 'dinle.4'> iaisis Dive wet Wiagthe Gime jacneem ae ea 


Dr. ALEXANDER Brown on the Mean Temperature of Arbroath. Lat.56°33'35"' 
North, Long. 2° 35' 30” W. of Greenwich 


Dr. Witi1am B, Carpenter on the Thermo-Dynamics of the General Oceanic 
AGM AGOH OF, G'S ae sos wie nance eee eas eee aac Veen eet ea ee 


Rev. Professor CHa.iis on the Mathematical Theory of Atmospheric Tides . 
Professor Cotprne’s Remarks on Aérial Currents.......... #9 enous asia 
Professor J. D. Everett on Wet- and Dry-bulb Formule ......... v's oan la 


—_———————_—— on the General Circulation and Distribution of the 
Atmosphere ... 00000. Baka sycamore cheecesmins dareln ta iois/ ste errs olarsieters AIRES Ge oe ate 


M. JANssEN’s Observations Physiques en Ballon 


Mr. W. PENGELLY on the Influence of the Moon on the Rainfall ..... S006 
Mr. R. Russevxt on the Inferences drawn by Drs. Magnus and Tyndall from 
their Experiments on the Radiant Properties of Vapour ............ dace 


Mr, Wititam A, Trait on Parhelia, or Mock Suns, observed in Ireland .. 


Tuk PRroGREss oF SCIENCE. 


Lieut.-Col. A. Strange on Government Action on Scientific Questions .... 
Rey. W, TuckwE.t on the Obstacles to Science-Teaching in Schools ...... 


CHEMISTRY. 


Address by Professor ANDREWS, F.R.S.L, & E., President of the Section.... 


Mr. Tuomas ArNswortTH on the Facts developed by the Working of Hama- 
tite Ores in the Ulyerstone and Whitehaven Districts from 1844-71,..... 


59 


66 


CONTENTS. 


Dr. AxprEws on the Dichroism of the Vapour of Iodine 
on the Action of Heat on Bromine................0000055, 


Professor Apsoun’s Remarks upon the Proximate Analysis of Saccharine 
RM fala alse eth ie’ stare alt vo.0.8 ft ary eM T wioaeelbid a aI, 


M. Gustav Biscuor on the Examination of Water for Sanitary purposes 
Mr. Pump Brawam on the Crystallization of Metals by Electricity........ 


Mr. J. Y. BucHanan on the Rate of Action of Caustic Soda on a watery Solu- 
Pememermmararentc Acid at NOOF Co ase as oiaye «0 0je «su sus wgarecbraenm cen ts 


Dr. F. Cracr-Catverrt on the Estimation of Sulphur in Coal and Coke.... 


Mr. Joun Daze and Dr. T. E. Toorre on the Existence of Sulphur Di- 
LU STLEE 5 5 HE SERRE RB eR ae a aig saa ea? 


Mr. Henry Dracon on Deacon’s Chlorine Process as applied to the Manufac- 
ture of Bleaching-powder on the larger Scale 


Professor DELFFS on Sorbit 


a BE o Ore 0 © 6 60s 0). 8.18. ole) aval wh wale) © 


vs ela ek 8 Bee ofa a ee ale, 5, 6,6 0) Oidlelnieintaluia’ sie.ele,u) a) acutelete a 


Dr. J. H. Guapstonr and ALFRED Tripe’s Experiments on Chemical Dy- 

MT A. 30 tall lax Abielea,) eWicteee 1. Habe O AMIR eT 
Dr. J. H. Guapstone on Crystals of Silver .......ccccccscccccsuccuce 
PreOHIN GOODMAN Om FABTIN 6.62. cece oye ogee sneubinces oho ooh Oper ic 


Mr. Wittram Harxness’s Preliminary Notice on a New Method of Testing 
Beret at WOOO Nu Rite: ce. fechas on os cmitin vie «icing pats dsdieais.a wdoues a o% oie 


The Rey. H. Higuron on a Method of Preserving Food by Muriatic Acid .. 
Dr. J. Styciuarr Hoxpen on the Aluminous Iron-ores of Co, Antrim 


Professor N. Story Maskrtyye on the Localities of Dioptase 
—_—— on Andrewsite .......... ° 
Dr. T. Morrar on Ozonometry............ sibipo.Lc 


ee ee ee ee er 


Dr. T. L. Purpson on Regianic Acid 


0 Pee enee 


Dr. J. Emerson Reynoxps on the Action of Aldehyde on the two Primary 
Ureas 


et soe NEP ERE SUS) Ore TENS) Sata: e) etaile chee) 's 6 eis eota atecale! a) ‘sterpial ele) e! cals ataliea: w eie nc 


——_——_—————— on the Analysis of a singular Deposit from Well- 
“EEL pe ican CS as St ie Een Co IOI A eeaceic track rice rico" tr Seon oR 


Dr. Orro Ricutenr on the Chemical Constitution of Glycolic Aleohol and its 
Heterologues, as viewed in the new light of the Typo-nucleus Theory .... 


Mr. Witi1amM CHANDLER ROBERTS on the Molecular arrangement of the Alloy 
of Silver and Copper employed for the British Silver Comage........... 


Mr. E. C. C. Sranrorp on the Retention of Organic Nitrogen by Charcoal . . 
Mr. Jonn Smytu, Jun., on Improvements in Chlorimetry . Ae 
Dr. T. E. Toorrx’s Contributions to the History of the Phosphorus Chlorides 
Mr. C. R, C. Trcuzornz on the Dissociation of Molecules by Heat . 


Mr. C. Tomumson on the behaviour of Supersaturated Saline Solutions when 
exposed to the open air ........ eUatet at atatsh clave e's: a'eto' aver 


Mr. J. A. WANKLYN on the Constitution of Salts........... eon i cise ace 


ar C. Gizpert WHEELER on the Recent Progress in Chemistry in the United 
tates eeeeverereret eee treet ee ease eene 


sores erereeereoe eer eee ape ses 


Vill CONTENTS. 


: Page 
Mr. C. R. A. Wriaur and Cuartns H. Presse on the Oxidation products 
of the Essential Oil of Orange-peel, known as “ Essence de Portugal” ..,, 83 
Mr. C. R. A. Wricut on certain new Derivatives from Codeia.,..... » angina 
GEOLOGY. 
Address by AncHIBALD Gerxim, F.R.S., President of the Section .......... 87 
The Rey. J. F. Buaxe on the Yorkshire Lias and the Distribution of its 
PACT OUIUOS PME pomp site eof evo oets's one's evele oie. ote: ehevetoncterevel er ctetctis test toEstee 90 
Mr. D. J. Brown on the Silurian Rocks of the South of Scotland .......... 93 
on the Upper Silurian Rocks of the Pentland Hills and 
Mdpsmiah aso ire oe Jame Mert tsa leeia ce cs ys arene sifee oot stare rmaeenes 93 
Dr. Ropert Brown’s Geological Notes on the Noursoak Peninsula and Disco 
Nsland ins Worth iGmpenland..) ris stete"s sisis s'ale s'sie vlelele ober <a.a'e aein ae seiner 94 
Dr. Bryce on certain Fossils from the Durine Limestone, N.W. Suther- 
LEFTY bl el OI oP 4 ee erereccuategsictepcabcsets sis Gnevatore’s. retehhe sie ateune aint Po acieth Leet 
Mr. W. CarruTHERs on the Vegetable Contents of Masses of Limestone 
occurring in Trappean Rocks in Fifeshire, and the conditions under which 
RNG yATS VOSOR VC sete arte ol syeiaiche yo 66's ines a fa oye olay sha ttas Cees ayelala Cae iaumetotels 94 
Mr. Joun Curry on the General Conditions of the Glacial Epoch ; with Sug- 
gestions on the formation of Lake-basing./...........cccessccecccccncs 95 
Mr. R. DarnTREE on the General Geology of Queensland ...........0.+0- 95 
Mr. W. Boyp Dawes on the Relation of the Quaternary Mammalia to the 
Slacial emda. wk seis Fave och seg et oe lacie cine sores irate Steet 95 
Prof. Grrxre on the Progress of the Geological Survey in Scotland ........ 96 
Mr. D. Grieve on the Fossiliferous Strata at Lochend near Edinburgh .... 98 
Mr. G. J. Grieve on the position of Organic Remains near Burntisland .... 98 
Sir Ricuarp GrirritH, Bart., on “The Boulder Drift and Esker Hills of 
Ireland,” and “ On-the position of Erratic Blocks in the Country”........ 98 
The Rey. J. Gunn on the Agency of the Alternate Elevation and Subsidence 
of the Land in the formation of Boulder-clays and Glaciers, and the Exca- 
vation of Valleys‘and ‘Baws ). «gist sgaiea's 005; 6 oe3 vale eres ered oa created 100 
Mr. Joun HENDERSON on the Age of the Felstones and Conglomerates of the 
Pentland” Halls Gh) cela ie? a dele gat. Rae Ses bp a ska Cin 6 eae eee 101 


Professor Epwarp Hurt and Mr. Wittram A, Trartx on the relative ages 
of the Granitic, Plutonic, and Volcanic Rocks of the Mourne Mountains and 
Shiexe@roob, Co. Down, ireland aia.) 2 ..ch ne sammie cohort le ee 101 


The Rey. Dr. Hume on the Coal-beds of Panama, in reference mainly to their 
Economic Importance 


CC er ar 


Mr. Cuarries LapwortH and James Witson on the Silurian Rocks of the 
Counties of Roxburgh and Selkirk 


Mr. Coartes Lapwortu on the Graptolites of the Gala Group .......... 104 
Mr. P. W. Stuart MenteEaru on the Origin of Voleanoes....... ‘othe ce 104 
Mr. L. C. Mratx’s further Experiments and Remarks on Contortion of Rocks 106 


Mr. Jonn Mixer on the so-called Hyoid plate of the Asterolepis of the Old 
Bred Sandstone: crceristek sie Meetere seta al x sibatais Soe eitaieaien s/t trae - 106 


Mr. D. Mitne-Home on the Conservation of Boulders..........- cena ae 107 


te ki S. Mrrcueiy’s further Remarks on the Denudation of the Bath 
alitel soe A 


See ene rene Cee eee eee ween eevee Ce eeee 


CONTENTS, ix 


P. 
Dr. Morrat on Geological Systems and Endemic Disease .,..+..+seeseees 107 


Dr. James Murre on the Systematic Position of Sivatherium giganteum, Faule. 


BON os ols, «oa gre, eran tigrathiais in aprrats eis grate etn gen srekeks Sa Cauvete aha ache arpa 108 
Mr. C, W. Pracu’s Additions to the list of Fossils and Localities of the Car- 
boniferous Formation in and around Edinburgh.........seseeeeeeeeeees 109 
L’Aspé Ricwarp on Hydro-Geology ......eeec eee eeeeeeees palaeiskieis Sep ANS! 
The Rey. W. S. Symonps on the Contents of a Hyzwna’s Den on the Great 
MEME EILCHOTON SORA: fas ae figs 6 cs gig tedeang as tge ended fuse 109 
——_——_——_— on a New Fish-spine from the Lower Old Red 
meer at Eley, DrcConstare . sss se eee k a csc ete s bene e es .. 110 
Mr. J. 8S. Taynor on the later Crag-Deposits of Norfolk and Suffolk........ 110 
Mr. James THomson on the Stratified Rocks of Islay ......,. paar ea cage eel LO 
Prof. Traquatr’s Additions to the Fossil Vertebrate Fauna of Burdiehouse, 
TERE TDI Oriol RS ea AO UoDHABOanbia, dAcoaneess S93: 111 
Professor W. C. Wittramson on the Structure of the Dictyorylons of the 
MPMMRERECOR IE osc pnw eee eee as cue ne 9 owe Y dmeeamMdery cette fears Te 111 
—_——_—- on the Structure of Diploxylon, a Plant of the 
Warboniferous Rocks vi)... eccccdencee sce. Fe FeteeMa leer atabal ete feleie, al sti have 112 
Mr. Henry Woopwarp on the Discovery of a new and very perfect Arachnide 
from the Ironstone of the Dudley Coal-field .......... cece ece eee eens 112 
—_—_———-—— on the Relics of the Oarboniferous and other old 
PME SIUCED ate eeelel aides shva'eee sep irene taste Mets eek poses ete es 113 
BIOLOGY. 


Address by Dr. ALLEN THomson, F.R.SS. L. & E., President of the Section.. 114 


Dr. CoarLTON BAsTIAN on some new Experiments relating to the Origin of 
MS Re ay. Nes ee awa ek RON Re age oc ateeh ee ete as eras re ara loneers 122 


Dr. F, Crace-Catvert on the Action of Heat on Germ-life ...........04+ 122 
on Spontaneous Generation, or Protoplasmic Life .. 123 


Dr. Joun Doveat on the relative Powers of various Substances in preventing 
the Generation of Animalcules, or the Development of their Germs, with 
special reference to the Germ Theory of Putrefaction ..........00eeeues 124 


Sir Water Exxior on the advantage of Systematic Cooperation among Pro- 
vincial Natural-History Societies, so as to make their observations available 
MBI TRIS ES: ATION ANY 2 ia cn, oatale, vie mitts «,susbetala;seurd puedstesa/m Ys Glen: uis.g0-0.% 124 


Dr. Burpon Sanperson and Dr. Frrrrer on the Origin and Distribution of 
Microzymes (Bacteria) in water, and the circumstances which determine 


their Existence in the Tissues and Liquids of the Living Body .......... 125 
Mr. T. B. Grierson on the Establishment of Local Museums ............ 126 
Borany. 

Professor BALFouR on the Cultivation of Ipecacuanha in the Edinburgh Bo- 
tanic Garden for transmission to India..........es0e0e0% sonata teieeaia sakes 127 
Mr. Rospert Brown on the Flora of Greenland .......... exp va, atena teria’ > aisvenp 128 


——__——_-——-——-. on the Geographical Distribution of the Floras of North- 
BYESE AMOTICR oe ececssssecececs nc Se Seamntenbadoed cd i at anneates 


x CONTENTS. 


Page 
The Rey. THomas Brown on Specimens of Fossil-wood from the Base of the 
Lower Carboniferous Rocks at Langton, Berwickshire........ neopets 128 
Professor A. Dickson’s Suggestions on Fruit Classification. ......++6+..+++ . 128 
Mr. W. T. TutsELTon DyER on the minute Anatomy of the Stem of the 
Screw-Pine, Pandanus utilis so... ccccvccccccesencsssscenees satereisie othe 128 
on the so-called ‘ Mimicry’ in Plants ........ 128 
Mr, A. G. Mork on Spiranthes Romanzoviana, Cham. ..ccccccscecceceeres 129 
———— on Eriophorum alpinum, Linn., as a British Plant ........ 129 


Dr. James Munrtre on the Development of Fungi within the Thorax of Living 
Ii Kis go oantee te Sono bdr eps ase adddon SP Ia ee Saneoies aid og 129 


Dr. J. Brrxseck Nevins on the Changes which occur in Plants during the 
ripening of the Seeds, in order to ensure the access of the Air and Light as 
well as Heat, which are generally requisite for this purpose, without the 


loss of the Seeds before the ripening is completed ..........0.eesee eevee 130 
—_—_—_—_——-—— on the Nature of the Cruciferous fruit, with refer- 

NICO NTO! EE OPEV EPI 7, 0xa1 falar efaceies sveceis ace: ove: sj cdeverajocsietrs«,sc0ysieystesateds ett eereN 180 

Mr. J. Sapien on the Species of Grimmia (including Schistidium) as repre- > 

sented in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh..........ccceeeeseeeeeeeees 181 
Mr. Nem Srrwanrt’s Observations on the intimate Structure of Spiral ducts 

in Plants and their relationship to the Flower ........cseeseeseeeeeees 131 
———_—_—_—_——_ Inquiry into the Functions of Colour in Plants during 

different Stages of their Development........... ale legecevesnieseieh ee eer 131 


Prof. W. C. Wrix1AMson on the Classification of the Vascular Cryptogamia, 
as affected by recent Discoveries amongst the Fossil Plants of the Coal- 


measures ...... Jaane Hoes Tivoo" S500 OODOe a Terennen sieiegerare Spdddote Poe tail 
ZooLoey. 
Professor J. Duns’s Notice of two Specimens of Echinorhinus spinosus taken 
in the Firth of Forth .......... HOD OUOEEOHOORMC HS NOnOMT. Ma Tccqg 7b OC 132 
—————__——- on the Rarer Raptorial Birds of Scotland.............. 132 
Dr. GriERSON on the Carabus nitens of the Scottish Moors........++++++5: 132 
Mr. W. SavititE Kent on the Zoological Results of the Dredging Expedition 
of the Yacht ‘ Norma’ off the Coast of Spain and Portugal in 1870 ...... 132 
Mr. A. W. Lewis’s Proposal for a Modification of the strict Law of Priority 
in Zoological Nomenclature in certain cases .......0ee0e0s ea sat. ture. oe 138 
Dr. Curist1An LUTKEN on some resent Additions to the Arctic Fauna (a new 
Antipathes and a new Apodal Lophioid) ........... ce eee eee eens tein tt 138 
Mr. A. G. More on the occurrence of Brown Trout in Salt Water.......... 183 
—— on some Dredgings in Kenmare Bay ........seeeeeesunes 138 
Mr. C. W. PEAcH on the so-called Tailless Trout of Islay ...........0000. 188 
Colonel Prayrair on the Hydrographical System of the Freshwater Fish of 
A @CTIa |. citemieis iio’ 5 SH OS DODO AGO DOO BDAMODOn DO 6 cd ondcetcn Ae nici ve. 134 
Dr. P. L. ScuaTrr’s Remarks on a favourable occasion for the establishment 
of Zoological Observatories........cssscceccsccscccsccvess Fiorano sc 134 
Professor WYVILLE THoMSON on the Structure of Crinoids ...... Gc 18 


— on the Paleeontological Relations of the Fauna 
of the North ‘Atlanti¢sgeseccicccccccacedaeaendeues cede eaten 184 


CONTENTS. x1 

Page 
Mr. Rotanp Tren on a curious South-African Grasshopper, Trrachypetra 
bufo (White), which mimics with much precision the appearance of the 


stones among which it lives ...........- Sitoose  -5 SRS Ac oS CRO GOEe 154 
Professeur VAN BENEDEN sur les Chauves-souris de l’époque du Mammouth 

et de Vépoque actuelle ..... cece cece ee ee eens a Borer nin SSSA nik 135 
The Rey. R. B. Wartson’s Notes on Dredging at Madeira .......ceeeeseee 137 


ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 


Professor A. BucHANAN on the Pressure of the Atmosphere as an Auxiliary 


Force in carrying on the Circulation of the Blood .......+.seeeeeveeeee 
Dr. Joun Curenr’s Experimental Inquiry into some of the Results of Inocu- 
lation in the lower Animals ..........000eeeees Sideiateeisteente = pndaqode .. 138 
Professor W. H. Frowrnr on the Composition of the Carpus of the Dog .,., 188 
Dr. ARTHUR GAMGEE on the Magnetic and Diamagnetic Properties of the 
SUOOUL sscUR OGG jedgde SoacoorePicddommgt EUV Us Sree tarentr ee ates Segeiclo rn 138 
Sir Duncan Grsp on the Uses of the Uvula .........+..45 SRN NESSY SII 
——__ on some Abnormalities of the Larynx........+se+05 Pena loo 
Professor Humpury on the Caudal and Abdominal Muscles of the Crypto- 
DDEAHEM 6,60. .4:0 » A dade Sou e oot aodto bao Bob bo cao con se ddpraaeen nodose 140 
Mr. E. Ray LAnKEsTER on the Existence of Hemoglobin in the Muscular 
Tissue, and its relation to Muscular Activity ........ 2 uO OCPOKRDEROAICIG OF 140 


Mr. B. T. Lown on the Ciliated Condition of the Inner Layer of the Blasto- 
derm in the Ova of Birds and in the Omphalo-mesenteric Vessels ...,..., 140 


Professor A. MACALISTER on the Bearing of Muscular Anomalies on the Dar- 
winian Theory of the Origin of Species ...... Wares ae ace itve Lens neal cee LO 


Dr. M‘Kenprick on a New Form of Tetanometer ..........+ 


Dr. Witu1aM Manrcer on the Nutrition of Muscular and Pulmonary Tissue 
in Health and in Phthisis, with Remarks on the Colloid Condition of Mat- 
32s orion ‘Goode capduor Ae OB. DOIN. 0 DIDIDE- DIDOOSCK GUhOOD= aie Spee LAO 


Dr. Epwarp Smirx on Dietaries in the Workhouses of England and Wales. 141 


Professor STRUTHERS on some Rudimentary Structures recently met with in 
the Dissection of a large Fin-Whale .............0.. Fir cougae 


eeeeee 


——_———_——- on the Cervical Vertebree in Cetacea ...........+0+.. 142 
Professor R. H. Traquair on the Restoration of the Tail in Protopterus an- 
MECLENS weevsvuveee sete eeeees Pee eater eter ene ee resent tesenesvenne 


Dr. J. Barry Tuxe and Professor RUTHERFORD on the Morbid Appearances 
noticed in the Brains of Insane People 


Professor TURNER on the Placentation in the Cetacea..... Sp ocean pire 144 
—_-—____—_——’s Notes on the Cervical Vertebree of Steypirethyr (Bale- 
proper a, Std AIA) <i s(0 oisisivisre viele cttie clr tiele ele vu eierlereicle vid wv urea gerd y vielerebls's 144 


Dr. M. Warson’s Contributions to the Anatomy of the Thoracic Viscera of 
cud DIGI EBBSRRGGcen oc esse 4c dcdrdeadsootee densonea errs nade e! 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 
Professor TurNER’s Address to the Department of Anthropology .......... 144 
_ Dr. Joun Beppox on the Anthropolygy of the Merse.......... h Boudec ee 16 
on Degeneration of Race in Britain .i.ssveseeseseeees 148 


Dr. Cuarnock on Le Sette Communi, a German Colony in the neighbourhood 
Of Vicenza, .ssssseeees Oe Ee OV Rae ees 8.78 6 8 ee 0 8 Oe 8 ee PAS eos e288 88 8 148 


xii CONTENTS. 
rs 


Dr. CHaRnock and Dr. CarTER BLAKE on the Physical, Mental, and Philo- 
logical Characteristic of the Wallons ............eeee eens ootses bisér: 148 


Dr. Eugene A. Conwkit on an Inscribed Stone at Newhaggard, in the 
Gonnty Of Meath es fic tac scion sje% ects elm aiviele'e.c ois « Blvisit +s sna mame 149 


Mr. W. Boyp Dawxrs on the Origin of the Domestic Animals of Europe., 149 
on the attempted Classification of the Paleolithic 


Age by means of the Mammalia ...... cece eee cece e eee e ene eeneeees 149 
Mr. Wattrer Denpy on a Gleam of the Saxon in the Weald............-- 150 
Mr. J. W. Frower on the Relative Ages of the Flint- and Stone-Implement 

Pemodsan Bneland cs, a,c sss s ewes oe BEE ath Diokt ottordioavdorude 150 
Sir Duncan Grps on Centenarian Longevity.........0005 sacral gfbatic oe 151 

on the Fat Woman exhibiting in London,.....:.. PTs giet 152 
Mr. GrorGE Harris on the Hereditary Transmission of Endowments and . 
Oualiiies of diulerenh KINGS Oy sss ese os cass 030s seleale's on 2 ater seas 162 


——________— on the Comparative Longevity of Animals of different 
Species and of Man, and the probable Causes “which mainly conduce to pro- 


mote this:differencosss27.2 Fes Ss. Pees heer sets ORI OD Ud ooo ‘gsr doe 
Mr. J. W. Jackson on the Adantean Race of Western Europe ....... vith: dee 
Mr. J. Kartyzs on the Anthropology of Auguste Comte .............0085 . 153 
Mr KR. King on the happs. . si... csattcis attases siecrseccossttieesanes) 15S 


Lieut.-Col. Forprs Lestie on Megalithic Circles iiss sii eeieieiene ees L654 
on Ancient Hieroglyphic Sculptures ....,..... 165 
Rey. J. MeCann on the Origin of the Moral Sense .......:.. beeacttbians 200 


Mr. W. D. Micuet1, Is the Stone Age of Lyell and Lubbock as yet at all 
PrOvVEN sy Sey 2h set cit botaweeaeaet sa 06 hee ashes Oe .. 155 


Mr. M. MoGeridGe on Bones and Flints found in the Caves at Mentone and in 
the adjacent Railway Cutune .. isa. scces or tesen besst ose seine see 155 


Mr, J. Wotre Murray ona Cross traced upon a hill at Cringletie, near Peebles 156 
Mr. GroreGr Perris on Ancient Modes of Sepulture in the Orkneys,,....., 156 


Mr. Joun S. Poenf on an Expedition for the Special Investigation of the 
Hebrides and West Highlands, in search of EKyidences of Ancient Serpent- 
WOrship 550606. 6008 60500845 COR eee Rte A othe GR 5024 6 veevswe 158 


——_____——_—— on some indications of the Mamners and Customs of the 
early Inhabitants of Britain, deduced from the Remains of their towns and 


WIMBVCS pisisis soa She bie oe afloat 163.00 666966 F088 Coareeaty sieves 459 
The ApBé RrcHarD on the Discovery of Flint Implements in Bey pt, at Mount 
Sinai, at Galgala, and in Joshua’s Tomb...... $4 5,8, 5 bhok SOc Srl ee eure vee 160 
Professor STRUTHERS on Skulls presenting Sagittal Synostosis ...:..1...... 160 
The Rey. W. S. Symonps on Implements found in King Arthur’s Cave, near 
Whitchurch ¢<.5s.a0cseons SWRA SK aa séuebesvets WSSGT DO EUVERSE ESS 160 
Professor TURNER on Human and Animal Bones and Flints from a Cave at 
Oban, Argyleshire ,...2.,.stseterevivsscess iG OGoE a eeu teatime 
Mr. C. Srantmuanp WAKE on Man and the Ape wisiisiiscesiseess tveaes 162 


The Rey. W. WEBSTER on certain Points concerning the Origin and Relations 
of the Basque Racé, ,,iieiseiseveeechesenssaneertetsrveecsseeeswes Oe 


CONTENTS. Xili 


GEOGRAPHY. 


Address by Colonel Henry Yutz, C.B., President of the Section,......... 162 
Major-General ABRAMoF on the Principality of Karategin ...........00... 174 
Major Basevr on Minicoy Island .............0000008 PevEhtee hens ere bey 174 
Captain L. Brive on the Ruined Cities of Central America ......:14..... 175 
Dr. Ropert Brown on the Interior of Greenland ............ Sigidlidinh i ols 175 
Captain Curmmo on Cagayan Sulu Island .............ccsccecececceeeee 176 
Dr. CopeLAND on the Second German Arctic Expedition...........0.es005 176 
Captain F. Exron on the Limpopo Expedition ............cccceueeceees 178 
Mr. CurisTOpHER GEORGE on a Self-replenishing Artificial Horizon ...... 178 
Dr. Ginspure’s Further disclosures of the Moabite Stone .......... sions L79 


Dr. J. D. Hooxer’s Ascent of the Atlas Range..i....ciccsscsessssvssaas 179 
Ipranim Kian’s Journey from Yassin to Yarkand ..iis.seiseesssssssses 180 


Captain‘B. Loverr on the Interior of Mekran ....4...cscsuceseesausais 180 
Colonel R. MacnaGan on the Geographical Distribution of Petroleum and 
allied PROMUCtA Miva cide c ake aa caeeastaenteaesd eaeerecwe saat .ss 180 
Dr. R. J. Mann on the Formation of Sand-bars...............0.35 stiteebow 184 
Panpir Manpuat’s Report on Badakolan .............0eceseees Lekasuae 184 
Mr. C. R. Manxuam on the Eastern Cordillera, and the Navigation of the 
Beem SULT Lesher skeet ts bit rate baa SEO TL OT Rca iti citrine a 184 
——————— on the Geographical Positions of the Tribes which 
formed the Empire of the Yncas .......... TUE s wObrtE TTT ebee as LBS 


Captain Mizzs on the Somali Coast. i.i.iccicisasecsveaes vowed ea seavii 186 


Rey. F. O. Morris on the Encroachments of the Sea on the East Coast of 
Yorkshire..... cies abies 2 A 


Mr. S. Mossman on the Inundation and Subsidence of the Yang-tsze River, 
in China 187 


Archimandrate PaLLapius’s Letters from Vladivostok and Nikolsk, South 


er 


Mesttl Districhs ices sasisckaveetaseteaeeetts bittes beaae bs eeiaes 187 
Mr. E. H. Parmer on the Geography of Moab ..... Weegee rea vevass 187 
Captain H. 8. Parmer on an Acoustic Phenomenon at Jebel Nigiis, in the 

Peninsula OF Sinal vies eseiies cewees ees aieinliis oaks x Ge tteeneih aves 188 
Capt. A. Putxan’s Notes on British Gurwhal ........... vere NET S18 
Dr. Raz on the Saskatchewan Valley ........csscccccsessesas seecttises 189 
Mr. W. B. Ricwarpson on the Volcan de Agua, near Guatemala........,, 189 
Major EK. C. Ross, A Journey through Mekran ..............45 Misletrete whee OO 
Mr. Grorce Sr. Carr on the Topography of Ancient Jerusalem,......... 189 
Mr. TRELAWNEY SAUNDERS on the Himalayas and Central Asia .......... 189 
Major SLADEN on Trade Routes between Burmah and China.............. 189 
Commander A. Dunpas TAYLOR on the Proposed Ship-Canal between Ceylon 

Sil: LOTTE Gr Gin Se eOOIIOI Rus O.cs OL DERE tant EE eOm Or fotrencdee 


Capt. Ward on the American Arctic Expedition .........eisssseeeeseses 190 


M. ArTrHuUR WERTHERMAN on the Exploration of the Headwaters of the 
MAEANON: viii sa vies 0a a5 Sanvaisreier Te arnievahre inert © Hilario: sie iacel Sion 


Colonel Henry YvLE_on Captain Garnier’s Expedition up the Camboja,,,, 190 


Xiv CONTENTS. 


ECONOMIC SCIENCE anp STATISTICS. 


Page 
Address by Lorp Nravzs, one of the Lords of Session, President of the Sec- ca 


LCL See eee aloiateteleelele Cisse Stelelvlel a ateisete)s sv cvievevseceereseses 
Colonel Sir J. E. ALEXANDER on Sanitary Measures for Scottish Villages .. 200 
Lyp14 E. Becker on some Maxims of Political Economy as applied to the 


Employment of Women, and the Education of Girls .:......... samen vali 
Mr. Wii1am Bortey on Land Tenure ...........seceeeseeuceues AG pp ae 202 
Mr. Tuomas J. Boyp on Educational Hospital Reform: The Scheme of the 

aidinpurgh Merchant’ Company... ..:ssi20rs+csacssccesce eee canvas 20s 
Mr. Samvuret Brown on the Measurement of Man and his Faculties........ 210 
Sheriff CLecHorn on the Wellington Reformatory ..,........ soveess OL 


Mr. F. P. Fettowes on a proposed Doomsday Book, giving the Value of the 
Governmental Property as a basis for a sound system of National Finance 
and Accounts ...,.. Ron Anpo nade ride sicehalelededy, ini ?s’e atalol ctaleietcie aaa ols inialel oad 


Mr. Wittr1am Hove on Political Economy, Pauperism, the Labour Question, 
amidtiie Aiigior Dear oo vic o a.w stein oic:e secre sid © s4 wae eae ceiefas sine poke 


Mr. A. Jyram-Row on the present state of Education in India, and its bear- 
ings on the question of Social Science..........ccceuceeceuces x als acy jatar eee 


Mr. Caantes Lamport on Naval Efficiency and Dockyard Economy ...... 212 
Mr. W. M‘Bran on the Edinburgh Industrial Home for Fallen Women, Aln- 


wick Hill, near Liberton ..... ye elelelete ais (eva ei fenels slali ia vielecehe ete Seon 
Mr. James MErkiE on the Mode for Assessing for the Poor-Rates ........ 213 
Mr. W. A. PETERKIN on the Administration of the Poor Law ........ ‘aie 


Mr. GrorGE SEron on the Ilegitimacy of Banffshire ...........eeeeeeee. Q14 
on the Expediency of recording Still-Births .,........ 215 


on certain Cases of Questioned Legitimacy under the 
Operation of the Scottish Registration Act (17 & 18 Vict. c. 80) ........ 217 


Dr. Georcr Saar on Indian Statistics and Official Reports .........+.... 220 
Mr, Wit11am STEPHENSON on the Scientific Aspects of Children’s Hospitals 221 
Mr. G, Jounstone Stoney on the Relation between British and Metrical 


Measures ...... Bo, SoSEAISS So cOUe oro eae sis" oils aco eae epee me ae 
Mr. W. Taytor on the Manual Labour Classes of England, Wales, and 

COWANd .3. esse ene Haroon Sod dato wi bonoGson ones BE chee Fos ocho 223 
Mr. JAMES VALENTINE on Census Reform.......... SODOT ste eeeeeeseene 220 
Mr. R. Barwey WALKER on the Organization of Societies, nationally and locally 

considered ........0. sisisteteteie ebekelafeysay Kean gid a Se oe Bc aseisielchelels ine soa 
Mr. Witt1am Westeartu on the Law of Capital ........0ceeene soseeee 220 


MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 


Address by Professor FLnEMInG JENKIN, F.R.S., President of the Section ., 225 


Mr, Puiir Brawam on an Apparatus for working Torpedoes............0. 229 


Mr. F. J. Bramwei1’s Account of some Experiments upon a “ Carr’s Disin- 
tegrator” at work at Messrs. Gibson and Walker's Flour-mills, Leith .,,, 229 


—— 


CONTENTS, 


Mr. A. B. Brown on a direct-acting Combined Steam and Hydraulic Crane . 
Mr, ALExaNDER BucHan on the Rainfall of Scotland 


Beet ec neces sess save nae 


——————— 0 the Rainfall of the Northern Hemisphere in July, 
as contrasted with that of January, with Remarks on Atmospheric Circula- 
tion . 


on the Great Heat of August 2nd—4th, 1868...... 
Mr, THomas Carr on a new Mill for Disintegrating Wheat 
Sema Hoveess on the Corliss Engine ........6cccesccetecsscveeewsees 
Me. By F. Farris on the Gauge of Railways .....0...00cccccecccsceues 


Mr. A, E. Frercuer on the Rhysimeter, an Instrument for Measuring the 
Speed of Flowing Water or of Ships 


Ce 


2 


My, Lavineton E. Frercner on Steam-boiler Legislation 
Mr, THomas GiLLotrT on Designing Pointed Roofs 


©) ofe eh, a) 9) oe. uefa) se 


Cr 2 


Mr. James Lrstte’s Description of a Salmon-ladder meant to suit the vary- 
“ing levels of a Lake or Reservoir 


Mr. J. D. Morrison on a new System of Warming and Ventilation........ 
Mr. R. A. Peacock on Chain-Cable Testing, and proposed New Testing-Link 
Mr. E. C. C. Stanrorp on the Carbon Closet System 


Mr. C. WiLi1Am StzmMens on the Steam Blast 


GeV daeceriavtennewecsonnnsnenepe 


Mr. Tomas STEVENSON, Automatic Gauge for the Discharge of Water over 
ERR e tat Pd Wiley 2 FP) aA See. VOLS POLST PORT EL oR 

——_—__— —— Thermometer of Translation for recording the Daily 
Changes of Temperature 


oe) 6 eae ONS oft se oes 0 eee wee GO ee we De eos eee me Bee 


Mr. Micuax Scorr on improved Ships of War 
Mr. W. THomson on a Road Steamer 


CC mC re Se ee er 


GTA, BR ele Sle) 0) a! Bala ab ce ees. 8 oie le alee. 0) 6he a5 8:8 


APPENDIX. 


The Rey. Rosert Boog Warson’s Notes on Dredgings at Madeira........ 


Mr. B. T. Lownu on the Ciliated Condition of the Inner Layer of the Blasto- 
derm and of the Omphalo-mesenteric Vessels in the Ege of the Common 
Fowl 


ee Si sey 8) "Pee ws) Te lhei yee!) bie oon a ns Baek ola) By CUNO ihe mur On el Ay pm). © ol Dh Be. oh eite, 64.2) m6, 0, ey ene, 


2 
232 


241 


ERRATA IN REPORT FOR 1870. 


Page 
x, after line 32, insert ANATOMY AND Pnystonocy. 
xi, a 37, ,,  Ernnonoagy ann AnTHRopoLocy. 
XY, a 25, ,, Address by Mr. John Evans to the Department of Ethno- 
logy and Anthropology. 


xxxii, line 31, for Glasgow read Edinburgh. 
129, Transactions of Sections, after line 11, insert ANATOMY AND PuysioLocy. 
143, - a és is 390, 4, ErmnoLocy anp AnrmRorococy. 


ERRATUM IN THE PRESENT VOLUME. 


Page 177, Transactions of the Sections, line 33, for 0°58 read O58. 


OBJECTS AND RULES 


or 


THE ASSOCIATION. 


OBJECTS. 


Tuer Assocrattion contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are:—To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry,—to promote the intercourse of those 
‘who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other and with foreign philosophers,—to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a remoyal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress, 


RULES, 


Admission of Members and Associates. 


All persons who haye attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
-Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem-~* 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 


Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 


Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 
Lire Mempers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 


shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
1871. b 


Xvill RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 


lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annvat Sunscrreers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis: 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Assoctates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 


The Association consists of the following classes ;— 


e 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, haye paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment. ] 

4, Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following year. 
[May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Payment. | 

5, Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members’) price, 
according to the following specification, viz. :— 


1. Gratis —Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 
New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 
Annual Members who haye not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 


2. At reduced or Members’ Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 
Price.—Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only. ] 


3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 
of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made at the Office 
of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 


eet ie 


RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. xix 


Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can only 
be issued by direction of the Council. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 


Meetings. 


The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The placé 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two years in 
advance ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers of 
the Association. 


General Committee. 


The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Mceting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons :— 

Crass A. Purmanent Members, 


1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presidents 
of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of Reports in 
the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers haye furthered 
the advancement of those subjects which are taken into consideration at the 
Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of submitting new claims 
under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must be sent to the Assistant 
General Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the Association. 
The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Association to 
be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. : 


Crass B. Temporary MemBers, 


1. Presidents for the time being of any Scientific Societies publishing Trans- 
actions or, in his absence, a delegate representing him. Claims wnder this Rule 
to be sent to the Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not exceeding 
three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of Meeting. 
Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries before the 
opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by the Pre- 
sident and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections, 


Organizing Sectional Committees™. 


The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sections 
are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their names are 
submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Committees 
for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and Reports 

likely to be submitted to the Sections+, and of preparing Reports thereon, 


* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 
t Notice to Contributors of Memoirs.— Authors are reminded that, under an arrange~ 
ment dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which they are to be 


XX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 


and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be read, to be pre- 
sented to the Committees of the Sections at their first Mecting. 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary Meetings as the 
President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any circum- 
stances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 11 a.m., to 
settle the terms of their Report, after which their functions as an Organizing 
Committee shall cease. , 


Constitution of the Sectional Committees*. 


On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the General Com- 
mittee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and Vice-Presidents of 
the Sectign who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., in their Com- 
mittee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees by selecting individuals 
from among the Members (not Associates) present at the Meeting whose as- 
sistance they may particularly desire. The Sectional Committees thus con- 
stituted shall have power to add to their number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute-Book, 
and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged with 
publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of the 
Sectional Proceedings. 


Business of the Sectional Commitiees. 


Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.u., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 a.m., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner :— 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of last 
year’s proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis of 
Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and printed 
in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to read the 
Report of the Organizing Committee +. The List of Communications to be 
read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general distribution of 
business throughout the week shall be provisionally appointed. At the close 
of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall forward to the Printer a List 
of the Papers appointed to be read. The Printer is charged with publishing 
the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, the 


read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees for the several 
Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become necessary, in order 
to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the several Communications, 
that cach Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, of a length suitable for in- 
sertion in the published Transactions of the Association, and that he should send it, toge- 
ther with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or before .. .sssesssseseeeeerseeeeee , addressed. 
thus—‘“ General Secretarics, British Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For 
Section ....... ” Tf it should be inconvenient to the Author that his Paper should be read 
on any particular days, he is requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a 
separate note. 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 


RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. xxi 


Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers which 
have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed to be read 
on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early in the day as 
possible to the Printers, who are charged with printing the same before 8 a.M. 
next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one of the Secretaries of 
each Section should call at the Printing Office and revise the proof each 
evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily in 
the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of the 
Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ew officio temporary 
Members of the General Committee (vide p. xix), and will receive, on ap- 
plication to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets entitling them to 
attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the communi- 
cations made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of selecting 
definite points of research to which individual or combined exertion may be 
usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state and progress of 
which Reports are wanted; to name individuals or Committees for the exe- 
‘eution of such Reports or researches ; and to state whether, and to what de- 
gree, these objects may be usefully advanced by the appropriation of the 
funds of the Association, by application to Government, Philosophical Insti- 
tutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, it is 
expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and one of 
them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assistance 
they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to be 
registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of each 
is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant-General Secretary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be done, the 
Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B.—Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committce of that Section before they can be 
referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the General 
Committee. 


Notices Regarding Grants of Money. 


Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been entrusted 
by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches in Science, 
are required to present to each following Meeting of the Association a Report 
of the progress which has been made ; and the Individual or the Member first 
named of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must (pre- 
an to the next meeting of the Association) forward to the General 

1871. ¢ 


XXil RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 


Seeretaries or Treasurer a statement of the sums which have been expended, 
and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one meeting of the Association expire 
a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting ; nor is the Treasurer 
authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on “account of such grants, 
unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by the General 
Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of the 
British Association without special permission from the General Committee 
to do so; and no money so raised shall be expended except in accordance 
with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled to 
call on the Treasurer, W. Spottiswoode, Esq., 50 Grosvenor Place, London, 
S.W., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 


tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is deemed 


to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain unpaid on 
the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Association 
are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, 
Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scientific inquiries 
for the Association. 


Business of the Sections. 


_The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 10 to 
11 daily. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto can be used for no notices, 
exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken, and the reading of communica- 
tions, in the order previously made public, be commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications de- 
livered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of the 
Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author, 


Duties of the Doorkeepers. 


ib To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which tiey are ap- 
pointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 
2.—To require of eyery person desirous of entering the Rooms the exhibi- 
tion of a Member's, Associate’s or Lady’s Ticket, or Reporter’s Ticket, 
signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket, signed by the Assistant- 
General Secretary. 
3.—Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted to 
any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the Asso- 
ciation whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1, 


se 


ee 


Ee 


"RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XX1ll 


Duties of the Messengers. 


To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed, during 
the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on mes- 
sages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 


Committee of Recommendations. 


The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Researches, 
and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General Committee 
unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recommendations. ° 


Local Committees. 


Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
’ Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 


Officers. 


A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 


Council. 


In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be ma- 
naged by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council may 
also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the Meeting. 


Papers and Communications. 


The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 


Accounts. 


The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 


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_ 6981 ‘81 snSny ‘saLaxq 
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*sost ‘61 snduy ‘HOTMAON 


see ne ence ence enceceseaesseeasassseessan ceases SEUTNT 


“sua “lod “a’W ‘ddaMOOH NOLIVG Hdasor 


‘Tomo Sputpyy uouRD “0x7 
*y'Jw ‘uojdui019 ydasor *aayy 
‘ajdurdreq pyeuog “iq 


ie a ile On | aries Oa § “anit own “bsg oqIeL xoT ‘H 4 


REPORT—187 1, 


XXX 
Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 
Date and Place. Presidents. Secretaries. 
MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 
COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I.—MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS, 
1832. Oxford ...... Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S....;)Rev. H. Coddington. 
1833. Cambridge |Sir D. Brewster, F.R. cit babes Prof. Forbes. 
1834. Edinburgh |Rev. W. Whewell, THURS spstinacae' Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 
SECTION A.—MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS, 
1835. Dublin ,.....{Rev.:Dr. Robinson..............60. Prof. Si W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 
Wheatstone, 
1836. Bristol ...... Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S..../Prof. Forbes, W. 8. Harris, F. W. 
Jerrard. 
1837. Liverpool ...|Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S............. W. S. Harris, Rey. Prof. Powell, Prof. 
Stevelly. 
1838. Neweastle...\Sir J. F, W. Herschel, Bart.,/Rey. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 
E-.R.S. Prof. Stevelly. 
1839. Birmingham|Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.RB.8. ....../J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 
Stevelly. 
1840. Glasgow ...|Prof. Forbes, F.R.S. ..........000+- Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, Arch. 
Smith. 
1841. Plymouth.../Rey. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.8, .|Prof. Stevelly. 
1842. Manchester |Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D.,|Prof. M ‘Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 
E.R.S. W. Scoresby. 
1843. Cork......... Prof. M‘Culloch, M.R.1.A. --/J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
1844. York......... The Earl of Rosse, RGB: f2 005s Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
1845. Cambridge, |The Very Rey. the Dean of Ely .|Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 
G. Stokes. 
1846. Southampton|Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart.,)John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 
F.RB.S. Stokes. 
1847. Oxford ...... Rey. Prof. Powell, M.A., F.R.S. .|Rey. H. Price, Prof. Steyelly, G. G. 
Stokes. 
1848. Swansea ....|Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S. ........./Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
1849. Birmingham|William Hopkins, F.R.S........../Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 
Ridout Wills. 
1850. Edinburgh..|Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 8ec.|W. J. Macquorn Rankine, Prof. 
. R.S.E ae iy Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. 
Sto 
1851. Ipswich...... Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., F.R.S.,|S. J nea W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
&e. Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
1852. Belfast ...... Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S.|Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
L. & E, kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndail. 
1853; Hull eeys.., The Dean of Ely, F.R.S. ...,...../B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 
1854. Liverpool...|Prof. G, G, Stokes, M.A., Sec.|J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 
RS. Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
1855. Glasgow ...|/Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., F.R.S./Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D, Gray, Prof. 
L. & B. ; Tyndall. 
1856. Cheltenham|Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. .../C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 
1857. Dublin ...... Rey.T. R. Robinson, D.D.,F.R.S.,/Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 


M.R.LA, 


Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
Prof. Stevelly. 


ee 


PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS, 


XXX 


— En SS 


Date and Place. 


1858. 


1859. 


1860. 


1861. 
1862. 


1863. 


1864. 
1865. 


1866. 
1867. 


1868. 
1869. 
1870. 


1871. 


1832. 


1833. 
1834, 


1835. 


1836. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 
1840. 


1841. 


1842. 
1843. 


1844. 
1845 


y 
1846.Southampton|Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.8.|Dr. Miller, 


1847. 


Leeds 


Aberdeen ... 
Oxford ...... 
Manchester . 
Cambridge... 


Neweastle... 


Birmingham 


Nottingham 
Dundee...... 
Norwich ... 


Liverpool ... 


Edinburgh . 


Presidents. Secretaries. 


Rey. W.Whewell, D.D., V.P.R.S./Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 


Prof. Stevelly, H. J, 8. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H.J.8. 

RS. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 

Rey. B. Price, M.A., F.RB.S....... Rey. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 
Prof. Stevelly. 

G. B. Airy, M.A, D.C.L., F.R.8.|Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. 8. 
Smith, Prof, Stevelly. ay 

J.58. 


Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., F.R.S.)Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine,|Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof, Fuller, F. Jen- 


The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P.,|J. 
E.R.S 


Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 


C.E., F.BS. kin, Prof. Steveliy, Rev. C. T. 
Whitley. 
Prof. Cayley, M:A., F-.R.S.,/Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 
F.R.AS Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 


W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S.,|Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

F.R.AS. 8. Mathews, Prof. H. J. 8. Smith, 
J. M. Wilson. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., F.R.S./Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J. 8. Smith, 
Rey. 8. N. Swann. 

Rey. G. Buckle, Prof. G. OC, Foster, 
Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 
R: B. Hayward. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 
W. K. Clifford. 

Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 
Whitworth. : 

Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomiey, 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 
Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 


CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 


Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S... 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 


F.RB.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., LL.D., 
E.RB.S. 


Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ...... 


COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I1.—CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 


Oxford 
Cambridge.. 
Edinburgh... 


Dublin 
Bristol 


Liverpool... 
Newcastle... 


Birmingham 


Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 
Manchester. 


few eeenee 


Oxford 


John Dalton, D.C.L., F.RB.S....... James F. W. Johnston. 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S....,../Prof. Miller. 

Dy SHO Ped vederorscssovsnsccasecnensee Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 
SECTION B.——CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 


Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. .........|Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 


Rev. Prof. Cumming.......0..000- Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Heraz 
path. 

Michael Faraday, F.RB.S. .........|Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Rey. William Whewell, F.R.S....|Prof. Miller, R. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 


Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S. ........- 


......|Golding Bird, M.D., Dr. J. B. Melson. 
Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. ... 


Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 
Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S. ........-2.:--.(J- Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M, 
Tweedy. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.B.S....... Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
.....|R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 


R. Hunt, W. Randall. 


Rey.W.V.Harcourt, M,A., F.R.S.|B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 


XXX 


REPORT—187 


iE. 


1848. 

1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 


1855. 
1856. 


1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 


1861. 
1862. 


1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 


Date and Place. | Presidents. Secretaries. 
Swansea ...'Richard Phillips, F.R.S. .........2. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williaa. 
Birmingham John Percy, M.D., F.R.S.......... R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 
Edinburgh .|Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ....../Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 
Ipswich ...'Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S....\T. J. Pearsall, W. 8. Ward. 
Belfast ...... Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. ./Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 
(sft Dae eee Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A.,/H. 8. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
F.R.S Pearsall. 
Liverpool ...| Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S.|\Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 
Glasgow ...|Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. .|Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
Cheltenham |Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ...... J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 
Dublin ...... Prof. eet, M.D., F-.R.S.,!Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
M.R.L. livan. 
Leeds ...... Sir J. i 'W. Herschel, Bart.,|Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
D.C.L. nolds. 
Aberdeen ...|Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S..|J. 8. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
Oxford ...... Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ...... A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 
Manchester .|Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S./A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
Cambridge .|Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S.|H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 
Newcastle...|Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, ¥.R.S.|Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 
aBAEH coeacasee W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S.)|A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs 
Birmingham Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D.,V.P.R.S./A. v Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
Nottingham|H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. ...|J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 
Dundec _...|Prof.T. Anderson, M.D., F.R.S.E.|A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 
Norwich ...!Prof.E.Frankland, F.R.S.,F.C.S./Dr. A. Cram Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
soll, F. Sutton. 
Exeter ...... Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. ...!Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. W. 
J. Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Liverpool.. ‘er e E. Roscoe, B.A., F.R.S.,|Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., A. E. 
Fletcher, Dr. W. J. Russell, 
Edinburgh Prof . “Andrews, M.D., F.B.S. |\J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. E. 


1871. 


1832, 


Thorpe. 


GEOLOGICAL (ann, unrit 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 


COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III.—GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 


Oxford ...... 


R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. ......... 


1833, Cambridge .|G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 


1834, Edinburgh . “Prof Jameson 


1835. 
1836. 


1837. 


1838. 
1839. 


eee weer ener eesareees 


John Taylor. 

.. |W. Lane! John Phillips. 

Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rey. J. Yates. 


SECTION C.—GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 


Dublin ...... OCU ocncsepcssseste vine emtcs Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

Bristol ...... Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— Geo-| William Sanders, 8. Stutchbury, T. J. 
graphy. R.1.Murchison,F.R.S.|_ Torrie. 

Rey.Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— Geo-|Captain Portlock, R. Hunter.—Gco- 
graphy. G.B.Greenough,F.R.S.| graphy. Captain H. M. Denham,R.N. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.—Geo-|W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 

graphy. Lord Prudhope. Geography. Capt. Washington. 
Birmingham a br. “Bakland, E.R. 5 Geo-'George Licyd, M.D., H. E. Strickland, 
graphy. G.B,Greenough,F.B.8.| Charles Darwin. 


Liverpool... 


Newcastle... 


PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 


Tate and Place. 


1840. 


1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 


Glasgow 


Plymouth . 
Manchester 
Cork 
York 


Cambridge }. 


1846. Southampton 


1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 


. Ipswich 
2. Belfast 


. Hull 
. Liverpool . 


5. Glasgow 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859, 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864, 
1865, 


Oxford ...... 
Swansea 
Birmingham 


Edinburgh * 


Cheltenham 


seeeee 


Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle . 
Bath 


Birmingham 


Presidents. 


ee eg ee F.R.S.— Geogra- 


phy. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 


1H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 


R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. ......... 


Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 
M.R.LA. 

Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 
Geol. Soe. 

Rey. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S. 


LeonardHorner,F.R.S.— Geogra- 
phy. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 


Very Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. 


...(Sir H. a De la Beche, C.B., 
E.R 


Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., F.G.S.' 


.|Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 
... (Sir R.I. Murchison, F.R.S. ..... 


Sir Roderick I. Murchison,F.R.8. 


XXX 


Secretaries. 


W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoular, M.D. 

W.J. Hamilton, Edward Moore,M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. B. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. ©. Strick- 
land. 

Prof.:Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 


Rey. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 
Rev. W. Thorp. 

Robert A. Austen, J. H. Norten, M.D., 
Prof. Oldham.— Geography. Dr. C. 
T. Beke. 

Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 
Ramsay, J. Ruski 


Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 
Ramsay. 

J. Beete des, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 
A.C. Ramsay. 

A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Pro- 
fessor Nicol. 


SECTION C (continued),—GEOLOGY. 


.../William Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S... 
Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 


Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S. .........06. 


Prof, A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S. . 
The Lord Talbot de Malahide ... 
William Hopkins, M.A., LL.D., 
E.BS. 
../Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., 
E.R.S 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 
E.BS., F.G.S8. 
D.C.L., 


Sir R. Murchison, 
LL.D., F.R.S., &e. 

J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.RS.... 

..|Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 
E.R.S., F. GS. 

ae re ‘Phillips, LL.D., F.BS., 


rae Murchison, Bart.,K.C.B. 


C. J. F. Bunbury, G@. W. Ormerod, 
Searles Wood. 

James Bryce, James MacAdam, Prof. 
M‘Coy, Prof. Nicol. 

Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 


..|John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 


G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 


James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 


Nicol. 


..|Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hepworth, 


Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 

Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, Ro- 
bert H. Scott. 

Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 
Shaw. 

Prof. a eee Rev. J. Longmuir, H. 


Eye 
Prof. eee Edward Hull, Capt. 
Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Ru- 
pert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 


...|Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert Jones, 


Hi. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwith. 
We B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 
Myers, H. C, Sorby, W. Pengelly. 


* At the Meeting of the General Committee held in Edinburgh, it was agreed “That the 
subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, to consti- 
tute a separate Section, under the title of the ‘‘ Geographical and Ethnological Section,” 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xxxvi. 


XXXIV 


RePort—187 


F. 


Date and Place. 


1866. Nottingham 
1867. Dundee...... 
1868. Norwich ... 
1869, Exeter 
1870. Liverpool... 


1871. Edinburgh .. 


1832. Oxford ...... 
1833. Cambridge * 
1834. Edinburgh 


1835. Dublin ...... 
1836. Bristol 
1837. Liverpool .. 
1838. Newcastle... 


1839. Brimingham 
1840. Glasgow 


1841. Plymouth... 
1842, Manchester 


1 SAB GON ..i/,%. 
14? Vork......... 


1845. Cambridge 


1846. Southampton) 


1847. Oxford....... 


Presidents. 


Prof.A.C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.B.S8. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
R. a - Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., 
Prot e ‘Harkness, E.R.S., F.G.S.| 


Secretaries. 


R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 
Woodward. 

Rey. O. Fisher, Rey. J. Gunn, W. 
Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, Rey. 

H. H. Winwood. 


Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton,/W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 


Bart., M.P., F.R.S 
Prof. a Geikie, ERS. Gas 


W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 


\R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, J. MeKenny 


Hughes, L. C. Miall. 


BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV.—ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 


Rey. P. B. Dunean, F.G.S. 
Rey. W. L. P. Garnons, F.LS... 
Prof,; Graharitegiis.cch sae sisudsesses 


Wiss inc Deny jeesssteccasscnecsass 
Sir W. Jardine, Bart.......... sane 
Prof. Owen, F.R.S. 


eee eee eee 


...\sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D .......... 


John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S.. 

Hon. and Very Rey. W. Herbert, 
LL.D., F.L.S. 

William Thompson, F.L.S. ...... 


Very Rey. The Dean of Manches-) 


ter. 
Rey. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S. ...... 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 


H. E. Strickland, M.A, F.R.S.... 


..|Rey. Prof. J. 8. Henslow. 
.|C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 


J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, 8. 
Rootsey. 

C. C. Babington, Rey. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swainson. 

J.E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, Dr. 
Richardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Tankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 
Wollaston. 


SECTION D (continued),.—ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 


[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsections 
and the temporary Section EH of Anatomy and Medicine, see pp. xxxv, xxxyvi.] 


1848. Swansea 


1849. Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh. . 


1851. 
1852. Belfast ...... 
U5 ie 5 bad ee Be 


1854. Liverpool .. 
1855. Glasgow 


Tpswich...... 


..[L. W. Dillwyn, FBS. «0.0.0.0... 


| William Spence, F.R.S............. 
Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. &E, ai 


‘Rey. Prof. Henslow, M.A., F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 
iC. C. Babington, M.A., F.RB.S... 


eeee PCOS eee eee eee rere 


Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 


Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 


kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 


.|Robert Harrison, Dr. B. Lankester. 


.|Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S....... 
...|Rey. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 


Isaac Byerley, Dr. E, Lankester. 
..(William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 


_* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and Secretaries of which see p- XXXV. 


Se 


PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES 


OF THE SECTIONS. XXXV 


Date and Place. 


—-. 


1856. 


Presidents. 


Cheltenham .|Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.$.... 


Secretaries. 


Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 
Dr. Lankester. 


1857. Dublin ...... Prof. W.H. Harvey, M.D., F.R.8./Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. EH. Lankester, 
Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
1858. Leeds......... C. ©. Babington, M.A., F.R.S....,Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 
Lankester, Dr. H. Perceval Wright. 
1859. Aberdeen .../Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. .| Prof. noe M.D., Dr. BE. Lankester, 
Dr. Ogilvy. 
1860. Oxford ...... Rey. Prof. Henslow, F.LS. ....../W. 8. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 
L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
1861. Manchester..|Prof. C. C. Babington, F-R.S. ...|Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 
P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
1862. Cambridge...|Prof. Huxley, F.R.S._ ......... Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
1863. Newcastle ...|Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S. ....../Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
1864. Bath ......... Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ...... H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 
Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
1865. Birmingham/T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ......[Dr. J. Anthony, Rey. C. Clarke, Rev. 
H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
SECTION D (continued).—BIOLOGY *. 

1866. Nottingham.|Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S.—|Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
Physiological Dep. Prof. Hum-| B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
phry, M.D., F.R.S.—Anthropo-| Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
logical Dep. Alfred R. Wallace, 

: E.R.GS. 

1867. Dundee...... Prof, Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S.—|C. Spence Bate, Dr. 8. Cobbold, Dr. 
Dep. of Zool. and Bot. George| M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rey. H. 
Busk, M.D., F.R.S8. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

1868. Norwich .../Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S.—|Dr. T. 8. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 
Dep. of Physiology. W. H.| M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Flower, F.R.S. Stainton, Rey. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. B. P. Wright. } 
1869. Exeter ...... George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S.—[Dr. T. 8. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
Dep. of Bot. and Zool.C. Spence) M.D., E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
Bate, F.R.S.—Dep. of Ethno.| Lawson, H.'T’. Stainton, Rey. H. B. 
Bi. B. Tylor. Tristram. 

1870. Liverpool ...|Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D.,)Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
E.\R.S.,F.L.8.—Dep. Anat.and| Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
Physio. Prof. M. Foster, M.D.,) T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
F.L.S.—Dep. of Ethno. J.| C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
Evans, F.R.S. kester. 

1871. Edinburgh |Prof.Allen Thomson,M.D.,F.R.S.|Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
—Dep. of Bot. and Zool. Prof.| E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
Wyville Thomson, F.R.S.—| H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dep. of Anthropo. Prof. W.| Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
Turner, M.D. King. 

ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V.— ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833, Cambridge...|Dr. Haviland .........:.c0ceeeee ey-+[Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh...|Dr. Abercrombie ..........6.0000 |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

: SECTION E. (UNTIL 1847.)—ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 

1835. Dublin ...... Dr Pritchard) Saville sess Dr, Harvison, Dr. Hart. 

1836. Bristol. ...... Dr: Roget, F-RS. ....ce00 aikdeoe Dr. Symonds. 

1837. Liverpool ...|Prof. W. Clark, M.D. ............ Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr. 

J. R. W. Vose. 


-* At the Meeting of the General Committee at Birmingham, it was resolved :—‘ That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology;” and “That for the word ‘Subsection,’ in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word ‘ Department’ be substituted.” 


XXXVI 


REPORT—1871. 


Date and Place. 


1838. Newcastle ... 
1839. Birmingham 


1840. Glasgow ... 


1841, 


1842. Manchester. 
1843. 


1844. 


1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 


1864. B 
1865. Birminghmf. | 


Plymouth... 


Cork; ..cs.ss 
MORK, on, ose 


Edinburgh 


Leeds 


Oxford ...... 
Manchester. 
Cambridge . 
Newcastle... 
ath 


see eeeee 


Presidents. 


T. E. Headlam, M.D. 
John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. ...... 
James Watson, M.D................ 


P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Edward Holme, M.D., F.LS. ... 


Sir James Pitcairn, M.D.......... 
J. ©. Pritchard, M.D. ............ 


Secretaries. 


\T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 

Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 

Dr. J. Brown, Prot. Couper, Prof. 
Reid. 


...|Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 


Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. 8. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 


SECTION E,— PHYSIOLOGY. 


1845. Cambridge .|Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. ......... 
1846.Southampton/Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S.......... 
1847. Oxford* .,./Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S.'.........;Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 


PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS 
Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 


..|Prof, Allen Thomson, F.R.S. ... 


Prof. R. Harrison, M.D. ......... 
Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart..F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. ... 
Prof. G. Rolleston, M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L. & E.... 
Cembiebaret, IMD: i. .scstessea0se5 hs 
Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. ... 


Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.R. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., F.R. 


Dr. R. 8. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 


Ormerod. 


OF sECTION D. 


Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 

C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 

Dr. R. M‘Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 

|Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J.S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, Oliver 
Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 


GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section O, p. xxxii.] 


1846.Southampton 


1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 


1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 


Oxford ...... 
Swansea 
Birmingham 


ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS 


|Dr. Pritchard saareocge.scstessccnst 
‘Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 


OF sEcTIoN D. 


Dr. King. 

Prof. Buckley. 

G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 


Edinburgh. ./Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm ...{Daniel Wilson. 


Belfast ...... 
Liverpool... 
Glasgow 
Cheltenham 


SECTION E.—GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 
Ipswich ...|Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., Pres.'R. Cull, Rey. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 
R.G 


.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A. D.C.L., 
E.RB.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 


Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 
F.R.S 


...(Sir d. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 


Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K.C.B. 


Norton Shaw. 
'R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 
Shaw. 


... R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. Nor- 


ton Shaw. 

[Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 
Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

‘Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. Nor- 


ton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. Rum- 
| sey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 


* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were incorporated 
under the name of “Section D—Zoology and Botany, including Physiology” (see p. xxiv). 
The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

t Vide note on preceding page. 


ee 


as en ee 


— 


PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 


XXXVil 


Presidents. 


Date and Place. 


1857. Dublin ;..... Rey. Dr. J. Henthawn Todd, Pres. 
R.1.A. 

1858. Leeds ...... Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 
F.RB.S. 


1859. Aberdeen ...!Rear-Admiral Sir 

Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S 
1860. Oxford....../Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 
1861. Manchester. 


E.R.S. 
Jobn Crawfurd, F.R.S..........00- 
1862. Cambridge . 


Francis Galton, F.R.8: ............ 


1863. Neweastle.../Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
E.RS. 

1864. Bath......... Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 


1865. Birmingham 
1866. Nottingham 


Major-General Sir R, Rawlinson, 
M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 
LL.D. 


Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G:S. ...... 
Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N,, F.R.S. 


1867. Dundee 
1858. Norwich ... 


James Clerk 


Secretaries. 

R. Cull, 8. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. Mad- 
den, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O’Cal- 
laghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 

Richard Cull, Professor Geddes, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Norton 
Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J. W. Clarke, Rey. J. Glover, Dr. 
Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. 8. Watson. 

H.W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 
R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 
H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 
D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 

Markham, 8. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. R. Mark- 

ham, T. Wright. 


SECTION E (continwed).— GEOGRAPHY. 


1869. Exeter 


F.R.G.S. 


Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., LL.D.,/H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 


J. H. Thomas, 


1870. Liverpool ...|Sir R, I. Murchison, Bt., K.C.B.,/H. W. Bates, David Buxton, Albert 


LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 


J. Mott, Clements R. Markham. 


1871. Edinburgh. |Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. ...|Clements R. Markham, A Buchan, 


J. IL. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 


STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 
COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI.—STATISTICS. 


1833. Cambridge .|Prof. Babbage, F.R.S. ............ 
1834. Edinburgh .|Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. ......... 


J. E. Drinkwater. 
Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 


SECTION F.—STATISTICS. 


1835. Dublin 


Charles Babbage, F.R.S. ... 
1836. Bristol 


Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 


tenes eeeees 


1837. Liverpool...|Rt. Hon, Lord Sandon 


eee een eens 


1838. Neweastle...|Colonel Sykes, F.R.S. 
1839. Birmingham|Henry Hallam, F.R.S. 


Pete ee eeene 


1840. Glasgow ...|Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, E.RB.S., 
M.P. 
1841. Plymouth.../Lieut.-Col. Sykes, FR.S. ......... 
1842, Manchester |G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ...... 
1843. Cork ..,...... Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ...... 
1844, York..... ».../Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
1845. Cambridge .|Rt. Hon. The Earl Fitzwilliam... 
1846. Southampton|G. R. Porter, F.R.S. 


1871. 


eee e ee eet enone 


iW. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 
James Heywood. 

W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 
Tayler. 

W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 

F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 
Tayler. 

C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 
Rawson. 

Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 
W. Rawson, 

Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 
W. C. Tayler. 

Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 

J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Laycock. 

|J. Fletcher, W. Cooke Tayler, LL.D, 

J. Fletcher, F. G. P.-Neison, Dr. W. 
C. Tayler, Rey. T. L, Shapcott. 

d 


XXXvVili REPoRT—1871., 


Date and Place. Presidents. Secretaries. 
1847. Oxford ...... Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. ...|Rey. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 
P. Neison. 
1848. Swansea ...|J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ......|J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede : 
1849. Birmingham|Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton ......... Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F, G. P. 
Neison. 
1850. Edinburgh ..|Very iy. eee John Lee, /|Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. 


- Ipswich...... Sir John > Boileau, Bart. .... 
. Belfast ...... His Grace the Archbishop of|Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 


V.P.R. Stark, 


.-|d- Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 


Dublin. MacAdam, Jun. 
1853. Hull ......... James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S..../Edward Cheshire, William Newmarch. - 
1854. Liverpool ...|Thomas Tooke, F.R.S. ...........- E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H- 


1856. Cheltenham |Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. .../Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 
W. N. Hancock Newmarch, W. M 
Tartt. : 
1857. Dublin ...... His Grace the Archbishop of|Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 
Dublin, M.R.1.A. Newmarch. 
1858. Leeds......... Edward Baines RECT EEL COTE, T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, 8. Brown, 
Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
1859, Aberdeen ...|Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. ........./Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A.M. 
Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
1860. Oxford ...... Nassau W. Senior, M.A. ......... Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 
Rey. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
1861. Manchester |William Newmarch, F.R.S. ....../David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 
E. Macrory, Rey. Prof. J. E. T. 
Rogers. 
1862. Cambridge. .|Edwin Chadwick, C.B. ............ H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
1863. Newcastle ...|William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ..(T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 
Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
1864. Bath.......... nr Farr, M.D., D.C.L.,/E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 
E.RS. 
1865. Birmingham|Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D.,|G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 
M.P E. Macrory. 
1866. Nottingham |Prof. i. HDS Rogers... oi. 1.000.052 R. Birkin, Jun., Prof. Leone Leyi, E. 
Macrory. 
1867. Dundee...... M. E. Grant Duff, M.P. ......... Prof. Leone Leyi, E. Macrory, A. J. 
Warden. 
1868. Norwich ...\Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. Ac-[Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 
tuaries. 
1869. Exeter ...... ‘Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North-|Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. Charles T. D. Acland. 
1870. Liverpool...|Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. ../Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, ©. Macrory, 
J. Miles Moss. 
1871. Edinburgh |Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves.............! J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 
SECTION G.—MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 
1836. Bristol ...... |Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S..../T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
1837. Liverpool .../Rey. Dr. Robinson Roddagtaawssvcases Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
1838, Newcastle ...|Charles Babbage, F.R.S. ........./R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Webster. 
1839. Birmingham Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robert|W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, Tho- 
Stephenson. mas Webster. 
1840, Glasgow ...\Sir John Robinson..:...s0ccccecee0e J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 
C. Vignoles, 


5. Glasgow ...../R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ..... 


Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E, Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 


SECTION F (continued).—ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS, 


PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS: XX¥X1X 


Date and Place. Presidents. Secretaries. 
1841. Plymouth...|John Taylor, FVR.S. .........000068 Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
1842. Manchester .|Rey. Prof. Willis, F.R.S. .........\J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 
Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
1843. Cork ......... Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A......./James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
S44, York «..,..+: John Taylor, F.R.S. .........0.0:- Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
1845, Cambridge ..|George Rennie, F.R.S. ..........6- Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 


1846, Southampton/Rey. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. ./William Betts, Jun., Charles Manby. 
1847. Oxford ...... Rey. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S.|J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

1848. Swansea ..... Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S./R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struvé. 
1849. Birmingham|Robert Stephenson, M.P., F.R.8.|Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
1850. Edinburgh ..|Rev. Dr. Robinson. ......+........ |Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

1851. Ipswich...... William Cubitt, FR.S........0.... John Head, Charles Manby,. 

1852, Belfast ...... John Walker,C.E., LL.D., F.R.S.\John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 
Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
1853. Hull ...... ++-|William Fairbairn, C.E., F.R.S..|/James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. Sykes 


Ward. 
1854. Liverpool .../John Scott Russell, F.R.S. .......John Grantham, J, Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 
1855. Glasgow ...|W. J. Macquorn Rankine, C.E.,|L. Hill, Jun., William Ramsay, J. 
EBS. homson. 
1856. Cheltenham |George Rennie, F\R.S. ............ C. Atherton, B. Jones, Jun., H. M. 
Jeffery. 
1857. Dublin ...... The Right Hon. The LHarl of|Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 
Rosse, ¥.R.S. James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
1858. Leeds......... William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ......|J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
1859. Aberdeen ...|Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. .|R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 
Wright. 
1860. Oxford ...... Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine,|P. Le Neve Foster, Rey. F. Harrison, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Henry Wright. 
1861. Manchester .|J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S....... P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, H. 
Wright. 


1862. Cambridge ..|William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S.)W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
1863. Newcastle .../Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . ms Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, J. 
. Spencer. 
1864. Bath ......... J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S. ...........- P. Le Hove Foster, Robert Pitt. 
1865. Birmingham|Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D.,|P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. P. 
F.R.S. Marshall, Walter May. 
1866. Nottingham |Thomas Hawksley, V-.P.Inst.|P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 
C.E., F.G.S. A. Tarbottom. 
1867. Dundee...... Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine,|P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 
LL.D., E.R.S. W. W. Urquhart. 
1868. Norwich ...|G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. .../P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 
Manby, W. Smith. 
1869. Exeter ...... C. W. Siemens, E,R.S. ............ P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
1870. Liverpool ...|Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. .|H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 
King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
1871, Edinburgh |Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S....|H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. P, 
Smith. 


List of Evening Lectures. 


Date and Place. Lecturer. Subject of Discourse. 
1842, Manchester .| Charles Vignoles, F\R.S.......... The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 
Sir M. T. Brunel ........s:00008--| The Thames Tunnel. 
R, I. Murchison, ..................| The Geology of Russia. 
1843. Cork ....1.:::| Prof. Owen, M.D., F-B.S. ......] The Dinornis of New Zealand. 
Prof. E. Forbes, F.RS. ...,.... | The Distribution of Animal Life ia 
the AXgean Sea. 


Dr, Robinson ...csss..sscseess-44-| Lhe Earl of Rosse’s Telescope. 
: d 2 


xl 


Date and Place. 


1844. 


1845. 


Yorko scutes: 


Cambridge .. 


1846.Southampton 


1847, 


1848. 


1849. 


1853. 


. Ipswich.... 


. Belfast 


. Aberdeen . 


. Oxford 


Oxford ...... 


Swansea 


Birmingham 


50. Hdinburgh. 


. Liverpool ... 


. Glasgow...... 


. Manchester . 


2, Cambridge . 


REPORT—1871. 
Lecturer. Subject of Discourse. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S. .........0.- Geology of North America. 


Dr. Falconer, F.R.S. ............ 
G. B. Airy, F'.R.S., Astron. she: 
R. I. Murchison, BR. inte 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R. 8. 
Charles Lyell, ERS. ras codeenee 
W. KR. Grove, F.R.S. 


sere eeeereee 


Rey. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. . 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S. 


Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S. 


...| John Perey, M.D., F.R.S. 


W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Faraday, F.R.S......+......4.- 
Rey. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 


Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D.., 
F.R.S.E. 


Dr. Mantell, F.R.S.......sc0ccee0e 


... Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 


G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. Roy. 
Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S. 


Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 


Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S. 
E.G.S. 


Robert Hunt, F.R.S. ............ 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Col. &. Sabine, V.P.R.S. ......... 


Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson 


Col. Sir H. Rawlinson ............ 


W. RB. Grove, F.R.S. ...00s000 
Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ..... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D,C.L. .. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., ERS. 


Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 


.| Sir R.I. Murchison, D.C.L. .... 


Rey. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. .... 
Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ...... 


Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. . 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 


G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. Roy. . 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.B.S. .. 
Prof, Odling, IaSeenereeate peeeee 


The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

-| Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

..| Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schénbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

.| Shooting-stars, 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 


...| The Dodo (Didus ineptus). 


.| Metallurgical operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 


...| Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 


Mr. Gassiot’s Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Helipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it, 


;|Some peculiar phenomena in the Geo- 


logy and Physical Geography of 
Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of Cunei- 
form research up to the present 
time. 

.| Correlation of Physical Forces, 

.| The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent discoveries in Africa, 

The Tronstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

..| Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

.| Electrical Discharges in highly rare- 
fied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 


.| The Forms and Action of Water, 


Organic Chemistry, 


LIST OF EVENING LECTURES, rh 


Date and Place. Lecturer, Subject of Discourse. 
1863. Newcastle- | Prof. Williamson, F.R.S. ...... The chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
on-Tyne. tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 
James Glaisher, F.R.S. .........| The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 
1864. Bath ......... Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S........:000000 The Chemical Action of Light. 
Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. .......0+ Recent Travels in Africa. 
1865. Birmingham] J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S............ Probabilities as to the position and 


1866. 


1867. 


extent of the Coal-measures beneath 
the red rocks of the Midland Coun~ 
ties. 
Nottingham.| William Huggins, F.R.S..........) The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 
Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S..........| Insular Floras. 
Dundee...... Archibald Geikie, F.R.S.......... The Geological origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 
Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S....| The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 


1868. Norwich ....| J. Fergusson, F.R.S. oe... Archeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 
Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S. ........... Reverse Chemical Actions. 
1869. Exeter ......| Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S.| Vesuvius. 


J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S.......| The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebule. 


. Liverpool ...| Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S.| The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 


Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine,| Stream-lines and Waves, in connexion 


LL.D., F.R.S. with Naval Architecture. 
1871. Edinburgh |F. A. Abel, F.R.S. .....cccceeeeeeee On some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 
Pee Ley lOr eb evielonenssese races: On the Relation of Primitive to Mo- 
dern Ciyilization. 
Lectures to the Operative Classes. 

1867. Dundee...... Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S.| Matter and Force. 

1868. Norwich ....] Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ...| A piece of Chalk. 

1869. Exeter ...... Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ......{ Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

1870. Liverpool ...] Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P.,| Savages. 


xlii REPORT—1871. 


Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 


Date of Meeting. Where held. Presidents. 
Old Life | New Life 
Members. | Members. 
POST CD27 neg:| MOLK. .ctnccncentvesnsge The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. ... Ape 
Rog2,OUMe Co) oil OXPOLG (ace setasdesa2- The Rey. W. Buckland, F.R.8. .. wee 
1333, June 25 ...|Cambridge ......... The Rey. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S.... aaa 
1834, Sept. 8 ...| Hdinburgh ......... Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L. ...... ee 
ROSG PAUP ATO? yss| DUDLI Nis. Jeeeecssenss The Rey. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. wwe 
Tsg6,,Aur. 22.7.) BYIstol  scscaseenmeoees The Marquis of Lansdowne ...... a 
1837, Sept. 11 ...| Liverpool ............ The Earl of Burlington, F.R.8. . is 
| 1838, Aug. 10 ...! Newcastle-on-Tyne..) The Duke of Northumberland... dns 
1839, Aug. 26 ...| Birmingham ......... The Rey. W. Vernon Harcourt . TY, 
1840, Sept. 17 ...| Glasgow ............ The Marquis of Breadalbane ... 354 a 
1841, July 20 ...| Plymouth ............ The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S.... 169 65 
1842, June 23 ...| Manchester ......... The Lord Francis Egerton ...... 323 169 
SSM PATI Ty ee COLK stacass gente sacsis The Harl of Rosse, F.R.S. ...... 109 28 
HOAA (Sept. 26...) YORK ....csssenceearess The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ...... 226 150 
1845, June rg ...|Cambridge ......... Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. . 313 36 
1846, Sept. to ...|Southampton ...... Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart. 241 Io 
Mody veune 23. 5...) OXf0rd vseccsascsesns: Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart. ...... 314 18 
1848, Aug. 9...... Swansea .........000..- The Marquis of Northampton... 149 3 
1849, Sept. 12 ...| Birmingham ......... The Rey. 'T. R. Robinson, D.D.. 227 12 
1850, July 21 ...|Hdinburgh ......... Sir David Brewster, K.H. ...... 235 9 
TORT WY G2: sc0.0- IPSWICH searasccns.tsar G. B. Airy, Esq., Astron. Royal . 172 8 
MeSzmwseptyt ..+| Bellasis .sretidnc=.%4 Liecut.-General Sabine, F. B.S. ... 164 Io 
GSC Dg cae GLU ceisehectsstassya William Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. . 141 13 
1854, Sept. 20 ...| Liverpool ............ The Karl of Harrowby, F.B.S. .. 238 23 
1855, Sept. 12 ...| Glasgow ..........:: The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ...... 194 33 
1856, Aug. 6...... Cheltenham ......... Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D.... 182 14, 
MSG 7 eAUeAZ Orv scl Diblin: 1.5 /ncssesesens The Rey. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 236 15 
TSSS WN pb. 228 w.c}| Mueeds 222. ,c5.c2-.caeee Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. ... 222 42 
1859, Sept. 14 ...| Aberdeen ............ H.R.H. The Prince Consort ... 184 27 
K260; dune 27 ...) Oxford ...........-+.- The Lord Wrottesley, M.A....... 286 21 
1861, Sept. 4 ...| Manchester ......... William Fairbairn, LL.D.,F.R.S. 321 113 
moO2,1OCh. it 5... Cambridge ......... The Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A. ... 239 15 
1863, Aug. 26... Newcastle-on-T'yne ..| Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B. 203 36 
POOAS INE Pt MUG he ptl WEBUN. wn eneesestcessnnc Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A.... 287 40 
1865, Sept. 6  ...| Birmingham ......... Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D.... 292 44 
1866, Aug. 22 ...| Nottingham ......... William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 207 31 
1367, Sept.4 ...| Dundee ........:..3..- The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B. 167 25 
MSCS AUCs EO! sen) NORWAGM | ess. e-ans Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. . 196 18 
WAeg, PAUP. 18 4c] Wxebersseaaeeestes es Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L. ...... 204, 21 
1870, Sept. 14 ...| Liverpool ............ Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D....... 314 39 
BOX pen Ue. 2) nenee Hdinburgh ......... Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D.... 246 28 


ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. xhil 


at Annual Meetings of the Association. 


. Attended by Amount /S¥™s paid on 
. Account of 
secerved Grants for 
Old New during the) Qoiontifi 
Annual | Annual | Associates.} Ladies. |Foreigners.| Total. | Meeting. Dats me 
: urposes. 


Members. | Members. 


tae se Qi eo Me Petes «| Beeps aeeme 
He Re uae re Ber GOP Gb lie Wore ssene gwetat arate 
as ee fcc ies aa BEI Pa SA he jos Sr 20 0 O 
: $k ecall tbe good 67 “a (0 
Togo) theses saa 434 14. 0 
500 oot 1840 Genet. g18 14 6 
1100* SK: ZA0O" Bit Weeeces ss 956 12 2 
34 DAQGM SP cok cateos 1595 11 O 
Se igs dec ae 40 Tae te ~|\F settee: oe 1546 16 4. 
46 317 Ate 60* Me Bore. lites. spas 1235 10 II 
75 376 331 331* 28 MR ae SoehscCae 1449 17 8 
71 185 Gor 160 onc USBI dimesceto. nice 1565 10 2 
45 190 gt 260 ees ATE | reco ee 981 12 8 
94 22 407 172 35 7 yhye pace cron 839 9 9 
65 39 270 196 36 Berm Cle srewege 685 16 o 
197 40 495 203 3 Tp lfou weal | adoceoe. 208 5 4 
54 25 376 197 15 929 7o7 00| 275 1 8 
93 338) 447 237 22 1071 96300] 35919 6 
128 42 510 273 44 1241 1085 00} 345 18 0 
61 47 244, 141 37 710 62000] 391 9 7 
63 60 510 292 9 1108 1ogs 00] 304 6 7 
56 57 367 236 6 876 g03 00 | 205 0 O 
121 121 765 524 be) 1802 1882 00 | 33019 7 
142 Io1 1094. 543 26 2133 2311 00| 48016 4 
104. 43 412 346 9 T1115 1o98 OO} 73413 9 
156 120 goo 569 26 2022 2015 00] 507 15 3 
111 gt 710 509 1g 1698 1931 00] 618 18 2 
125 179 1206 821 22 2564 27820 0| 684 11 I 
177 59 636 463 47 1689 16040 0| 1241 7 O 
184. 125 1589 791 15 3139 39440 0/1111 5 10 
150 57 433 242 25 1161 1089 0 © | 1293 16 6 
154 209 1704 1004. 25 3335 3640 0 0 | 1608 3 10 
182 103 1119 1058 13 2802 2965 00] 1289 15 8 
215 149 766 508 23 1997 222700] 1591 7 10 
218 10S 960 771 II 2303 2469 00|175013 4 
193 118 1163 771 7 - 2444 2613 0 0 | 1739 4 0 
226 117 720 682 145 2.004. 2042 00 | 1940 0 O 
229 107 678 600 17 1356 1931 00 | 1572 © O 
393 195 1103 gio 14 2878 3096 00 | 1472 2 6 
311 127 976 754 21 24.63 2575 0 0 


* Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 
t Tickets for admission to Sections only. ¢ Including Ladies: 


xliv 


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LIST OF OFFICERS. xlv 


OFFICERS AND COUNCIN, 1871-72. 


TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 


General Sir EpwarpD Sabine, K.C.B., R.A., D.C.L., Pres. B.S, 
Sir PHILIP DE M. Grey EGeERrOoN, Bart., M.P., F.2R.S. 


PRESIDENT. 


SIR WILLIAM THOMSON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.SS.L. & E., Professor of Natural Philosophy in 
the University of Glasgow. 


VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

His Grace The DUKE oF BuccLevcn, K.G., D.C.L., | Sir RopErtcK I. Muncutson, Bart., K.C.B., 

E.R.S. G.C.82.8., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
The Right Hon. The Lorp PRovosr of Edinburgh. | Sir CHARLES LYELL, Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.8. 
The Right Hon. Jonn Ina@uis, D.C.L., LL.D., Lord | Dr, Lyon PLAYFAIR, M.P., C.B., F.R.S. 

Justice General of Scotland. Professor CHriSTISON, M.D., D.C.L., Pres. R.S.E. 
Sir ALEXANDER GRANT, Bart., M.A., Principal of | Professor BALFOUR, F.R.SS. L. & E. 

the University of Edinburgh. 


PRESIDENT ELECT. 
DR. W. B. CARPENTER, LL.D., F.R.S., F.LS., F.G.S. 


VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 
The EArt or CuIcHESTER, Lord Licutenant of the | The Right Hon. The DukE oF DEVONSHIRE, K.G., 


County of Sussex. D.C.L., F.R.S. 
The DUKE or NoRFOLK. Sir Jonn LubBocK,Bart.,M.P.,F.R.S.,F.L.8.,F.G.8. 
The Right Hon. The DUKE oF Ricumonp, K.G., | Dr. SHarpry, LL.D., Sec. R.S., F.L.S. 

P.C., D.C.L. J. PREsrwicu, Esq., F.R.S., Pres. G.S, 


LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT BRIGHTON, 


CuARLES CARPENTER, Esq. 
The Rey. Dr. GRIFFITH. 
HENRY WILLE1T, Esq. 


LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT BRIGHTON. 
WILLIAM HENRY HALieEtTt, Esq., F.L.S. 


ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 


BATEMAN, J. F., Esq., F.B.S. MERRIFIELD, C. W., Esq., F.R.S. 

BEDDOE, JouN, M.D. NortHucorr,Rt.Hon.Sir SrarrorpH.,Bt.,M.P. 
Debus, Dr. H., F.R.S. * Ramsay, Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Evans, Joun, Esq., F.R.8. RANKINE, Professor W. J. M., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Fircu, J. G., Esq., M.A. Siemens, C. W., Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Foster, Prof. G. C., F.R.S. Snuwon, Dr. Jorn, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Foster, Prof. M., M.D. SPRACHEY, Major-General, F.R.8. 

GALTON, FRANCIS, Esq., F.R.S. SrRANGE, Licut.-Colonel A., F.R.S8. 
Gassior, J. P., Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. Sykes, Colonel, M.P., F.R.S. 
Gopwin-AustTEy, R. A. C., Esq., F.R.S. TYNDALL, Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Hirst, Dr. T, A., F.R.S. WALLACE, A. R., Esq., F.R.G.S. 

HuGains, WILLIAM, Esgq., D.C.L., F.R.S. WHEATSTONE, Professor Sir C., F.R.S. 
JEFFREYS, J. G., Esq., F.R.S. WILLIAMSON, Professor A, W., F.R.S. 


Lockyer, J. N., Esq,, F.R.S, 


EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant General Secrctarics, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former 
years, viz. :— 
Rey. Professor Sedgwick. The Rey. HW. Lloyd, D.D. Professor Phillips, M.A., D.C.1T. 
The Duke of Devonshire. Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. William R. Grove, Esq., F.R.S. 
The Rey. T. R. Robinson, D.D. Sir W. Fairbairn, Bart., LL.D. The Duke of Buccleuch, K.B. 
G. B. Airy,Esq.,AstronomerRoyal.| The Rev. Professor Willis, F.R.S. | Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 
General Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B. Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. | Professor Stokes, C.B., D.C.L. 
The Earl of Harrowby. Sir Chas. Lyell, Bart., M.A.,LL.D.| Prof, Huxley, LL.D. 
The Duke of Argyll. 
GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Dr. THOMAS THOMEON, I'.R.S., F.L.S., The Atheneum Club, Pall Mall, London, 8.W. 
Capt. DouUGLAS GALTON, C.B., R.E., F.R.S., 12 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, 8.W. 


ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
GEORGE GRIFFITH, Esq., M.A., Harrow. 


GENERAL TREASURER. 
WILLIAM SPOTTISWOODE, Erq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., 0 Grosvenor Place, London, 8. W. 


AUDITORS. 
G. Dusk, Esq., F.R.S. Warren De La Rue, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. John Evans, Esq., F.R.S. 


xlvi REPORT—1871. 


OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
EDINBURGH MEETING. : 


SECTION A.—MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 


President.—Professor P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. 

Vice-Presidents.—Professor J. C. Adams, F.R.S.; Professor Cayley, F.R.S.; Rev. 
Professor Challis, F.R.S.; J. P. Gassiot, D.C.L., F.R.S.; Professor R. Grant, 
LL.D., F.R.S.; Dr. Joule, D.C.L., F.R.S.; Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, LL.D., 
F.R:S. ; Professor W. J. M. Rankine, LL.D., F.R.S. L. and E. ; Dr. Spottiswoode, 
F.R.S.; Rey. Professor Kelland, F.R.SS. L. and E.; Professor Stokes, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. ; Professor Sylvester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.—Professor W.G. Adams, F.G.S.; J. T. Bottomley, M.A., F.C.S. ; 
Professor W. K. Clifford, M.A.; Professor J. D. Everett, F.R.S.E.; Rev. R. 
Harley, F.R.S. 


SECTION B.—CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS TO 
AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 


President.—Professor T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.SS. L. and E. 

Vice-Presidents—Professor Abel, F.R.S.; Professor Apjohn, F.R.S.; Professor 
Crum Brown, M.D., F.R.S.E.; Dr. Ronalds, F.R.S.E.; Professor H. E. Roscoe, 
F.R.S.; Dr. J. Stenhouse, F.R.S.; James Young, F.R.S.E. 

Secretaries—J, Y. Buchanan, F.R.S.E.; W.N. Hartley; T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S.E. 


SECTION C.—GEOLOGY. 

President.—Professor Archibald Geilie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.—Dr. J. Bryce, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. ; Thomas Davidson, F.R.S.; Sir 
Richard Griffith, Bart., F.R.S.; Professor Harkness, F.R.S.; D. Milne Home, 
F.R.S.E. ; J. Carrick Moore, F.R.S.; William Pengelly, F.R.S.; J. Prestwich, 
F.R.S., Pres. G.S. Lond. ; Professor J. Young, M.D. 

Secretaries—R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.8.; Ai Geikie, F.R.S.E.; T. M‘Kenny 
Hughes, M.A., F.G.8.; L.C, Miall. 


SECTION D.—BIOLOGY. 


President.—Professor Allen Thomson, M.D., F.R.SS. L. and E. 

Vice-Presidents.—Professor Wyville Thomson, F.R.S.; Professor W. Turner, 
M.B., F.R.S.E.; Professor Owen, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.; Professor Huxley, 
LL.D., F.R.S.; Dr. Beddoe; Dr. Hughes Bennett; Dr. Carpenter, LL.D., 
F.R.S.; Dr. Sharpey, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.—Dr. 'T. R. Fraser, F.R.S.E.; Dr. Arthur Gamgee, F.R.S.E.; E. Ray 
Lankester, B.A. ; Professor Lawson, M.A.; H. T. Stainton, F.R.S.; C. Stani- 
land Wake, Dir. A.I.; Dr. W. Rutherford, F.R.S.E.; Dr. Kelburne King. 


SECTION E.—GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 


President.—Colonel H. Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents—Sir Walter Elliot, K.C.S.I.; Sir Arthur Phayre, K.C.S.L; 
Major-General Sir Andrew Waugh, F.R.S.; Dr. Rae, M.D.; Admiral Sir 
Edward Belcher, K.C.B.; Sir James Alexander, K.C.M.G. 

Secretaries.—Clements R. Markham, C.B., Sec. R.G.S.; A. Buchan, F.R.S.E. ; 
J. H. Thomas, F.R.G.S.; A. Keith Johnston, F.R.G.S. 


SECTION F.—ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 


President.—Lord Neavyes. 

Vice-Presidents.—The Lord Advocate, Sir John Bowring, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; 
Samuel Brown, Baron Eotyés, of Pesth; Edward 8. Gordon, M.P.; Sir Alex- 
ander Grant, Bart.; Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart.; James Heywood, M.A., 
F.R.S.; Duncan M‘Laren,!M.P.; Sir William Stirling Maxwell, Bart.; Lyon 
Playfair, M.P., LL.D.; W. Neilson Hancock, LL.D. ; General Sir Andrew Scott 
Waugh, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Secretarves.—J. G, Fitch, M.A,; James Meikle, F.LA., F.S.8. 


REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xlvi 


SECTION G.—-MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.—Professor Fleeming Jenkin, C.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.—J. F. Bateman, F.R.S.; Admiral Sir E. Belcher, K.C.B.; F. J. 
Bramwell, C.E.; Peter Le Neve Foster, M.A.; Professor W. J. Rankine, 
LL.D., F.R.S.; C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S.; Thomos Stevenson, F.R.S.E. ; 
Professor James Thomson, LL.D. , 

Secretaries—H. Bauerman, F.G.S.; Alexander Leslie, C.E.; J. P. Smith, C.E. 


Report of the Council for the Year 1870-71, presented to the General 
Committee at Edinburgh, on Wednesday, August 2nd, 1871. 


At each of their meetings during the past year the Council have as usual 
received a report from the General Treasurer, as well as one from the Kew 
Committee. A résumé of these Reports will be laid before the General 
Committee this day. 

The Council have had under their consideration the several resolutions, five 
in number, referred to them by the General Committee at Liverpool. They 
beg to report as follows upon the action they have taken in each case :-— 

First Resolution—“ That the discontinuance of the maintenance of Kew 
Observatory by the British Association having been determined on, the 
President and Council be authorized to communicate with the President and 
Council of the Royal Society, and with the Government, so that the future 
use of the buildings may in 1872 be placed at the disposal of the Royal 
Society, in case the Royal Society should desire it, under the same con- 
ditions as those buildings are at present held by the British Association.” 

A copy of this resolution was forwarded by direction of your Council 
to the President and Council of the Royal Society. The following is the 
reply which one of your General Secretaries has received from Dr. Sharpey, 
Secretary of the Royal Society :— 

“The Royal Society, Burlington House, 
July 8, 187 


« Dear Dr. Hirst,—In reply to your letter of the 10th December, 1870, 
enclosing a copy of a resolution of the General Committee of the British 
Association relative to the future occupation of the buildings at Kew now 
held by the British Association, I am directed to acquaint you that the 
_ President and Council of the Royal Society are ready to take possession of 
_ the Observatory at Kew on the terms it is at present held from Her Majesty’s 
Government, as stated in a letter dated 26th March 1842, addressed to the 
President of the British Association from the Office of Woods, &c., viz. :— 
‘ during the pleasure and upon the conditions usual on such occasions, that 
no walls shall be broken through, and no alterations made that can affect 
the stability of the building, and alter its external appearance, without the 
previous sanction of the Board of Works.’ I have further to acquaint you 
that the President and Council have appointed a Standing Committee of 
Fellows of the Royal Society for the management of the Kew Observatory 
in accordance with the terms of the Gassiot Trust, consisting of the following 
gentlemen :— 


Mr. Warren De La Rue. Sir Edward Sabine. 
Mr. Francis Galton. Colonel Smythe. 

Mr. Gassiot. Mr. Spottiswoode. 
Admiral Richards. Sir Charles Wheatstone. 


and that £600 from the income of the Gassiot Fund has been placed at the 
disposal of that Committee to meet the expenses of the establishment for the 
ensuing year. “T remain, yours very truly, 

(Signed) “ W. Saarpry, M.D., Secretary R. S.” 


xlyili REPORT—1871. 


Through the munificence of Mr. Gassiot, therefore, the Association can, 
without detriment to science, give up possession of the Kew Observatory at 
once instead of in 1872, as was originally contemplated. Your Council 
accordingly recommend that Government should be informed without 
further delay of the desire of the Association to see the direction and 
maintenance of the Kew Observatory transferred to the Royal Society. 

Second Resolution.—* That the Council be empowered to cooperate with 
the Royal and Royal Astronomical Societies, in the event of a new appli- 
cation being made to Government to aid in the observation of the Solar 
Eclipse of December 1870.” 

On the 4th November a Joint Committee of the Royal and Royal Astro- 
nomical Societies decided to make a second application; on the 5th of 
November your Council selected a few of their body to accompany the new 
deputation to Government which the above two Societies had resolved to 
send. The necessity for any such deputation was subsequently obviated 
through the intervention of private individuals, and, as is well known, aid 
was promptly and liberally granted by Government to the Eclipse Ex-~ 
pedition. 

Third Resolution.“ That the Council be requested to take such steps as 
they deem wisest, in order to urge upon Government the importance of 
introducing scientific instruction into the elementary schools throughout the 
country.” 

A Committee of your Council haying considered the subject, recommended 
the appointment of a deputation to wait upon the Lord President of the 
Council in order to urge upon him the desirability of including elementary 
natural science amongst the subjects for which payments are made by the 
authority of the Revised Code. The Council accordingly formed themselves 
into a deputation, and on the 13th of December 1870 had an interview with 
the Right Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P., Vice-President of the Committee of 
Council on Education, who was pleased to express his concurrence with the 
objects of the deputation and his willingness to carry out those objects so far 
as circumstances would permit. 

Fourth Resolution. That the Council of the British Association be 
authorized, if it should appear to be desirable, to urge upon Her Majesty’s 
Government the expediency of proposing to the legislature a measure to 
insure the introduction of the metric system of weights and measures for 
international purposes.” 

The Council deemed it expedient to postpone the consideration of this 
resolution. 

Fifth Resolution —* That it is inexpedient that new institutions, such as 
the proposed Engineering College for India, should be established by Govern- 
ment, until the Royal Commission now holding an inquiry into the relation 
of the State to scientific instruction shall have issued their report. That the 
Council of the British Association be requested to consider this opinion, and, 
should they see fit, to urge it upon the attention of Her Majesty’s Govern- 
ment.” 

The Committee appointed without loss of time to consider and report on 
this resolution were informed at their first meeting that the arrangements 
for the establishment of the College had been virtually completed. Your 
President, however, in accordance with the wishes of this Committee, entered 
into unofficial communication with the authorities at the India Office, relative 
to the proposed examination for entrance into the new Engincering College, 
and succeeded thereby in gaining for natural science, as compared with 


REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xlix 


classics, a recognition, in the form of allotted marks, which it previously did 


not possess. 
Your Council has given considerable attention to the important question 


(raised at the last mecting) of a revision of the regulations relating to the 


proceedings of the several Sections at the annual meetings of the Association. 
Hitherto, it has been justly urged, these proceedings, from not haying been 
sufficiently pre-arranged, have frequently been of too desultory and mixed 
a character. It is hoped that by a proper observance of the Revised Regu- 
lations which are this day to be submitted to the General Committee for 


_ approval, and by increased vigilance on the part of the Sectional Committees, 


~ 


_ much of this may be obviated, and that greater prominence may be given to, 


and a fuller discussion secured for, the really important communications 
which are annually made to the several Sections. 
The Council has pleasure in informing the General Committee that the 


Association at length possesses a central office in London. The Asiatic 


Society has, in consideration of a yearly rent of £100, granted to the Asso- 
ciation entire possession of four of their rooms at 22 Albemarle Street, and 
the use of another room for meetings of the Council and Committees. Your 
Council, moreover, acting under the power given to them by the General 
Committee at Liverpool, have engaged Mr. Askham as clerk at a salary of 
£120 ayear. He is in attendance daily, and there transacts much of the 
business which was formerly done at the office of Messrs. Taylor and Francis, 
the printers to the Association. With the exception of certain works of 
reference, the whole of the books and MSS. formerly deposited at Kew have 
been transferred to 22 Albemarle Street, and are being catalogued and 
rendered available for reference by Members of the Association. One of the 
four rooms not at present in use has been sub-let. to the London Mathe- 
matical Society. 

The Council having been informed by Dr. Hirst of his desire at the close 
of the present Meeting to resign his office as Joint General Secretary of the 
Association, appointed a Committee, consisting of the General Officers and 
former General Secretaries, to select a successor. This Committee unani- 
mously recommended the appointment of Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., 
F.R.S. The Council, entirely agreeing with the Committee as to the high 
qualifications of Captain Galton for the office, cordially recommend his 
election by the General Committee at their meeting on Monday next. 

The Council cannot allow this occasion to pass without expressing their 
sense of the great services rendered to the Association by Dr. Hirst; but 
they abstain from saying more, as they are unwilling to anticipate a more 
mature expression on the part of the General Committee. 

_ The Council have added the following names of gentlemen present at the 
last Meeting of the Association to the list of Corresponding Members :— 


Professor Van Beneden. H. H. the Rajah of Kolapore, 
Dr. Crafts. M. Plateau. 
Dr. Anton Dohrn. Professor Tchebichef. 


Governor Gilpin, Colorado. 


The General Committee will remember that Brighton has already been 
selected as the place of meeting next year. Invitations for subsequent 
meetings have been received by your Council from Bradford, Belfast, 
and Glasgow. 

The Council, lastly, recommend that the name of Professor Balfour be 
added to the list of Vice-Presidents of the present Meeting. 


1 REPORT—1871. 


Report of the Kew Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1870-71. 


The Committee of the Kew Observatory submit to the Council of the British 
Association the following statement of their proceedings during the past 
year :— 


(A) Work ponz py Kew OxnsERVATORY UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE 
Britisn Assocration, 


1. Magnetic work.—In their last Report the Committee stated the plan on 
which they proposed to reduce their Magnetic observations ; they now report 
that with reference to the reduction of the Magnetic Disturbances from 
January 1865 to December 1869, the period following that which has already 
been published, the discussion of Declination and Horizontal Force Disturb- 
ances is nearly ready for presentation to the Royal Society, and that of the 
Vertical Force is in progress ; when that is completed, the whole period, 1865 
to 1869 inclusive, will have been discussed at Kew. The tabular statement, 
which is herewith presented (see Appendix I.), exhibits the exact state of 
the reduction. 

Two Dipping-needles by Dover and one by Adie have been tested for Mr. 
Chambers, Superintendent of the Colaba Observatory; and one needle has 
been procured from Dover and tested for Prof. Jelinek, of Vienna. 

A Dip-circle by Dover has been verified and forwarded to Prof. Jelinek, 
who ordered it on behalf of the K. K. militiir-geographisches Institut. 

Major-General Lefroy, Governor of Bermuda, haying applied for the loan 
of a Dip-circle, one has now been prepared for his use, and will be forwarded 
to Bermuda as soon as possible. A Dip-circle has been obtained from Dover, 
and, after verification, will be forwarded to the Survey Department, Lisbon. 

At the request of Prof. Jelinek the Committee have undertaken to examine 
a Dip-circle by Repsold. It is of a large size and has eight needles, but Prof. 
Jelinek reports that the results obtained by them are very discordant. 

Copies of certain specified magnetograph curves have been made and for- 
warded to the late Sir J. Herschel, M. Diamilla Miiller, of Florence, and Senhor 
Capello, of Lisbon, at the request of those gentlemen. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements con- 
tinue to be made by Mr. Whipple, the Magnetic Assistant. 

The Self-recording Magnetographs are in constant operation as heretofore; 
also under his charge. 

2. Meteorological work.—The meteorological work of the Observatory 
continues in the charge of Mr. Baker. 

Since the Liverpool Meeting, 113 Barometers (including 17 Aneroids) have 
been verified, and 2 rejected ; 1320 Thermometers and 215 Hydrometers have 
likewise been verified. 

Two Standard Thermometers have been constructed for Owens College, 
Manchester, one for the Rugby School, one cach for Profs. Harkness and 
Eastmann, of the Washington Observatory, four for Dr. Draper, of the New 
York Central Park Observatory, one for Major Norton, of the Chief Signal 
Office, Washington, one for Mr. G. J. Symons, and three for the Meteorolo- 
gical Committee. 

Three Thermograph Thermometers have been examined for Mr. Chambers, 
of the Colaba Observatory, and three for the Meteorological Committee. 


REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. li 


Two Standard Barometers have been purchased from Adie, and tested at 
Kew, one of which has been forwarded to the Chief Signal Office, Washington, 
and the other to Prof. Jack, of Fredricton, New Brunswick. 

Tubes for the construction of a Welsh’s Standard Barometer on the Kew 
pattern, together with the necessary metal mountings, and a Cathetometer, 
have been made under the superintendence of the Committee for the Chief 
Signal Office, Washington. 

The Committee have likewise superintended the purchase of meteorological 
instruments for Owens College, Manchester, and for the Observatory attached 
to the University of Fredricton, New Brunswick. 

The Kew Standard Thermometer (M. 8. A.), divided arbitrarily by the late 
Mr. Welsh, and employed for many years past as the standard of reference 
in the testing of thermometers, was accidentally broken on the 3rd of January. 
Since then a Kew Standard, of the ordinary construction, made in 1866, and 
which had been compared on several occasions with M. 8. A., has been used 
to replace it. 

Copies of some of the meteorological observations made at Kew during the 
years 1869 and 1870 have been supplied to the {Institution of Mining 
Engineers at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and the Editor of Whitaker’s Almanac, 
the cost of the extraction being paid by the applicants in both instances. 

A set of self-recording meteorological instruments, the property of the 
Meteorological Committee, have been erected in the Verification-house, and 
are now undergoing examination.~ 

The self-recording metereological instruments now in work at Kew will be 
again mentioned in the second division of this Report. These are in the 
charge of Mr. Baker. 

3. Photoheliograph.—The Kew Heliograph, in charge of Mr. Warren De 
La Rue, continues to be worked in a satisfactory manner. During the past 
year 362 pictures have been taken on 205 days. The prints from the 
negatives alluded to in last Report have been taken to date, and the printing 
of these has become part of the current work of the establishment. A paper 
by Messrs. Warren De La Rue, Stewart, and Loewy, embodying the position 
and areas of sun-groups observed at Kew during the years 1864, 1865, and 
1866, as well as fortnightly values of the spotted solar area from 1832 to 
1868, has been published in the Philosophical Transactions, and distributed 
to those interested in solar research. A Table exhibiting the number of 
sun-spots recorded at Kew during the year 1870, after the manner of 
Hofrath Schwabe, has been communicated to the Astronomical Society, and 
published in their ‘ Monthly Notices.’ 
An apparatus is being constructed under the direction and at the expense 

of Mr. Warren De La Rue, and it will shortly be erected on the Pagoda in 
_ Kew Gardens, in order to be employed in obtaining corrections for optical 
distortion in the heliographical measurements. 

4. Miscellaneous work.—Kxperiments are being made on the heat produced 
by the rotation of a disk in vacuo. 

A daily observation has been made with the Rigid Spectroscope, the 

_ property of Mr. J. P. Gassiot. 

_ Observations have been made with two of Hodgkinson’s Actinometers, 
the property of the Royal Society, in order to compare them with the 
Actinometers deposited at the Observatory, for reference, before forwarding 
them to India. 

The Committee have superintended the purchase of optical apparatus, 
chemicals, &c. for the Observatories at Coimbra and Lisbon. 


In REPORT—187 1. 


An inventory has been made of the apparatus, instruments, &c. at present 
deposited in the Observatory, and forms Appendix ITI. of the present Report. 

In Appendix II. a list is given of the books at present in the Observa- 
tory, the property of the British Association. 

List B (Appendix II.) is a rough inventory of books, the property of the 
British Association, which have been transferred from the Observatory to the 
rooms of the Association in London for the purpose of being catalogued. 


(B) Work poye at Kew As THE CrntrRaL OBSERVATORY OF THE 
MereoroLogicaL CoMMITTEE, 


1. Work done at Kew as one of the Observatories of the Meteorological Com- 
mittee—The Barograph, Thermograph, Anemograph, and Rain-gauge are 
kept in constant operation, Mr. Baker is in charge of these instruments. 

From the first two instruments traces in duplicate are obtained, one set being 
sent to the Meteorological Office and one retained at Kew. As regards the 
Anemograph and Rain-gauge, the original records are sent, while a copy by 
hand of these on tracing-paper is retained. The tabulations from the curves 
of the Kew instruments are made by Messrs. Page and Nigby. 

2. Verification of Records.—The system of checks devised by the Kew 
Committee for testing the accuracy of the observations made at the different 
Observatories continues to be followed, as well as the ruling of zero lines in 
the Barograms and Thermograms suggested by the Meteorological Office. 
Messrs. Rigby and Page perform this work, Mr. Baker, Meteorological 
Assistant, having the general superintendence of the department. 

3. Occasional Assistance.—The Meteorological Committee have availed 
themselves of the permission to have the occasional services of Mr. Beckley, 
Mechanical Assistant at Kew; and he has lately been visiting the various 
Observatories of the Meteorological Committee. 

The self-recording Rain-gauge, as mentioned in the last Report, has been 
adopted by the Meteorological Committee, and instruments of this kind haye 
been constructed for the various Observatories. 

A series of comparative observations was commenced in April 1870 of 
two Anemometers erected in the grounds attached to the Observatory, 
in order to compare the indications of a large and small instrument; but as 
a discussion of the result showed them to have been greatly affected by the 
influence of the neighbouring buildings, the instruments were dismounted 
in January last and re-erected in an open part of the Park, at a distance 
from the Observatory. Three months’ observations were made in this posi- 
tion, and as these proved satisfactory, the instruments have been dismounted. 
The cost of this experiment has been defrayed by the Meteorological 
Committee. Owing to his duties in Manchester, and to a railway accident, 
Dr. Stewart has not been able during the last year to devote much time 
to the Observatory. During his absence his most pressing duties were dis- 
charged by Mr. Whipple in an efficient manner. 


The Observatory was honoured on the 9th of July by a visit from the 
Emperor and Empress of Brazil. Their Majesties were received, on behalf 
of the Committee, by Sir E. Sabine and Mr. W. De La Rue. 

In the unavoidable absence, through illness, of Dr. Balfour Stewart, the 
Emperor was conducted over the Observatory by the above-named gentlemen, 
and the various instruments &c. were explained by Mr. Whipple and the 
other members of the staff of the Observatory. 


Hourly Tabulations from 
Traces. 


By Tabula- |By Subsidiary 
tor. 


ae ontal Declination. 


Vertical 
Force. 


REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE, 


Scale. 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870* 


1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870* 


1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870* 


APPENDIX I. 


Tabular statement showing state of Magnetic Reductions at the present date. 


Correct 
Monthly 
Means. 


eeneee 


eeveee 
seeeee 
sevens 


see eee 


liti 


Disturb- Lunar 
ances ex- | Diurnal 
cluded and! Variation 
aggregated.| Tables. 
1865 1865 
1866 1866 
1867 1867 
1868 1868 
1869 1869 
TEGO 0 ices 
SEGA ier a Be) 
TRG ha gels rye 

1868 
TEBQ USE |e se 


Tables of 
Secular and 
Annual 
Variation. 


Solar 
Diurnal 
Variation 
Tables. 


ences 


oeeees 
feeeee 
wet eee 
eevase 
weraee 


eenee 
eeeeee 
eeeeee 
eee eee 
tereee 


* The reduction of the tabulations for the year 1870 is being performed in Sir E. Sabine’s 
Arrears of Work. 


office. 


Hourly Tabulations from 


Traces. 


By Tabula- |By Subsidiary 
tor. 


1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 


1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 


(1858 

1859 
1860 
1861 


1858 


Declination. 


Horizontal 
Force. 


Ls Vertical Force. 
n 


Scale. 


1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 


Correct 
Monthly 
Means. 


1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 


Beeeee 
seeeee 
fee eee 
eens 


Se enee 


Disturb- 
ances ex- 
cluded and 
aggregated. 


1858 
1859 


teeeee 


Lunar 
Diurnal 
Variation 
Tables. 


1858t 


seeeee 


eeeeee 


Tables of 
Secular and 
nual 
Variation. 


t These have been already published by Sir EH. Sabine. 


Solar 
Diurnal 
Variation 
Tables. 


seeeee 
tenons 
aeeeee 


serene 


liv REPORT— 1871. 


APPENDIX IL. 


BOOKS AT PRESENT IN THE KEW OBSERVATORY, 


THE PROPERTY OF 


THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 


LIST A. 


Books to be retained at Kew for reference. 


British Association Reports, 1 vol. for the following years :— 
1831-32, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839, 
1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 
1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854, 1855, 
1856, 1857, 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, 
1864, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869. 


Philosophical Transactions .......0.cccescsceseueee 88 vols. 
si i (AbsigntiE) e055 OT eee 6%; 
Proceedings of the Royal Society .................05- 12 5; 
Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific Papers .......... 4 9 
Philosophical Magazine (half-yearly) ................ 21 Ss 
93 aa (anbount) «4.4.45 00s e-eeae 11 parts. 
Logarithmic Tables (various) ..........000eeceeueee 6 vols, 
Royal Astronomical Society’s Proceedings ............ 13 45 
Buchan’s Meteorolopy.\ yy .sc acd vh save 8d baa ser apes 2 5 
Dalton’s “eget te Peis ee 5,3. di 
Kaemtz’s Bie ein La pueiaters ish = es iGo sce vere daeee ee 1 
Moveordlonial Papers sibs ass eus saa esubee ONE 27 nos. 
Metoordlozy OF Bineland ...5s40s00. 0+. sess 0mm ceed 18 nos. 
Papers relating to the Meteorological Department of the 
Sitar NRE og icky bev & ph)» omaha Ee 39! 
Instructions for taking Meteorological Observations (Col. 
D TERM ities svi 5).hs vs s se 4 ee Ce ea 1 vol. 
Quarterly Weatger Reports ..........cccueceeevues 3 vols, 
Brertish A TNBBI tues ee ciek sak st «lohes URE ey eee 2 


REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. lv 


Miller’s Elements of Chemistry............... Ae, of 2 vols. 
Williamson’s Chemistry for Students ...-............ 1 vol. 
Elements of Chemistry (Sir R. Kane) ................ 1 ae 
Mathematics (Royal Military Academy Course) ........ 2 vols. 
Kuler’s Letters on Mathematics and Physics .......... 2 ee 
Barlow on Magnetic Attraction..........5.....-+--06- 1 vol. 
Treatise on Electricity (De La Rive) ................ 3 vols. 
iwaodnouse’s Astronomy «00. Las es erte ll oe eens 1 vol. 
The Heavens (Guillemin, edited by Norman Lockyer) .. 1 ,, 
Art of Photography (Lake Price) ...............-006- 4 Fie 
Meteorological Tables, Smithsonian (Guyot) .......... as 
Treatise on Mathematical Instruments (Heather) ...... 1 ,, 
Sabine’s Pendulum and other Experiments ............ 2 vols. 
Bmaverers AStFONOMY: £52... see fe oe oa ee ee ne DS ex 
Timbs’s Year-Book of Facts, 1861-1871 .............. le 
Wayiors Scientific Memoirs: . 2.0)... we ld ee ee on pipes a 
Manual of Surveying for India, by Capts. Smythe and 
PINT RSET HA ANE CSL pans ole olga aan 1 vol. 
Nichol’s Cyclopedia of Physical Science .............. Be sg 
Admiralty Manual of Scientific Enquiry .............. Me 
Dictionary of Terms of Art (Weale).................. eer 
Magnetic and Meteorological Observations at :— 
te Helonai.: 4 i. 25 mn eNa ane os Fa ROTATE 3 'ekenet es\‘eF 3 vols. 
SL OTOH LOC? teeta M aT alate. Soe ie fon c¥er PEt he reis casele.s Diggs 
ELODARUGTS ARAVA True og enIBS Gea deve Be 5, 
Rape DOG eOd Tepe 63.24. OU ced MMe ood od as 1 vol. 


Observations during Magnetic Disturbances, 1840-1841.. 1 ,, 
Magnetic and Meteorological Observations, Unusual Dis- 

RRM ATOON Ha. SAAN SR oa eles /oie laos erawiedaie'e Masi 
Plates to Magnetic and Meteorological Observations .... 1 ,, 
Report of the Astronomer Royal to the Board of Visitors.. 40 nos. 


Theory of Errors of Observations, by Airy ............ 1 vol. 
Wodirunters Conic Sections’ 22.22... oe. ek eailscwecees a istaiat 
Shaimbotion Of Heat (Dove) 252%... 055 secs tlesesecee LES 
Bantam ONCEIRY) Lah Lies hs TE Lo Ee Cen atper sav encts aye cefeisia.e es 
Camus on the Teeth of Wheels............ 00.2 e evens sy 
Simmonds’s Meteorological Tables .............00005 OBES 
Observations of Sun-spots (Carrington) .............. . are 
RUE CPA ERUREOUPNIEL “POS 3/512 2.8 iS eacd ates capgesra daar hei Mlesavesoia) ase ie. 
Symons’s British Rainfall and Meteorological Magazine. . 
Expériences sur les Machines 4 Vapeur (Regnault) .... 2 ,, 
Cours Elémentaire de Chimie (Regnault) ............ _ ee 


e2 


lvi REFORT—1]87]1. 


LIST B. 
Books to be sent to the London Office, 22 Albemarle Street. 

British Association Report, 1831-32 ...........%.... 20 vols 
55 _ ESSA, «60a toate pater 20 Key 

5 x DOE So ose peer nte 20) hes 

5 a 1,839 6 din ti ascagt aide ey eee 20:5 ss 

os Ns IBSG  tetuit. ale ts ain Wee + 

oA =y NEST corshpinaittt ade systrtalt Gene 20-55 

6 7 1B oi its Ethel tc sep eee 20 55 

5, a DSO wish tahoe hanacctels eee 2D ei 

: a: DE i. o's 0.5 ah ieee eres 20 sy 

‘ a DAL 5 teats te alta Ae es, Teen OE nine 2D sab gg 

hs 2 Se eee T Ber Te rt 2 20 5, 

- * EEL sliver » reidhe ayer} SRC eR | ee 

es 2 NES eae ks Sap aah eiciuta: sag CeO 205; 

i = ABAD, 8 fecthidtts ts athosantie 20) i535 

3s 3 LAG, 5): ei nsinth hey Some 20:i 453 

i i LGET.t: SEY PER Ey. ieee hae LO. 55 

e s3 BAB in FS lon be Secs BE Bae LO, aes 

. iy MD injec Shs 3s 2 oe 1 ee 

fi: 33 PSU © 2 ee ol tage 18", 

o es LEI 0: whan aiw ee, chante 19 «; 

ss ¥ TB BE). sn « «ate Oa eh ee ae 20° 55 

ES ws Lets 5 are ns pes Fee Soe ft Pheags 

” ” 1854 Buc faye aye exes) és leluie) ble elei bun 21 ” 

be a ae 5... an ne Oe eee 22+ gs 

” is AE aE nie's's,24 Singers gthsicoels 28 setheg 

a 53 ibe a a ey: Tapes, 22 segs 

te _ POG nae siacuhuslih Rd oe 22. say 

~ 3 UAE cs wires dee eek pees Dee das 

” ai LEGO": .. . Uinehby date Tee B20: 4 

- Es PS Ros Gu eaee eee 

by 3 EGO2'S. : ahaaee dnt dicate eae wa. es 

- + 1BCS BL Ete toa sh cena eee 2 cas 

- ; Eel OAS elnino a 23 95 

by * TSG Cores. soc nt eae 22, 

5 53 IBGG lee foc de aatatt tae oe ie 

55 sg UE og Son it. AE inn € See 22 5, 

“ - Lbs Re PO ee nena 22 was 

s a WG Ss sp ad Sa eins ee 22. 5 
Lalande’s Catalogue (MS. Calculations) 2 Maa eee Le 
=} a (MSccepy)’.". .: 222558 eee os 

La Place’s Celestial Mechanics ...................... 1 vol. 
Armagh Eliges pr Stars 2.0 civ... pa caP ic ede lt ee 
Radcliffe Observatory Catalogue of Stars for 1845 ...... toe 
Paramatta Catalogue of 7358 Stars .................. se 
Groombridge’s Catalogue of Circumpolar Stars.......... 3 vols 
Edinburgh Astronomical Observations ................ 4s 


Astronomical Observations at the Cape of Good Hope.... J 


REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. 


(MSS.) Apparent Places of Principal Stars ............ 1 vol. 
British Association Catalogue (MS. copy).............. Dg! 
(MSS.) British Association Catalogue (Calculations) .... 24 vols. 
(MSS.) British Association Catalogues, Synonyms and Notes 23 ,, 
(MSS.) Lacaille’s Catalogue (Calculations) ............ 24: ° 55 
Lacaille’s Catalogue (MS. GOAN vias. se EE ms wares RE 1 
Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain.... 33 nos. 
Ordnance Survey, Comparisons of Standards of Length . .. 2 vols 
Radcliffe Observatory, Meteorological Observations .... 3. ,, 
Makerstoun, Meteorological Observations and Tables .... 10 ,, 
"3 Abstracts of Meteorological Observations .. 3. ,, 
Srmpridee: Observations. ... 6s cccee cece vo sageesns Siow; 
Pisytairs Natural;Philosophy ......... #/2.<f. mtn Buss, 
ised a Algebraical. Problems: ... 2... 2. es cee de ees Ager 
Lectures on Quaternions (Sir W. Hamilton) .......... Vai 
Meteorological and Nautical Observations at Melbourne 

TGR NAL CLOMLD sr eyeter a wer taciw cA ciokas do, aw crsvaraelcevaewens tetas d bareery 
Mastery of Languages (Prendergast) ...........00e8- Matis, 
La Place’s Analytical Mechanics .............0.0000> lived ves 
Levelling in England and Wales ............eeeeeeee Hiss 

(Abstract)eth ten nares : ear r 

Levelling i in Scotland. Ea Sar ais ana eerd hat, 2 Laeey 

nr GADSiVACE)P sci Se etetellstenetetsy oiiele + = Tings 

Pasley on Measures, Weights, and Money ............ bits 

Cork Savings-bank Tables............ccce eee ee eees Dish 

Weld’s History of the Royal Society................-- a 
Bombay Magnetical and Meteorological Observations, 

i 52 NA rue Par a oe a be aa kes LLL oe aR AE AL Ps 
Meteorological Results, Toronto ..........ee cece eee Binos 
Pmeeriwich OUSCEVAGIONS. «.12.. sess sods teeepee cence BBG 4; 

Se (Appendices &e.) .......0 40. 125 ,, 
Catalogue of Reference, Manchester Free Library ...... Leiinss 
Brisbane’s Star Catalogue ......... 2. cee cece ee eee 2 ake 
Johnson and Henderson’s Star Catalogue.............. 2 
(MSS.) Hartnup Star Catalogue ............--.-000. Leis: 
ieyces Sine Catalosue oo) fie D. Ae Sie) dee. Uy ie 5 
Wrottesley s Star Catalogue... 0.0666 2. NU tie 5! 
Taylor’s Ra aE Barhy SO RO ALE MESED Runa sat. Ts ro he as 
Everest’s Survey of India Rick BOR coi Soe Soe owe 23); 
Manis Survey iy 12. HOS. ees Ed 8 Gers 
Extension of Triangulation into Belgium and France.... 2. ,, 
Verification and Extension of Lacaille’s Arcof Meridian .. 2 ,, 
Schlagintweit’s India and High Asia ................ Aimy 
Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers .... 8 ,, 
5 Ss na Ste UIOSS 
Modern Geology Exposed A ORR REN. 2 1 vol. 
Melbourne Magnetic and Meteorological Observations ... 3 vols 
Extracts from the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India 5 ,, 
Madras Meteorological Observations LE SETI a 2 ee 
Ee Bt ee eg ee Ret 33 nos. 
Calcutta Hourly Meteorological Observations .......... Aptis 


Bengal Meteorological Reports PENSE, b= ktiesks Stahgh Od 0 aa i) 


lviii REPORT—1871. 


Statistics of New Zealand ............ ce eeeccececece 9 nos. 
Tide Tables for English and Irish Ports ...........-.. a 
Reports and Transactions of the Devonshire As ociation.. 3 vols. 
Annual Reports of the Royal Polytechnic Society ...... LT 3 
Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
CHOSHITON 2 cicode iiece ate chases ee AIMED eel en paaeele Lvl 
Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts ...... 10 sys 
Results of Trials on H.M. Ships ........-.-eceeeeeee Ags 
Trigonometrical Survey of England and Wales ........ Sia 
Determination of Longitudes of England and Wales .... 2 ,, 
La Place’s Mathematical Works .........e.eeeseeees Ge Gs 
Lagrange’s ¥ pate isuiveisescar eel o HOR ae Otis 
Euler’s Mathematical Works..........0cseceecceuses 4 
Simpson’s,, a eee ce ein thd hs Di lags 
Dupin’s 5s ZUR old Ries BMG 1 vol. 
Carnot’s EF ea elt dogeion t. Sante Joie TDioags 
Shipbuilding, by Rankine... 2... ccscce eens de wills sa: 
Dublin Magnetical and Meteorological Observations .... 1 ,, 
Maxima and Minima (Ramchundra) ...........-.0505 Dart, 
Meteorological Results Toronto, 1862 .........0+5 005 thas 
Army Meteorological Register ..........--22+---+--- LAS 


Mathematical Tracts from Library of the late Mr, Christie 

Magnetical and Meteorological Observations at Lake 
Athabasca. 

Sundries (English Pamphlets). 


U. S. Coasts Survey, Report of Superintendent ........ 26 vols. 
Annals of the Dudley Observatory ........ see reeees Megs 
Transactions of the Albany Institute .........0s0005: B45 
Proceedings of the American Geological and Statistical 

Ramey.) oie os< J5 Reese's Wes yess EN RR RES 1O how 
Reports of the National Academy of Sciences ....,..... By Sy 
Documents of the U. 8. Sanitary Commission .,........ isles 
State Transactions of the Historic Society of Wisconsin... 6 ,, 
Report of Geological Reconnaisance of Arkansas........ Qoigi 
Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History,... 45  ,, 

a of the American Association for the Advance- 

mont of Science)... a. 0cavcrwe osetia walenn lass 
Monthly Report of the Commissioners of the Revenue of 

TR Aa 5s os Gee ed es coe eo AO ee Bag 
Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and 

Bitiences :Aeniees See Sera ache cocaine fone 20. 53 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society...... BO 
Papers relating to Harvard College .........-++--++0: G0n0g 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila-_ - 

ELL AER geen aR Sg, egy a Pi lie 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections ...........++++- PO oie 

s Contributions to Knowledge..........0+-: 26ui5; 
Memoirs of the American Academy .........-+-s0+405 Bwaj 
Washington Astronomical and Meteorological Observa- 

4100S . Vaeeas ceo ee “PE CASS; Soa ee Quik 
Maury’s Sailing Directions .........0cseesseeeerees Siaw 


Transactions of the American Philosophical Society .... 6 ,, 


REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE, lix 


Sundry Volumes (various subjects) ..........+++ +) LO "Vols. 
Smithsonian Reports ......... ee cess rene erence eees Bo ,, 
Explorations and Surveys, Senate, U.S.A. ........--.- 4 ,, 
Reports of the Department of Agriculture, U.S. | ae i tats a 
Geology of Towa... 1.1... se ce eee t ee ee eet rene tnees Bs, 
Catalogue, Army Medical Museum, U.8.A........-.+-- de '55 
Sundries, (American Pamphlets.) 

Bulletin de la Société de Géographic........ eee ee eens 4D 

5 i Bee AIDE ee ee 4 84 nos 
Mémoires de l’Académie de Dijon ..........++ eee 13 vols. 
Bulletin de la Fédération de la Société de Horticulture de 

Mminiquaicse seeks ec Geeta os eee eee ees agers esd lila 
Actes de la Société Helvétique ........... Pere bat caer 
Mémoires de l’Académie Royale de Metz.........-.... 3 
Résumé Météorologique pour Genéve and Le Grand St. 

IRORN ANGUS a Watatgse acters Sats eee eet tale SR ETS = 
Extraits de ’ Académie Royale de Bruxelles .......... 10 nos. 
Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise........ cece eee ee eee a 
Mémoires de la Société des ScienceS.......-.20-05000- ‘(ats 
Revues des Cours Scientifiques ........ secre eee sees iS jee 
Panhellenium..sc;c2cccesrseteee shee het Pagia gees 20 ,, 
Quetelet sur le Climat de la Belgique ............-4-, Ife ees 
Extraits de l’Académie de Belgique .........-+---005- 54 ,, 
Commission Hydrométrique de Lyon .......-.-0+5-55 RG}; 
Bulletin de 1’Association Scientifique de France ........ 140 ,, 
Mémoires de Académie des Sciences et Lettres de Mont- 

palliom fo. REEL E TE. Pe ie Seas OEY 
Atlas Météorologique de l’Observatoire Impérial, 1866- 

TOGO OR, 28 POS PED aU Oe PRE tds ok 4 ,, 
La Belgique Horticole ..........2eceeeceeeerseeers GN; 
Compte Rendu Annuel ......... 6c cece eee e ee tenes 15 vols. 
Annales de l’Observatoire Physique Central (Russia) ,... 35 ,, 
Annuaire Magnétique et Météorologique (Russia) ...... eee 
Annuaire Météorologique de France ......-++seeeees Pivy, 
(CISTI: Jao RII iis Ie ceo beacuse Rca Sa a ae Aoi 
ifeseNtondes; ESG3—/0)-2, 26.) ey ss cs ccs end ete ove es Bie, 4 
Tables de la Lune, par Hanseen ........5-sseseeeees 1 vol. 
Traité de Calcul Différential, par Lubbe .............. Lees 
Histoire Céleste, par Lalande ........ eee e ee eee eee 1 no. 


Sundries. (French Pamphlets.) 

Oversigt over det K. D. V. Selskabs af Forchhammer.... 33 ,, 
Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter.........2 eee eeeeee 6 vols. 
Sundries. (Dutch Pamphlets.) 

Archives Neerlandaises. 


Meteorologische Waarnerningen ..........++eeeeeees BONS; 
Helsingfors Magnetical and Meteorological Observations.. 6 ,, 
Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennice .............+., Bites 

Fe ss Indo-Neerlandsch.........+ Biosys 
Norsk Meteorologisk Aarbog.......... 00.0 seer cree Acie, 


Meteorologische Jagttagelser paa Christiania Obserya- 
AGRAUITII Sg Sic vw ABU gee aM a aN atla Dn OHS oe) onan Bb 3 


lx REPOoRT—1871. 


. Meteorologische Beobachtungen Aufgezeichnct auf Chris- 


GiehHE MODBEEVATOTIOM « «cis. saa. 0. en), > 2) apebs totes 3 vols. 
Beretning om en Botanisk Reise af H. L. Lorensen...... Cuates 
Index Scholarum in Universitate Christiania .......... Goon 


Sundries. (Norwegian Pamphlets.) 
Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch Naturwissenschaftliche 

Classe der Akademie der Wissenschaften.......... 280 .,, 
Sitzungsberichte der K. B. Akademie der Wissenschaften 78  ,, 
Mittheilungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bern 11 ,, 
Monatsberichte der K, P. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 


IB Elise pee rot tec etove eet nena ishines Gh ais axe Ren TOE le 80 ,, 
Annalen fiir Meteorologie und Erdmagnetismus ........ Gen; 
Beobachtungen Meteorologische an der Wiener Stern- 

SWAEUO ge < ie eys eb te dvs cite ORE Oty oiela Es chaste ee ee BO aes 
Verhandlungen der Allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesell- 

schaft der Naturwissenschaften...............e0% IG s., 
Zeitschrift der Osterreichischen Gesellschaft fiir Mete- 

PUR IG pe ake io atl i os oye,o hse 5 ceed ar hs eee ae SOI ea55 
Reise der Osterreichischen Frigatte Novara, Magnetische 

(BEOPACHGUN OEM | 2 2 yas. c.-uays se bye SabaseNay Retna Sines 
Magnetische Beobachtungen in Wien .............25- A 
Tageblatt der 32 Versammlung der N. W. A. in Wien, 

SID ee oan te soos hea eit ale GEER Ede pee 


Jahrbucher der K.-K, Central Anstalt fiir Meteorologie und 
Erdmagnetismus in Wien. 1856-1859, 1 of each, 


tSGG—ISGOF hol eAgh! Ay. Met ran.e sentysuleteteciee = ot 10 nos. 
Det Kongelige Norske Univyersitets Aarberetunger, 1856 

bo UG58 et. Se. esse b attain 9 cl, ris tice fags 8 vols. 
Travaux de la Commission pour fixer les mesures et les 

poids de l’Empire de Russie .............2.e0e0: Sie. 
Abhandlungen der Math-Physikal Classe der K. B. Aka- 

demie der Wissenschaften, .)....55 003 seesaw eels « -t 


Bulletin der Akademie der Wissenschaften der Miinchen. 47 7 
Sundries. (German Pamphlets.) 


Annaes do Observatorio do Infante D. Luiz............ AG. x55 
Trabalhos ¥ Bost teh Yee SEE REECE Dittys 
Mémoires de Académie Reale de Sciences de Lisboa Sy tt 
Annaes da Academia das Sciencias Lisboa ............ 12545 
Coimbra, Observacoes Meteorologicas ..........00000 4 Oe 
Sundries. (Portuguese Pamphlets.) 

Rassian\ NeauticaliMagamney by silsind. 2s sds 4 sale ae GS iis 
Harmonia Mensuram. 

SEES VATE W. CLAMS wes. vo cusvslsleis sraveue sane tei siete eevee ae 1 vol. 
Specdiam Hartwellianum. «oc... . ....0.» s+ «@eieiggenees ‘Bee 
Diverse Machine( Ramelli) ........ ixanicameine es aateek dey 3 
Memorie dell’ I. R. Istituto Lombardo................ 5 vols. 
Memorie della Societa Italiana delle Scienze .......... Sm gs 
Memorie dell’ Osservatorio del Collegio Romano........ 10:38 
Memorie del Reale Istituto Lombardo ................ Al tie 
Atti dell’ Accademia Pontificia de’ Nuovi Lincei........ 90 nae 


REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTYE. lxi 


Atti della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Napoli...... 7 vols. 
Bulletino Meteorologico dell’ Osservatorio del Collegio 

ROMANO ap fepeee se idale: cero chao Ae, Sata dey Mae, oft Gn Be) Shs Orr. 
Giornale dell’ I. R. Istituto Lombardo................ 44 ,, 
Rendiconti del Reale Istituto Lombardo .............. LL Zele, 


Sundries. (Italian Pamphlets.) 


APPENDIX TER 


Inventory of Apparatus and Instruments at present in the Kew 
Observatory, with the names of Owners ov Funds by which 
they were purchased. May 1871. 

[Abbreviations adopted in col. 2:—Brit. Assoc. for British Association; Don. Fund for 

Donation Fund; Gov. Grant for Government Grant Fund; Met. Com. for Meteoro- 


logical Committee; Par. Ex. Fund for Paris Exhibition Fund; Roy. Ast. Soe. for 
Royal Astronomical Society ; Royal Soc. for Royal Society. ] 


Entrance Hall. Eaves ofppe 
urchase A 
Bird’s Mercurial Thermometer ..........0+05 - Royal Soap 
Captain Kater’s Hygrometer, by Robinson ....+... 3 
Dr. Lind’s Portable Wind Gauge .............. a4 
Huygens’s Aerial Telescope (twelve parts)........ by 
itayecens 8 Object-glass ...... 1. ese ee es oleate is 
Huygens’s Object-glass, with two Eye-glasses by 
oO ae ee eee ee 2 } 2 
Flamsteed'’s Object-glass (Venetian) ............ sf 
Dollond’s 42-inch Transit, with a cast-iron stand .. 3 
Short’s 36-inch Reflecting Telescope, with an Object- 
glass Micrometer by Dollond (nine parts) ...... 2 
Kater’s Convertible Pendulum, with the Agate Planes ¥ 
Captain Sabine’s Cylindrical Pendulum, vibrating on ] 
Planes; with the Knife-edges................ if 2 
Apparatus, with Leaden Balls, by Paull of Geneva | 
SRIF) be 5s adores Oraednah Moran « » wtctariotak tt J is 
Nairne and Blunt’s 12-inch Dipping Needle (two 
on re eco eerr © genie } 1 
A 12-inch Variation Needle..............0..00+ 9 
Dr. Godwin Knight’s Battery of Magnets ........ re 
Air-Pump, with Double Barrel ................ By 
Nairne’s Air Condenser (three parts) ............ 5 


Ramsden’s Great Theodolite, with other Instruments 
and Apparatus employed by Major-General Roy in 
the Trigonometrical Survey (sixty-six parts, in four ” 
SSeS) TRCOBUNCTO. , occ susie nei aede class 4a 


Ixii REPORT—1871. 


Cary’s Large Levelling Instrument(twenty-one parts) Royal Soc. 
Troughton and $i 


CEN Y DALLA) | se ate gnie'n eles aunt Steep a orice a or sx a3 
Adams’s 5-inch pee he (two parts) .......... F 
Bowles’s Trigonometer (four parts) ............ 5 
Troughton’s Repeating Circle, of 1 foot diameter .. 3 
Ramsden’s 10-inch Protractor, with Vernier to 1’.. is 
Bird’s 12-inch Astronomical Quadrant (fifteen parts) 2 
Mordyer s Hydrometetcc. stvulve ws we epee ees ote 55 
Cole’s Orrery, explanatory of Eclipses............ ee 
Mw iManerss (COMPASSES i atel-teeynvlct.te rs) ghereucesbarsnetieere : 
Armed Loadstone .|. 2-1. ps cis s dale pe oN Ay hee ge. a 
ihe (Certs sbrass Unstrumenterve ts «te ste + erste ieee es 
Curious Steel Callipers for very accurate measure- 

ment, by Paull of Geneva: 1777 ............ ‘3 
Rowning’s Universal Constructor of Equations ..,. _ 
Chronometer Stove, for ascertaining the Infiuence of 

Temperature on the Rate of Chronometers (six a: 

PALES) “Teer ee debe cic ets = aim Beker We Rint: ea 
Wedgewood’s Pyrometer ; or Thermometer for mea- 

suring high degrees of heat (sixty-six parts).... } "a 
Tyo purom= Brass Pilloys. 3s sts sy epee ee 28 : 
Bird’s 4-feet Refracting Telescope ...........+++ * 
Dies tiydrenicter 3.5 Hoes «ck. ee ee eR es 
Hadley’s Metal for a Newtonian Reflector, with 

several wooden Eyepieces, but without Tube or <3 

Mounting). 2s hss ease beta gra. seed eee eens 


Troughton and Simms’s 6-inch Circular Protractor. . 


Baily’s Pendulum, No.2 :. sy; .neoee ss 47 FERS Roy. ‘Ast. Soc, 


Standard Wrought-iron bar used in Mallet’s Expe- ‘ 
rimenta, 1838-41842...0 4.060 iesessseieens ae } Brit, Astbh, 
Observing Telescope used by Schlagintweit. 
Experimental Tubes employed in the construction of Gas; Cees 
Welsh’s Standard Barometers ......,...65.. OF) Va aan 
Six 39-inch Glasp Slabs. 
Sixty Lamp Chimmbys? 995 5\'25..5G) 72a vive seo Brit. Assoc, 
Hight 14-inch Magnets. 
Sundry Lamps, Plate Boxes, Daguerotypes and Ap- 
paratus employed with Ronalds’s Self-recording + Donat. Fund. 
Barograph and Magnetograph................ 
Sundry Chemical Apparatus used with Addams’s Car- Got aS 
bonic acid Gas Generators ........-.0055000. OF, Baas 
Three large Magnetometers with Marble Slabs, Pil- 
lars, Reading Telescopes, &c. 
Two Thermometer Testing-jars (damaged)........ Brit. Assoc. 
Two 6-inch Bull’s-eye Lenses. 
Sir W. Thomson’s Portable Atmospheric Electro- } Prof. Sir W. 
metery cok . deeded cd ey ca fd LP eee Thomsen. 
Sir W. Thomson's Recording Atmospheric Electro- 


meter 2.5. FUER es Ra ”? 


Various pieces of Electrical Apparatus .......... SirF.Ronalds. 


Sundry Lenses, 


REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE, 


Galton’s Dial Anemometer, with Battery, &c. 
erMBEIar HOTEOM 6 (cod ee ee Ce SE 
Heliostats and Reflectors used in Mr. Galton’s Sex- 
tant Testing Apparatus ............4. es aa 
Apparatus for Trisecting an Arc. 
Mamssures Hysrometer . nie coed. cee ee 
Seven-inch Protractor, by Jones. 
Marine Barometer. 
Two Patent Compensated Barometers, by Harris. 
One 30-inch Steel Bar. 
Two Kriel’s Self-recording Barometers, with Spare 
EM Niche So choke soca ei Pakage 2 a] 8m ge 
Tube of Ronalds’s Photo-barograph 
Glass Receiver (damaged). 
Model of Sheerness Tide-gauge ..........y0eee: 
Mallet’s Model of the Descent of Glaciers. 
Several Models, not named. 
Appold’s Automatic Hygrometer..............., 
Appold’s Automatic Temperature Regulator 
Lindley’s Patent Central Thermometer, 
Lindley’s Model of Fire Escape. 
Perspective Instrument 
Barrow’s Dip Circle, No. 
epmson’s. G-inch Circle . ... os s.ne\: vais eas tye 
Two Unifilars and a Declinometer, by Gibson 
Seven Tripods 
Balance of Torsion. 
A Watchman’s Clock. 
Oertling’s Balance 
RMMPEAHONA css oi ae sc ke es NY Cees OF 
Wooden Wind-pressure Gauge 
SUPER OAT oii ac es Sg sees os ss Be wy 
Ronalds’s Atmospheric Electrical Apparatus ...... 
Model of Mr. De La Rue’s Tower for supporting 
Huyghen’s Aerial Telescope-lenses_ .......... 
Model of a design for Photoheliograph Mounting .. 
Leyden Jars 


Sep e sees wine € ays sue Oe gel wl 


ey 


eee clas lelylale eh6 «ays ae) «, asia «es 8 8 Spiel. wi 


2 


CY 


Ce ous @ eieteve s tle g ee ee whe whe Oe 8 go ds 


Testing Room, 


Six frames exhibiting Kew and Lisbon Magnetic 

UGVES , < . Aoted e ern Ene as Eee eens eee we 
Two Welsh’s Standard Barometers 
BRM TERDOLOE “(es <0ren Soh MRR Ooh ye ae ales od 
Receiver for testing Barometers, with Air-Pump, &c. 
Apparatus for testing Thermometers ........,... 
Newman’s Standard Barometer, No. 34 
aeons Mural-Qaadrant. «2 vciwsiadss os eRe oils R% 
Spare Tubes for Standard Barometer construction . . 
Thomson’s Galyanometer and Apparatus employed by 

Dr. Stewart in Rotating Disk experiments 
Siemens’s Air-Pump 
Sprengel’s Air-Pump 


ed 


Ce 


i 


lxili 


Met. Com. 
Sir E. Sabine. 


} Geogr, Soc. 


SirF. Ronalds. 


Brit. Assoc. 
Goy. Grant. 


Royal Soe. 


Royal Soc, 


3) 


Sirk’. Ronalds, 
Sir E. Sabine, 


Goy. Grant. 


99 


9 
Sir I. Sabine. 
Gov. Grant. 


Par, Ex.Fund. 
Brit. Assoc. 
Mr. Gassiot. 


Brit, Assoc. 
Gov. Grant. 


5) 
Observatory. 
Gov. Grant. 


+E} 


lxiv REPORT—1871. 


Parts of Ronalds’s Magnetographs .............. 

Air-Thermometer (incomplete) _................ 

MSS., Books, Papers, Documents, and Correspondence 
referring to Meteorological work. 


Transit Room. 


Thermometer-waxing Apparatus ...........005 
Photographic Paper Waxing Apparatus.......... 
Thomson’s Atmospheric Recording Electrometer .. 
PRELIM GOT APE estes Pie ote aoin aie ioe ee relayevere ag ee tetere 
Chronometen;-ATHOW . ss. chase ccsec ech eee eee 
Envariahle Pennine Aes aes Seat ot aos Silo 
Pendutara: (NONO: cet nce skis fctess.e Mera, steed, oye ets 
Dig Ree POY SOL psc vicisic eh a einls os so Oe aes se 
Declinometer, by Robinson and Barrow.......... 
Five Daniell’s Hygrometers.............0.0000 
Four Declinometers (various makers)............ 
AE iebetell EATIAOR. Bay i ete yareis smre oan wine ene mie 
iite, COLT BTORLORA s niciy cists tgs + ashe asialcinateps, 0 cc ot 
Three Herschel’s Actinometers ..............4. 
LO=nch vAvammth: COMPASS che sie sv.0 + veers co cle ere 
Vertical Force Magnetometer ..........:....05- 
PURO ORTAL «<< Stanaiaie a6 oo eleysssiee Sook sie Seinen 
Three Dip Circles and one Fox’s Circle .......... 
Several old Observing Telescopes and incomplete 

Maenewe AGparaous. <i. ia hie. vss ceed anecae 
Photographic Paper, waxed and unwaxed ........ 
Sundry Bottles, Chemicals, and Apparatus employed 

in the ordinary work of the Observatory ...... 


Computing Room. 


Dividing Engine by Perreaux, and Apparatus em- 
ployed in the construction of Standard Thermo- 
TG) AES 5 oii ig 6 OG aOND oO non ue s\eeso 

Standard Thermometers, divided and undivided.... 

Evaporation Gauge (exhibited at Paris).......... 

Portable Barometer, by Newman .............. 

Gay-Lussac Barometer, by Bunter. 

Troughton and Simms’s Mercurial Standard Ther- 
TRON es BiB oe Sai MEO Sos aeipcio! 

Newman’s Spirit Thermometer for very low Tempe- 
FO NW ES «at Bo oo Aon eno hitOr ppg i Oar 

Jones a di yprameter eile <'. cs . sce aereeeee ens 

Net ot HariMasnets (NX) 5.5. cs. sean wae 

Pair of Levelling Staves, by Jones.............. 

Sundry old Thermometers. 

Thermometer, by Greimerites.s 2100.68 Doses 

Dry and Wet Thermometer, from Hobarton. 

Thermometer, No. 2, from Greenwich Observatory. 


Actinometer “Vubemeerercericcs 14... 2k ee oe ee 


Gov. Grant. 


” 


Brit. Assoc. 
Met. Com! 


Goy. ‘tant? 
Royal Soc. 


Sir Ee Satine! 


Goy. Grant. 
Brit. Assoc. 


Par. Ex.Fund, 
Sir E. Sabine. 


Royal Soe. 


kb 


Rey. C, Hodg- 
kinson. 


REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. lxv 


SG 20 GN Se PR Royal Soe. 

: Rev. C. Hodg- 
BUM RCIINOMICLELS occa csc ee eis to tele Me ome 1 eiatbn: 
PimecrActimometers 26. sie aden t es Mees os Royal Soc. 
Ten Hydrometers. 
Spirit-level used in Pendulum experiments ...... Gov. Grant. 
Small Boiling-point Apparatus ................ Par.Ex.Fund. 
Two Mountain Thermometers. 
One Regnault’s Hygrometer .........0.ceeeeee Goy. Grant. 
One Daniell’s Hygrometer. 
Several Declinometers, by various makers ........ Sir E. Sabine. 
Several Unifilars, by various makers ............ “ 
Several Dip Circles, by various makers .......... = 
Two Altazimuth Instruments.................. Admiralty. 
Repeating Circle, by Dollond .................. Sir E. Sabine. 
Vertical Force Magnetometer.............2.24. 3 


Sundry Magnets, Dip Needles, Magnet Fittings, In- 
ertia Bars, Rings, &c., belonging to various instru- e 


Fee SPE EMER SRMEE OF Nas a esto 0 sp Sy casi:dus, ev syrssedhe do ousy sash arsdaned ofS 
Magnets and Needles in use at the Observatory... . a 
ae reRae beg DVL Cc er V5, sad syeuisvros wy ok saw pe aeerak eke Na one Gov. Grant. 
TEE ea it a 
Jars and Standard Solutions used in Hydrometer- 
Pe a aids ola,» sor x athg dann oper Alans wank yaniv Brit. Assoc. 


9 


Chemicals and Chemical Apparatus used in the Ob- 
BSA VELLD EVM’ sf ef ictss 5) «gates (aGiede ioe alone eRe ahehaiajaheyagorehoys 
Apparatus employed by Prof. Clerk Maxwell. 


Telescope support, by Goloz............0000 ene Royal Soc. 
0 Rn ea A 3 
Eg Sa ee A Ge 4 
EIS ges a a ae a A rf 
Model of Hydraulic Anemometer .............. Mr. Galton. 
Several Rules and Scales in use ..............0- Brit. Assoe. 
Box of Ozonometer Papers. 

Meeemetoprapht Curves... 0... ps ciccnncedeccers Brit. Assoc. 
Magnetic Observation-books ............ce0e0- cf 

MS. Papers of Magnetic Reductions ............ ” 

MS. Papers on various subjects ...............- 


Roy. Soe. and 
Brit. Assoc. 
Wood Engrayings of Magnetograph Drawings .... Brit. Assoc. 


Surplus copies of Publications issued by Observatory 


iis South Hail. 
Cooke’s Sextant Testing Apparatus.............. Gov. Grant. 
Shelton’s Astronomical Regulator, with Gridiron Pen- Baral 
UNE eee ck Bee rt aga 
Gas Governors and Regulators ......... Rrinevers, Ae Don. Fund. 


Masnetocraphs -.6 066i cc ccien ely. prtarce,, GQOY.. Grant. 
Earthenware Stove .........0000: Soe te ire ce > Brite eAssace 


Ixvi REPORT—1871. 


DeflectinsrAGparatys (toys va os es bees ose ae te Brit. Assoc. 

Eee UE Yee ce bes tens oe bees eae Met. Com. 

Ie UePeMETOSEOPOs. ..2. . 2 <e cs sieg 2's ss eset ate Mr. Gassiot. 
Pendulum Room. 

Vacuum Chamber and Vibrating Apparatus ...... Admiralty, 

Observing "elescOpe ©: <se;./2te teres = ep Bieaecauaiohe Simp 5s 

Shelton’s Astronomical Regulator .............. Royal Soc. 

Transit House. 
Portable Transit Instrument ............004. .. Sir E. Sabine. 


Apparatus for determining Scale value of Levels .. Mr. Adie. 


Lower Photographic Room. 
Baths, Dishes, Bottles, and Chemical Apparatus.... Gov. Grant, 


Chemicalsiand Paper ..............8% sawed. Brit. Assoc, 

Brintine by aM Gs Le eerie sete ss) apne Pla edoeS m 
Meteorological Room. 

Engle s Wc aryids ste eee eee se Eee eee Brit. Assoc. 

Barograph, Thermograph, and Anemograph Curves.. Met. Com. 

DAO {auplicnlesys Vk ee. ote se thee Sree ne oe: Brit. Assoc. 


Tabulations of ditto (duplicates). 

Scales, Rules, &c., employed in tabulating Curves.. Met. Com. 

Post Cases, MSS. and Documents in connexion with 
the Meteorological Committee’s work.......... } 

Working Drawings of Instruments. 

Observatory Correspondence. 


Raripure end Parnes th ¥ oe": Ol Pes hevgen Met. Com. 
Sun Room. 

pron Pichares (NGPREVES) ¢. ic cas Wie aus sacs o's 0 0 tress Gov. Grant, 

San chierares (Prints) 4.4 ite «Gs 0a,0 ays ase pia eres 


” 
Thirty-seven Vols. Schwabe’s Observations (MSS.).. Roy. Ast. Soe, 
Sundry Papers connected with Solar Research. 
Sundry Volumes of Kew Electrical and Meteoro- 
logical Observations (MSS.). 
Surplus Lithographed and Engraved copies of Kew 


i Goy. Grant. 
apneuc Coryes “fs 22. 7's fs as pekh ine thant 
Photo-galvanographed Plates of Curves, by Paul 

PPCIBUH Taw yes saad eee ts = SCS eee OALe fd eee * 
Spare Magnets for Magnetographs .............. Mr. Adie. 
One Marnchic Tabulators fos.cb oy scsjs Manel bs oe Brit. Assoc. 
yo senctic Babulators 2. dens: scis ages «00 eee ee re 


Old Observing Clock. 
Parts of old Electrical and Meteorological Apparatus Brit. Assoc. 


Parts of old Royal Society Apparatus............ Royal Soc. 
Solar Photographic Room. 
Anemograph with Blank sheets ............+44: Met. Com. 


Baths, Dishes, Printing-frames, Bottles, Paper, Che- 


REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. lxvil 


micals, Glass, &c., used in connexion with the Pho- 


EAMEUOEUUPI m, Biiiccces Cheats ts sees. s i Fa Goy. Grant. 
Dome, 

Photoheliograph .....5..c0000005 bene dagen on Don. Fund. 

Robinson’s Registering Anemometer (dismounted) Brit. Assoc. 
Roof. 

Old Pressure Anemometer (incomplete).......... Brit. Assoc. 


Old Rain-gauge (incomplete) 
Magnetic Observatory. 


Declinometer : toys 
Dip Circles \ ee eRe id Sk ee Cee eae et Sir E. Sabine. 
Sundry Apparatus employed in Magnetic Determina- \ 

ES GES Shs vs Ghd x EB) § 608-6 sates Ayo s an Kale ‘: 
Stone Pillars ....... bid cetnid 3) obo.) bos oe vin of 

Workshop (No. 1). 
Whitworth Lathe 
Planing Machine \ Deh Cewek Se es Bs oso oe ON Don. Fund. 
Holtgapfiel Latho ... ccs cec eves cede ee ceces ... SirF.Ronalds. 
_ 5 ae ive be bap Kanes Ke vd .s.- Don. Fund. 
[S22 Deen teat Ree eae ere oo Wire rs te Brit. Assoc. 
Surfaces and Straight Edges ..............0005 Gov. Grant. 
GrINGsONG iv ye cscs sees denscens rr eee te Brit. Assoc. 
| Se ee ee eo ee a eMs,.a-alstomagtet Pe 
Usstings and Tools ............. L Sear aseorbeek: Sc 9 
Workshop (No. 2). 
Electro-magnet and Battery ............-..0-. Sir E. Sabine. 
Carbonic-acid Gas Generators .............00+55 Goy. Grant. 
Ronalds’s Barograph (incomplete) .,............ Ee 
SEES CT EERS fi ick cued diistees >'s Mens Mr. Atkinson. 
memerrowing Pablo: 24... 6. £04 idaue ze ee cise: Gov. Grant. 
oS VASES AID dee ie ss 
Sundry Packing-cases. 
Enclosure. 

Self-recording Rain-gauge ...........e0eeeseue Met. Com. 
Beasn-sauge (Ordinary)... -~ ssi. cyis yp oit ow este Brit. Assoc. 
Eworial Anemometers : 1353.00 Xo oss vise aaa oe Met. Com, 


Mowing Machine and sundry other Garden Tools.. Brit. Assoc. 


Verification House. 
Stone Pillars for erecting Self-recording Magneto- 


Don. Fund. 
Sa eee cs A gee ete ee 
Self-recording Barograph, Thermograph, and Anc- Rat, Com 
mograph (undergoing examination)............ 4 ; 


In the Custody of B. Loewy, Hsq., 11 Leverton Street, N.W. 
Mr. De La Rue’s Micrometer for measuring Astronomical Photo- 


graphs (in use for measuring the photographs obtained with 
the heliograph). 


REPORT—1871. 


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RCOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, ]xix 


RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL CoMMITTEE AT THE EDINBURGH 
Meerine In Aveust 1871. 


[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination. ] 


That in future the division of the Section of Biology into the three Depart- 
ments of Anatomy and Physiology, Anthropology, and Zoology and Botany 
shall be recognized in the programme of the Association Meetings, and that 
the President, two Vice-Presidents, and at least three Secretaries shall be 
nominated, and that the Vice-Presidents and Secretaries who shall take 
charge of the organization of the several Departments shall be designated 
respectively before the publication of such programme. 

Dr. R. King’s motion, “that a Subsection for Ethnology be formed,” was 
rejected. 

That the Apparatus, Instruments, &c. mentioned in Appendix III. of the 
Report of the Kew Committee for the past year be transferred to the charge 
of the Royal Society. 

That the Electrical Apparatus belonging to the British Association, now in 
possession of the Committee of Electrical Standards, be placed in the Physical 
Laboratory of Cambridge, in charge of the Professor of Experimental Physics, 
the apparatus remaining the property of the Association and at the disposal 
of the Committee. 

[For Regulations relating to Organizing Sectional Proceedings, vide p. xix. ] 


Recommendations Involving Grants of Money. 


That the sum of £300 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the establishment of the Kew Observatory. 

That Professor Cayley, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Stokes, Sir W. 

Thomson, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be a Committee for the purpose of re- 
porting on Mathematical Tables, which it may be desirable to compute or 
reprint ; that Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
£50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 
_ That Mr. Edward Crossley, Rev. T. W. Webb, and Rey. R. Harley be a 
Committee for discussing Observations of Lunar Objects suspected of change; 
that Mr. Crossley be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Tait, Professor Tyndall, and Dr. Balfour Stewart be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the Thermal Conductivity of 
Metals ; that Professor Tait be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Tides, consisting of Sir W. Thomson, Professor J. C. 
Adams, Professor J. W. M. Rankine, Mr. J. Oldham, Rear-Admiral Richards, 
and Mr.W. Parkes, be reappointed; that Colonel Walker, F.R.S., Superintendent 
of the Trigonometrical Survey of India, be added to the Committee ; and that 
the sum of £200 be placed at their disposal to defray the expenses of calcula- 
tion during the ensuing year. 

That the Committee for reporting on the Rainfall of the British Isles be 
reappointed, and that this Committee consist of Mr. Charles Brooke, Mr. 

Glaisher. Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. R. 
ieee Mr. IT. Hawksley, Professor J. C.. Adams, Mr. C. Tomlinson, 
fae 7 


lxx | REPORT—1871. 


Professor Sylvester, Dr. Pole, Mr. Rogers Field, Professor Ansted, and Mr. 
Buchan ; that Mr. G. J. Symons be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose, 

That a Committee on Underground Temperature, consisting of Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Everett, Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Professor J. Clerk 
Maxwell, Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor Ramsay, Professor 
Geikie, Mr. Glaisher, Rev. Dr. Graham, Mr. George Maw, Mr. Pengelly, 
Mr. 8. J. Mackie, Professor Edward Hull, and Professor Ansted, be appointed ; 
that Professor J. D. Everett be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors, consisting of Mr. Glaisher, 
Mr. R. P. Greg, Mr. Alexander Herschel, and Mr. C. Brooke, be reappointed, 
and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Huggins, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Dr. Reynolds, Professor Swan, and 
Mr. Stoney be a Committee for the purpose of constructing and printing tables 
of Inverse Wave Lengths, Mr. Stoney to be reporter; and that the sum of 
£20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor A. W. Williamson, Professor Roscoe, and Professor Frank- 
land be a Committee for the purpose of superintending the Monthly Reports 
of the progress of Chemistry; and that the sum of £100 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir W. Thomson, Professor Clerk Maxwell, 
Professor G. C. Foster, Mr. Abel, Professor Fleeming Jenkin, Mr. Siemens, 
and Mr. R. Sabine, with power to add to their number, be a Committee for 
the purpose of testing the New Pyrometer of Mr. Siemens, by whom the 
chief instrument will be supplied; and that the sum of £30 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Gladstone, Dr. C. R. A. Wright, and Mr. Chandler Roberts be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the chemical constitution and 
optical properties of essential oils, such as are used for perfumes ; that Mr, 
Chandler Roberts be the Secretary, and that the sum of £40 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Brown, Professor Tait, 
and Mr. Dewar, be reappointed for the purpose of continuing experiments on 
the Thermal Equivalents of the Oxides of Chlorine ; and that the sum of £15 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Duncan, Mr. Henry Woodward, and Mr. Robert Etheridge be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing researches in Fossil Crustacea; that 
Mr. Woodward be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. - 

That Sir C. Lyell, Bart., Heafeksor Phillips, Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., Mr. J. 
Evans, Mr. E. Vivian, Mr. W. Pengelly, Mr. G. Busk, Mr. W. B. Dawking, 
and Mr. W. A. Sandford be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the 
Exploration of Kent’s Cavern, Torquay; that Mr. Pengelly be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Harkness and Mr. James Thomson be a Committee for the 
purpose of continuing the investigation of Carboniferous Corals with the view 
of reproducing them for publication ; that Mr. Thomson be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. G. Busk and Mr. Boyd Dawkins be a Committee for the purpose 
of assisting Dr. Leith Adams in the preparation of Plates illustrating an 
account of the Fossil Elephants of Malta; that Mr. Busk be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal fer the purpose. 


RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixx1 


That Professor Harkness, Mr. William Jolly, and Dr. J. Bryce be a 
Committee for the purpose of collecting Fossils from localities of difficult 
access in North-western Scotland, that the specimens be deposited in the 
Edinburgh Industrial Museum, and that duplicates be deposited in such 
Museum as the Association may designate ; that Mr. William Jolly be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the 
- purpose, 

That Professor Ramsay, Professor Geikie, Professor J. Young, Professor 
Nicol, Dr. Bryce, Dr. Arthur Mitchell, Professor Hull, Sir R. Griffith, Bart., 
Dr. King, Professor Harkness, Mr. Prestwich, Mr. Hughes, and Mr. Pengelly 
be a Committee for the purpose of ascertaining the existence in different 
parts of the United Kingdom of any Erratic Blocks or Boulders, indicating on 
Maps their position and height above the sea, as also of ascertaining the 
nature of the rocks composing these blocks, their size, shape, and other par- 
ticulars of interest, and of endeavouring to prevent the destruction of such 
blocks as in the opinion of the Committee are worthy of being preserved ; 
that Mr. Milne Holme be the Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed 
_ at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Professor Newton, and Sir John Lubbock be a Com- 

mittee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological Literature ; that 
Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed at then 
disposal for the purpose. 
. That Professor Balfour, Dr. Cleghorn, Mr. Robert Hutchinson, Mr. Alexander 
Buchan, and Mr. John Sadler be a Committee for the purpose of taking Ob- 
servations on the effect of the Denudation of Timber on the Rainfall in North 
Britain ; that Dr. Cleghorn be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Sharpey, Dr. Richardson, and Professor Humphry be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of continuing investigations on the Physiological 
Action of Organic Chemical Compounds ; that Dr. Richardson be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Michael Foster, Mr. W. H. Flower, and Mr. Benjamin 
Lowne be a Committee for the purpose of making Terato-embryological 
inquiries ; that Mr. Lowne be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor M. Foster, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, and Mr. E. Ray Lankester 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the amount of Heat gene- 
rated in the Blood in the Process of Arterialization; that Dr. Gamgee be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £15 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

- That Professor Christison, Dr. Layeock, and Dr. Fraser be a Committee for 
the purpose of investigating the Antagonism of Poisonous Substances; that 
Dr. Fraser be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal 
_ for the purpose. 

That Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg, Mr. Hepworth 
Dixon, Rey. Dr. Tristram, General Chesney, Rev. Professor Rawlinson, and 
Mr. John A. Tinné be a Committee for the purpose of undertaking a Geogra- 
phical Exploration of the country of Moab; and that the sum of £100 be. 
placed at their disposal for the purpose, in addition to the sum of £100 
granted last year, but not expended because it was found to be insufficient 
for the purpose. . Be mx: , . 

" That the Metric Committee be reappointed, such Committee to consist of 
Sir John Bowring, The Right. Hon. Sir Stafford H. Northcote, Bart., C.B., 
f2 


Ixxil REPORT—1871. 


M.P., The Right Hon. Sir C. B. Adderley, M.P., Mr. Samual Brown, Dr. Farr, 
Mr. Frank P. Fellowes, Professor Frankland, Mr. James Heywood, Profes- 
sor Leone Levi, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Professor A. W. Williamson, Dr. George 
Glover, Sir Joseph Whitworth, Bart., Mr. J. R. Napier, Mr. J. V. N. 
Bazalgette, and Sir W. Fairbairn, Bart.; that Professor Leone Levi be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £75 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose of being applied solely to scientific purposes, printing, and corre- 
spondence. : 

That Professor W.J. Macquorn Rankine, Mr. Froude, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, 
Mr. C.W. Siemens, Mr. Bramwell, Mr. L. E. Fletcher, and Mr. James R. Napier 
be a Committee for the purpose of making experiments on instruments for 
Measuring the Speed of Ships and Currents by means of the difference of 
height of two columns of liquids; that Mr. Fletcher be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. B. Grantham, Professor Corfield, M.B., Mr. J. Bailey Denton, 
Dr. J. H. Gilbert, Mr. J. Thornhill Harrison, Mr. William Hope, Lieut.- 
Col. Leach, Dr. A. Voelcker, and Professor A. W. Williamson be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing the investigations on the “ Treat- . 
ment and Utilization of Sewage ;” that the balance of the funds raised by 
the Committee appointed at Exeter, and now in the hands of the General 
Treasurer, be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 


Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of Money. 


That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Sir W. Thomson, Professor Tait, 
Professor Balfour Stewart, and Professor J. C. Maxwell, be reappointed to 
effect the determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. 

That Sir W. Thomson, Professor Everett, Professor G. C. Foster, Professor 
J. C. Maxwell, Mr. G. J. Stoney, Professor Fleeming Jenkin, Professor 
Rankine, Mr. Siemens, and Mr. Bramwell be a Committee for the purpose of 
framing a nomenclature of Units of Force and Energy. 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, Professor Hirst, Rey. Professor 
Bartholomew Price, Professor H. J. 8. Smith, Dr. Spottiswoode, Mr. R. B. 
Hayward, Dr. Salmon, Rey. R. Townsend, Professor Fuller, Professor Kel- 
land, Mr. J. M. Wilson, and Professor Clifford be reappointed a Committee 
(with power to add to their number) for the purpose of considering the pos- 
sibility of improving the methods of instruction in elementary geometry; and 
that Professor Clifford be the Secretary. 

That Mr. W. H. L. Russell be requested to continue his Report on recent 
progress in the theory of Elliptic and Hyperelliptic Functions. 

That Mr. Carruthers, Dr. Hooker, Professor Balfour, and Mr. Dyer be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the Fossil Flora of Britain. 

That Rey. Canon Tristram, Professor Newton, Mr. H. E. Dresser, Mr. J. E. 
Harting, and Rev. H. F. Barnes be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of continuing the investigation on the desirability of establishing “a close 
time” for the preservation of indigenous animals; and that the Rey. Canon 
Tristram be the Secretary. 

That Dr. Rolleston, Dr. Sclater, Dr. Dohrn, Professor Huxley, Professor 
Wyville Thomson, and Mr. E. Ray Lankester be a Committee for the purpose 
of promoting the foundation of Zoological Stations; and that Dr. Anton 
Dohrn be the Secretary. 

That the Committee appointed last year “ to consider and report on the 
various plans proposed for legislating on the subject of Steam-boiler Explosions 


RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxili 


with a view to their prevention” be requested to continue their labours ; 
such Committee to consist of Sir W. Fairbairn, Bart., Mr. John Penn, Mr. 
F. J. Bramwell, Mr. Hugh Mason, Mr. Samuel Rigby, Mr. Thomas Schofield, 
Mr. C. F. Beyer, Mr. T. Webster, Q.C., Mr. Lavington E. Fletcher, and Mr. 
Edward Easton, with power to add to their number. 

That Mr. Bateman, Mr. Le Neve Foster, Mr. Merrifield, Mr. Edward 
Easton, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. W. Hope, and Mr. H. Bauerman be a 
Committee to consider the mode in which new inventions, and claims for 
reward in respect of adopted inventions, are examined and dealt with by the 
different Departments of Government, and to report on the best means of 
removing any real causes of dissatisfaction, as well as of silencing unfounded 
complaints. 

That a Committee be appointed— 

1°, to consider and report on the best means of advancing science by 
Lectures, with authority to act, subject to the approval of the 
Council, in the course of the present year, if judged desirable. 

2°, to consider and report whether any steps can be taken to render 
scientific organization more complete and effectual. 

That the Committee consist of the following Members, with power to add 
to their number :—Professor Roscoe, Professor W. G. Adams, Professor 
Andrews, Professor Balfour, Mr. Bramwell, Professor A. Crum Brown, Mr. 
Dyer, Sir Walter Elliot, Professor Flower, Professor G. C. Foster, Professor 
Geikie, Rev. R. Harley, Professor Huxley, Professor Fleeming Jenkin, Dr. 
Joule, Colonel Lane Fox, Dr. Lankester, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Dr. O’Callaghan, 
Professor Ramsay, Professor Balfour Stewart, Mr. Stainton, Professor Tait, 
Mr. J. A. Tinné, Dr. Allen Thomson, Sir Wiliam Thomson, Professor 
Wyville Thomson, Professor Turner, Professor A. W. Williamson, Dr. Young ; 
and that Professor Roscoe be the Secretary. 


Resolutions involving Applications to Government. 


That the President and Council of the British Association be authorized to 
cooperate with the President and Council of the Royal Society, in whatever 
way may seem to them best, for the promotion of a Circumnavigation Expe- 
dition, specially fitted out to carry the Physical and Biological Exploration of 
the Deep Sea into all the Great Oceanic areas. 

That the President and General Officers, with power to add to their 
number, be requested to take such steps as may seem to them desirable in 
order to promote observations on the forthcoming Total Solar Eclipse. 


Communications ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report 
of the Association. 


That the letter of Lavoisier to Black, referred to in the Address of the 
President of the Chemical Section, be printed in the Annual Report; and 
that the letter dated 19th November, 1790, be published in facsimile. 

That Mr. Bramwell’s paper ‘‘On Experiments made with Carr’s Disinte- 
grating Flour-mill” be printed 7m ewxtenso in the Transactions of the Associa- 
tion. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration and action 

if it seem desirable. 


That it is desirable that the British Association apply to the Treasury for 
funds to enable the Tidal Committee to continue their calculations. 


Ixxiv REPORT—187 1. 


That it is desirable that the British Association should urge upon the 
Government of India the importance for navigation and other practical pur- 
poses, and for science, of making accurate and continued observations on tho 
Tides at several points on the coast of India. 

That the Council of the Association be requested to take such steps as to 
them may seem most expedient in support of a proposal, made by Dr. Buys 
Ballot, to establish a telegraphic meteorological station at the Azores. 

That the Council be requested to take into consideration the desirability of 

the publication of a periodic record of advances made in the various branches 
of science represented by the British Association. 
_ That the Council of this Association be requested to take such steps as may 
appear to them desirable with reference to the arrangement now in contem- 
plation to establish “leaving Examinations,” and to report to the Association 
-on the present position of science-teaching in the public and first-grade 
schools. 

That the Council be requested to take such steps as they deem wisest in 
order to promote the introduction of scientific instruction into the elementary 
schools throughout the country. 


Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Edinburyh Meeting in August 1871. 
The names of the Members who would be entitled to call on the 

- General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 


Kew Observatory. 
The Council.—Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Obser- 


Bopygiory? CMa veri s Bas. 24h ees peel rsee ea eee 300 0 0 
Mathematics and Physics. 

- Cayley, Professor.—Mathematical Tables ................ 50 0 0 
*Crossley, Mr.—Discussion of Observations of Lunar Objects.. 20 0 0 
*Tait, Professor—Thermal Conductivity of Metals.......... 25 0 0 
-*Thomson, Professor Sir W.—Tidal Observations .......... 200 0.0 
= Brooke, Min-——brtish Raininile = sss Pee eon eee ee 100 0 0 
*Thomson, Sir W.—Underground Temperature ............ 100 0 0 
*Glaisher, Mr.—Luminous Meteors ................c0eee- 20.0 0 
Huggins, Dr.—Tables of Inverse Wave-lengths .......... 20 0 0 


Chemistry. 
*Williamson, Prof. A. W.—Reports of the Progress of Chemistry 100 
. Williamson, Prof. A. W.—Testing Siemens’s new Pyrometer. 30 
Gladstone, Dr.—Chemical Constitution and Optical Properties 
of Essential Oils 
*Browyv, Dr. Crum.—Thermal Equivalent of the Oxides of 
Chicrine”. eee eee ee ees | es ee, Meena oe oe 15 


ey 

=) 
o| so" o-oo 
ole er oo 


* Reappointed, 


— 


SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Ixxv 


Geology. : & ss. d. 
rae TOMWaAN gs a cst sie ee eek Ms ses Sica are « 1020 0 0 
*Puncan, Dr.—Fossil Crustacea ...5.:........; Pi ee 25 0 0 
*Lyell, Sir C., Bart.—Kent’s Cavern Exploration .......... 100 0 O 
*Harkness, Professor.—Investigation of Fossil Corals........ 25 0 0O 
*Busk, Mr.—Fossil Elephants of Malta (renewed) .......... 25 0 0 
Harkness, Professor.—Collection of Fossils in the North-west 
RMON 7, < sx eleecate Get ROKR Ls cer: itaale eee eee 10 0 0 
Ramsay, Professor.—Mapping Positions of Erratic Blocks and 
Re SS PTET ys Ae ee eee 5 cam RES oe manliness LG >'O-<Q 
Biology. 
*Stainton, Mr.—Record of the Progress of Zoology.......... 100 te 
*Balfour, Professor.—Effect of the Denudation of Timber on 
the Rainfall in North Britain (renewed) .............. 20 0 0 
*Sharpey, Dr.—Physiological Action of Organic Compounds... 25 0 0 
Foster, Professor M.—Terato-embryological Inquiries ...... 20 -0 0 
Foster, Professor M.—Heat Generated in the Arterialization 
pra blood.(part renewed) . <0... 2 .accancneceseccees BS. Or 60 
Christison, Professor.—Antagonism of Poisonous Substances... 20 0 0O 


Geography. 
*Murchison, Sir R. Bart.—Exploration of the Country of Moab 100 0 0 


Economic Science and Statistics. 
*Bowring, Sir J.—Metric Committee ..........7... Eee 75 0 0 


Mechanies, 


Rankine, Professor.—Experiments on Instruments for Mea- 
suring the Speed of Ships and Currents .............. 30 0 0 


Total....£1620 0 0 


* Reappointed. 


Place of Meeting in 1873. 


It was resolved that the Annual Meeting of the Association in 1873 be 
held at Bradford. 


Ixxvl 


RnEPORT—1871. 


General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants 
for Scientific Purposes. 


Seema. 
1834. 

Tide Discussions sscccoccccssssesee 20 0 0 
1835. 

Tide Discussions: ....cscecseceseses 62 0 0 


British Fossil Ichthyology ...... 105 0 0 


£167 0 0 
1836. 
Tide Discussions .......+++ sovepene 63 0.0 
British Fossil Ichthyology ...... 105 0 0 
‘Thermometric Observations, &c. 50 0 0 
Experiments on long-continued 
Heat ....scccvecsccccsccsees Saeanes fal, 0 
Rain-Gauges .eccccsseseees Fodeivdate 913 0 
Refraction Experiments ......... 15 0 0 
Lunar Nutation..,.....++. sessseareemOO Oi a0 
Thermometers .es.scscsesseverseeee 15 6 0 
£434 14 0 
1837. 
Tide Discussions ...seccscrerereree 284 1 0 
Chemical Constants ....se.sseeeee 24 13 6 
Lunar Nutation........sccccecseeee 70 O 0 
Observations on WaveS.........0 100 12 0 
Tides at Bristol.....c.sseccrecteoeee 150 0 0 
Meteorology and Subterranean 
Temperature .....cccsceesseseesee 89 5 0 
Vitrification Experiments....,.... 150 0 0 
Heart Experiments .......+ cacsece, «8. 4, 6 
Barometric Observations ......... 30 0 0 
Barometers seccscssesscscsssreresee 11 18 6 
6918 14 6 
1838. 
Tide Discussions .....+...+ asccssquae eo OratO 
British Fossil Fishes ...... coovee LOO 0° 0 
Metecrological Observations and 
Anemometer (construction)... 100 0 0 
Cast Iron (Strength of) ......... 60 0 0 
Animaland Vegetable Substances 
(Preservation Of) see...seeseeees ee 
Railway Constants .....0..se00e «- 41 12 10 
Bristol Tides......... Seaccesne corwas) 00. 0°70 
Growthof Plants ...sesccc.sss0050c 40 0 «0 
Mud in Rivers ....... weseasevenesas 3.6 6 
Education Committee .......0.. 50 0 0 
Heart Experiments ...000....00035 5 3 0 
Land and Sea Level........ eassese 26% #8, 7 
Subterranean Temperature ...... 8 6 0 
Steam-vessels..........00+ ceaerceece - 100 0 0 
Meteorological Committee ...... SE9)..5 
Thermometers ...cccccvcssserssseee 16 4 0 
£956 12 2 
1839. 
Fossil Ichthyology.........0 egsees 110 0 0 
Meteorological Observations at 
Plymouth 1... .c0<.snecsccseswssnas 63 10 0 
Mechanism of Waves ........s006 144 2 0 
Bristol Tides ...cccsssssegssvessseses OO 18 G 


£ a a, 

Meteorology and Subterranean 
Temperature ......e000+. dectpssap etl elo 
Vitrification Experiments... 9 4 7 
Cast-Iron Experiments............ 100 0 0 
Railway Constants ...cccccosseeee 28 7 2 
Land and Sea Level......... coors 204 1 4 
Steam-vessels’ Engines.......+.... 100 0 0 
Stars in Histoire Céleste ...... ». dol 18 6 
Stars in Lacaille ..... seucuiewssaew oa BuO LES 
Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue......... 6 16 6 
Animal Secretions........ Sevoesds so 10-4050 
Steam-engines in Cornwall ...... 50 0 0 
Atmospheric Air ...... dcckateactie oOo ee 
Cast and Wrought Iron...... eeeeee 40 0 0 
Heat on Organic Bodies ........ 3 0 0 
Gases on Solar Spectrum ....... so ee 20> a0 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 7 8 
Fossil Reptiles ......seccsecoserese 118 2 9 
Mining Statistics ......s00e0--, 50 0 0 
S595, 10 

1840. 

Bristol Tides ........0ce+0s sccoseeeee 100 0 0 
Subterranean Temperature ...... 13 13 6 
Heart Experiments ...ccccssessees 18.19 0 
Lungs Experiments ......+++... we 8H13) 10 
Tide Discussions ...... pedaenaden oo 00) 10:20 
Land and Sea Level .......,...+006 6.11.4 
Stars (Histoire Céleste) ......... 242 10 0 
Stars (Lacaille) ...sec.sceossesssceee 415 0 
Stars (Catalogue) ......... Syttoses 264 0 0 
Atmospheric Air .......++ ssecorss! MLO, ie BaD 
Water on Iron ......s0008 deedeetuny 10 0 0 
Heat on Organic Bodies ......... 7 0 0 
Meteorological Observations..... se R226 
Foreign Scientific Memoirs ...... ey 
Working Population ....++......04. 100 0 9 
School Statistics....... easesveceseses 50 0 0 
Forms of Vessels ...sccccsssseecees 184 7 0 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
Mena oo... Secerees evsscssecesea oe EOL NO 50 

Meteorological Observations at 
Plymouth 252... cces0 soecssoseee 80 0 O 
Magnetical Observations ....,.... 185 138 9 
£1546 16 4 
ee ec a 

1841, 

Observations on Waves...... cesses OO 0 0 

Meteorology and Subterranean 
Temperature ....... setereresereee 8 8 O 
Actinometers......+++.0. seevecease - 10 0.0 
Earthquake Shocks ...,.....s0s00+ Lier 10 
Acrid PoIsonsis-snee---cese=e Soe 6 0 0 
Veins and Absorbents ..........4. 3.0 «0 
Mud in Rivers ....... “paces seosee OO) OO 
Marine Zoology......+ Seneavcosereus 15428 
Skeleton Maps, .<.2-c.s2..t.<cesens «220007 6 
Mountain Barometers ...s0....00. 618 6 
| Stars (Histoire Céleste)........00 185 0 0 


GENERAL STATEMENT. 


& 8. d. 
mtirs (Lacaille)/s.sicccsccsesssccerse 79 5 0 
Stars (Nomenclature of) ........ 17 19 6 
Stars (Catalogue Of) ......ss0e0000e 40 0 0 
Water on Iron ........c.see00s * 50 0 0 
Meteorological Observations at 

MGWEENEES \cecovsccaccssses oe 20 0 0 
Meteorological Observations (re- 

MIMCLION OFM Seesseccsccsesesscree 25 0 0 
Fossil Reptiles ......sscssecseeeeeee 50 0 0 
Foreign Memoirs ......+0+...00 coef 62, 1 0Fx0 
Railway Sections ..........00...... 38 1 6 
POEMS OF VERSEIS! ....ccceeseesceses 193 12 0 
Meteorological Observations at 

PIYMOuth 5.....000...0000e Seacece 55 0 0 
Magnetical Observations Boorcehe 6118 8 
Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 0 0 
Tides at Leith ...... eatencaseg ie Ne 50 0 0 
Anemometer at Edinburgh ...... 69 1 10 
Tabulating Observations ......... 9 6 8 
Races Of Men cecsccocssosereseree 5 0 0 
Radiate Animals ..........00. 2 0 0 

£1235 10 11 

1842, 

Dynamometric Instruments ...... 113 11 2 
Anoplura Britanniz ...,........... 52 12 0 
Tides at Bristol....,......s00+e Jats On OUP O 
Gases on Light... peeetcenset 30 14 7 
Chronometers ....... Agarasdee sages 26 17° 6 
Marine Zoology.........++++ Pearse cme A wed hy 
British Fossil Mammalia ......... 100 0 0 
Statistics of Education .......... Sor 20 TOO 
Marine Steam-vessels’ Engines... 28 0 0 
Stars (Histoire Céleste)............ 59 0 0 
Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ..... LOW 01.0 
Railway Sections ......... 3 10 0 
British Belemnites...... soe 0 0 
Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) ...... Meee eacieann daa snap 210 0 0 
Forms of Vessels .s+.....sseseeeeee 180 0 0 
Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 8 6 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth .........seceseeees nena Gor 080 
Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 

metric Instruments ........... 90 0 0 
Force of Wind ............. srderseeu yO. -O.'O 
Light on Growth of Seeds ...... 8 0 0 
PIEAMPELALISEICS: 00. .0s0sesssecceeres 50 0 0 
Vegetative Power of Seeds ceases Sa ul 
Questions on Human Race ...... 7 9 0 

£1419 17-8 


1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature of 
Stars ..... 
Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue .... 
Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 
Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
_ tions at Kingussie and Inverness 
Meteorological Observations at 
Plymouth .........0 secncesccees 
Whewell’s Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth .,....... 


ewe e eee ee rereeseeesenene 


2 0 
25 0 
120 0 
77 12 
55 (0 
10 0 


oo o 


Metecrological Observations, Os- 
ler’s Anemometer at Plymouth 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 


SETVationSs J.....c0ce sees wancansey 
Meteorological Instruments and 
Gratuities ....ceccesese Saaate'e ean 
Construction of Anemometer at 
INVEENESS: Waeews sesseccebcecees ces 
Magnetic Cooperation .......++... 
Meteorological Recorder for Kew 
Observatory Seclasacseunaleseas we 


Action of Gases on Light ........ 
Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries........ eves ° 
Experiments by Captive Balloons 
Oxidation of the Rails of Railways 
Publication of Report on Fossil 
Reptiles’.cncnssnben is Aisineisidaasiasis 
Coloured Drawings of Railway 


Sections ..,....0..008 Beemseeane pee 
Registration | “of Earthquake 
Shocks ...... eseammnmnactceedcs ee: 
Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
CUTE sessecseceee eeeeesecvescees eee 


Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester . 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 

Marine Testacea (Habits of ) 


eeeecece 


eee 


Marine Zoology....ssssescsceees pans 
Marine Zoology........++ nanan RON DE 
Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia .........0000. . 


Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents ...scscecsesseeees 
VitaliStatisticg) .scccccaswstecse 
Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels ...sssssssoeses 
Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels .sssessessenees 
Reduction uf Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels ...... Srabetees 
Morin’s Instrument and Constant 
Indicator) Winse.sis =n ae dena waveis 
Experiments on the Strength of 
Materials 


eeeee 


Pee O tere erent eereeseae 


£1565 10 


Ixxyli 


£ 8s. a. 
20 0 0 
30 0 0 
39 6 0 
56 12 2 
10 8 10 
50 0 0 
18 16 1 
138 , 45.7 
81 8 0 
20 0 0 
40° 0 0 
14718 3 
30 0 0 
10 0 

4 4 6 
5 3 8 
10 0 0 
10 0 0 
2 V4 
100 0 0 
20 0 0 
36 5 8 
70 0 0 
100 0 0 
100 0 0 
69 14 10 
60 0 0 


bo 


1844. 
Meteorological Observations at 
Kingussie and Inverness ...... 
Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth ...... 
Magnetic and Meteorological: Co- 
QPETAUOM “srscssescecsteceesesd 
Publication of ‘the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars...... 
Observations on Tides on the 
East coast of Scotland ......... 
Revision of the Nomenclature of 
Stars ...... Beasone satan eevee 1842 
Maintaining the Establishmentin 
Kew Observatory .e.esccssseenes 
Instruments for Kew Observatory 


see 


12 0 0 
35 0 0 
25 8 4 
35 0 0 
100 0 0 
2 9-6 
11717 3 
56 7 3 


Ixxvili REPORT—1871. 
; : ei seas oo 8. de 
Influence of Light on Plants....... 10 0 0 Computation of the Gaussian 
Subterraneous Temperature in Constants for 1829....... seoseee 50 0 O 
Ireland) c-ssceseseey sesseeseeeeseee 9 OQ 0 | Maintaining the Establishment at 
Coloured Drawings of “Railway Kew Observatory ...s+ese0ee0008 146 16 7 
SECHONS:.-sssswushareveTsu les sees 15 17 6 | Strength of Materials.......0000... 60 0 0 
Investigation of Fossil Fishes of Researches in Asphyxia............ 616 2 
the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 0 0 | Examination of Fossil Shells...... 10 0 0 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- Vitality of Seeds ........0008 1844 215 10 
UIMKCH dae sesssteursacas-5 1842 23 11 10 | Vitality of Seeds ............1845 712 8 
Structure of Fossil Shells.......... 20 0 0] Marine Zoology of Cornwall.. 10 0 0 
Radiata and Mollusca of the Marine Zoology of Britain ..... 10 0 0 
- @gean and Red Seas.....1842 100 0 0] Exotic Anoplura .........+5 -1844 25 0 0 
Geographical Distributions of Expenses attending Anemometers 11 7 6 
Marine Zoology.........++ 1842 10 0 0] Anemometers’ Repairs.......... 2 8 6 
Marine Zoology of Devon and Atmospheric Waves .....00000.5 & 3 8 
Cornwall aicvstccssssaees seseeeee 10 0 0] Captive Balloons ........+. 1844 819 38 
Marine Zoology of Corfu ......« 10 0 0] Varieties of the Human Race 
Experiments on the Vitality of 1844 7 6 8 
Seeds 25.0.5 SycenPusasesevasensbars 9 0 3| Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
Experiments on the oe of tality In Yorks ssscessessesespasslel cu OMe 
EGOS! Geeta ssyeese SSA ey CPS a} “£685 16.0 
Exotic Anoplura ......... soocccsee 15 0 O i oa 
Strength of Materials ............ 100 0 0 1847. 
Completing Experiments on the Computation of the Gaussian 
Forms of Ships ......s00.s00066. 100 0 0 Constants for 1829 .,...... wee 50 0 0 
Inquiries into Asphyxia ......... 10 © 0} Habits of Marine Animals ..... » 10 0 0 
Investigations on the Internal Physiological Action of Medicines 20 6 0 
Constitution of Metals .......... 50 0 0 | Marine Zoology of Cornwall .., 10 0 0 
Constant Indicator and Morin’s Atmospheric Waves .....+...+0: seetuetO, ote gs 
ITBERUMENE abssccstersvoesad S22si010) »Sinbi|| Vitality of Seeds’ ...-coseeetereeee St A din dl 
~ £981 12 8 | Maintaining the Establishment at 
ee Kew Observatory .....s.5005.5-. 107 8 6 
1845. £208 5 4 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars........ 851 14 6 SR 1848. 
Meteorological Observations at Maintaining the Establishment at 
Inverness ...... OTT dies BOMB MIT Kew Observatory seecseeeereeres 17115 11 
Magnetic and Meteorological Co- Atmospheric WAVES esrssseonsnere, 3 10 9 
Operation ...sseeseeeee Ne Sore: Vitality of Seeds asatercedeedenter = 9°15 0 
Meteorological Instruments at Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 0 0 
Edinburgh........ sieavaleted 18 11 9g | On Colouring Matters... 5 0 0 
Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- On Growth of Plants...eserere 15 0 0 
servations at Plymouth......... 25 0 0 £275 1 8 
Electrical Experiments at Kew 
Observatory .....+. er Oe ke a , aoa 
Maintaining the Establishment in Electrical Observations at Kew 
Kew Observatory .......6 sponses 49 915 20 Observatory ...... sesssseeeeeneee 50 0 0 
For Kreil’s Barometrograph...... 25 0 © | Maintaining Establishment at 
Gases from Iron Furnaces ...... Say yea ditto ae ncereoceesecseseeeeeeseesese iG 2h 
The Actinograph ....... veseeeeeeee 15 0 0 | Vitality of Seeds ......... trees 5 81 
Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 0 0| On Growth of Plants... tecececere oo Ue 
Exotic Anoplura .....s00...-1843 10 0 0 Registration of Periodical Phe- 
Vitality ORSCEDE..oscseccees.. 1843 veal (ie g nomena rere erry see eeenses sees 110). ‘Osun 
Vitality of Seeds......,..... 1844 7 0 0 | Billon account of Anemometrical 
Marine Zoology of Cornwall...... 10 0 0 Observations sscciistscséasoccetes) 1G ae 
Physiological Actionof Medicines 20 0 0 £159 19 6 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 1850 are 
Barthquake Shocks wecowl8i3_15 14 8 | Maintaining the Establishment a 
—— Kew Observatory ......e00.000. 255 18 0 
_£880 9 9 | transit of Earthquake Waves... 50 0 0O 
1846. Periodical Phenomena .,.......... 15 0 0 
British Association Catalogue of Meteorological Instrument, 
Stars .ecccceccesecccerseesoee 1844 211 15 0 | AZOLES sissssccorrsecccrevecsesess 25 0 0 
Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 0 0 £345 18 0 


GENERAL STATEMENT. 


a) 8. ide 
1851. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (includes part 
of grantin 1849) ........ ceases 309 
MBcory Of Heat.....cicesecseossseses 20 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 
BME LANtS 2. cceccecbes aineobich o) WD 
Vitality of Seeds ...sccsccssceceoee 5 
Influence of Solar Radiation...... 
Ethnological Inquiries ............ 12 
Researches on Annelida ........ aT ae 


m= bo 
m bo 


i) 

o 
cjoooano 
sjoooro 


1852. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ... 
Experiments on the Conduction 

BRIE EAEU conecr \aesoacapsisaee aagadt a2 
Influence of Solar Radiations ... 
Geological Map of Ireland ...... 15 
Researches on the British Anne- 


MHMEtractes-<cessepapecascaseness) 20 0. 0 
Vitality of Seeds ........ ssvoscoree 10 6 2 
Strength of Boiler Plates ......... 10 0 O 

£304 6 7 
1853. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory ....... fexeeees’ £65 90-0 


Experiments on tie Infiuence of 
DIAPERAGIALION .oscccrcstesecsoee 15 0 0 
Researches on the British Anne- 


1 AES Soeeeeeee Hicszescest eee toes 0 
Dredging on the Last Coast of 
DCOMANG Sevc.cosscccsscccesdsavoses 10 0 0 
Ethnological Queries ............ 5 0 0 
£205 0 0 
1854. 


Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 


balance of former grant) ...... 830 15 4 
Investigations on Flax ..... attests? Li O10 
Effects of Temperature on 

Meconght Tron ....0.s..c<bvee0s08 co MONOD 
Registration of Periodical Phe- 

nomena ...... Laeneoccccccencence «+ 10 0 0 
PMS ATINelida .....se.cassasesese’ 10) 0° 0 
Vitality of Seeds ... averse) PUD S 
Conduction of Heat ...... stcsnevtane AIBN LO 

£380 19 7 
1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory ..... paeear ar ag 425 0 0 
Earthquake Movements ......... 10 0 0 
Physical Aspect of the Moon...... Is Beas 
BVTEALIEVSOL SEEDS 2... .csccccsecceen pC Peary et} 
Map of the World......... eossesese 15 0 0 
Ethnological Queries.,... ... ..... 5 0 0 
Dredging near Belfast ............ 4 0 0 

£480 16 4 
oe 


F 1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory :-— 
1854......£ 75 0 0 
1855......£500 0 a ce ee 


So Saas 
Strickland’s Ornithological Syno- 

NY-MS 2.0000 eT oscertsenesese + 100 0 0 
Dredging and Dredging Forms... 913 9 
Chemical Action of Light ......... 20 0 0 
Strength of Iron Plates .......+.... 10 0 0 
Registration of Periodical Pheno- 

MENA seveeseeecs sebesvesccsennes iva 10 20)e8 
Propagation of Salmon ....46....... 10 0 0 

£734 13 9 
1857. 


Maintaining the Establishment at 


Kew Observatory eesesssesereese 300 0 0 
Earthquake Wave Experiments... 40 0 0° 
Dredging near Belfast ............ 10 0 0 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland.........06 Shipae Sie cides c's LO) Ge 6 
Investigations into the Mollusca 

Of California ....r..ccccssrecsseese 10 0 0 
Experiments on Flax we... 5 0 0 
Natural History of Madagascar... 20 0 0 
Researches on British Annelida 25 0 0 
Report on Natural Products im- 

ported into Liverpool ......... 10 0 0 
Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 0 O 
Temperature of Mines ........... gee Teed 
Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations seecsecsrssssesenee 5 7 4 
Life-Boats COCR COs eet eeeeroseneseceees 5 0 0 

£507 15 4 
1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory ........s.s000. 500 0 0 
Earthquake Wave Experiments... 25 0 0 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

scotland!” isessssescesssvesesce oe LO 0 fi 
Dredging near Dublin ............ 5 0 0 
Watality of Sccae eerits.shecccscsaz cg iO 
Dredging near Belfast ............ 18 13 2 
Report on the British Annelida... 25 0 0 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids... 20 0 0 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland......... 10 0 0 

£618 18 2 
1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory .........4. sw» 500 0 O 
Dredging near Dublin ............ 15 0 0 
Osteology of Birds.,,.,.....0.00... 50 0 0 
Irish Tunicata ........ Reeacere tonsa) eit a Oe 
Manure Experiments ........... 20 0 0 
British Medusidee ......... susboasee 5 0 0 
Dredging Committee.............++ an |) 
Steam-vessels’ Performance...... 5 0 0 
Marine Fauna of South and West 

oblreland |’. .cecgss.ccc-s seve 10 0 0 
Photographic Chemistry eee 10 0 
Lanarkshire Fossils ...... 4, ous, One 
Balloon Ascents,,.........-s00000--. 39 11 0 

“fee 


1860. 

Maintaining the Establishment 
of Kew Observatory............. 500 0 0 
Dredging near Belfast.......... pee LG) 1G) oO 
Dredging in Dublin Bay........... 15 0 0 


Ixxx 


REPORT—187]1. 


‘ 25 oh ak 
Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam=-vessels....cssserssssesses o- 124 0 0 
Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 

stone of Dura Den..........00+. 20 0 0 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Mineyrals...... Weaces 25 0 0 
Researches on the Growth of 

LEGIT + paperceccnc ocean addecwoe> OLOL 0140 
Researches on the Solubility of 

Dal iSdeviwerscsecerce ca CORREO OO 30 0 0 
Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures... sococonsves 25 0 0 
Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 

COUNUS, sicccsetescssevsocsecessceses, 0 Ula (6 

£1241 7 0 
1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory ...csccseeee 500 0 0 
Earthquake Experiments,,....... 25 0 0 
Dredging North and East Coasts 

OLSCOUANG ecscikteessteadinees.ch? (20 2n0INIO 
Dredging Committee :— 

1860 ...... £50 0 0 72 0 0 

ESB1 ccive022 addin tA 
Excavations at Dura Den..... 20 0 0 
Solubility of Salts .........ceceeeee. 20 0 0 
Steam-vessel Performance ...... 150 0 0 
Fossils of Lesmahago  ......e00cee 15550 40 
Explorations at Uriconium ..... = 0) 10, 40, 
Chemical Alloys ....cccsesecevees 20) 20:20 
Classified Index to the Transac- 

TIQUS uacasecaressisesseessvsncessae 100 0 0 
Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 0 0 
PDIP MCILClE ress cn gsceasinsctessinceaages 30 0 O 
Photoheliographic Observations 50 0 0 
IEMISOUOLACE osccsstectseesenvaseoss we 20 a a0) 
Gauging of Water.......... devvnnne 10 0 0 
Za PING NSCENtStsncteassapeneretsewe One JL 
Constituents of Manures ......... 2p 0. 0 

SLi SS st0 
1862. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory ............ 500 0 0 
RatentWuaWSy. caress esesestes eee 2t 6 0 
Mollusca of N.-W. America...... 10 0 0 
Natural History by Mercantile 

MATING areeasacrecaresssteens saaaty Dw or O 
Tidal Observations ........ cosseme, 000. (0 
Photoheliometer at Kew ........ By AOD) 30 
Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 0 0 
Rocks of Donegal ........0..sce008 25 0 0 
Dredging Durham and North- 

umberland Songeicisescegon cores, 20 0 O 
Connexion of Storms......... hae 20 0 0 
Dredging North-east Coast ‘of 

Scotland......... sacrecrecsscccssee 6 § _6 
Ravages of Teredo .....css0cessse 311 6 
Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 0 0 
Railway Accidents ............00 10 0 0 
Balloon Committee ............... 200 0 0 
Dredging Dublin Bay ............ 10570 0 
Dredging the Mersey ............ o 0 0 
Prison Diet | ceseesdciceeseete nsec 20 0 0 
Gauging of Water........sseeee0e 1210 0 


25 oR eh 
Steamships’ Performance......... 150 0 0 
Thermo-Electric Currents ...... DOO 
£1293 16 6 
1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory............ 600 0 0 
Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 0 0 
Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 0 0 
Fi NYOZO8 «ic etassswaceanideeceaeherees 25 0 0 
Coal TOSsils casissnctsndteeeeee woe cen 20 ORO 
ELEMRIN 2 Siscipwsisncarsessenceie Aono oc 20 0 0 
Granites of Donegal............+5 Peete i (8) 
Prison Dietsaerea- ees cesescessussne V2 OREO 
Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 0 0 
Dredging Shetland .,............. 50 0 0 
Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland (5)... csacosscacaseeeene 25 0 0 
Dredging Northumberland and 

Duran. ci es esecs sneer eee 17 310 
Dredging Committee superin- 

TENGeNce ..ces..-cee. svsetcansess LOL eo 
Steamship Performance ......... 109 0 0 
Balloon Committee ............... 200 0 0 
Carbon under pressure............ LOO 0) 
Volcanic Temperature ............ 100 0 0 
Bromide of Ammonium ......... 8 0:40 
Electrical Standards............... 100 0 0 

Construction and distribu- 

HON... tinacwesecah ate eaBeee 40 0 90 
Luminous Meteors ............... 17 0 0 
Kew Additional Buildings fer 

Photoheliograph ......s0...00 100 0 0 
Thermo-Llectricity ....... ausahese 15: -<Om0 
Analysis of Rocks  ......s.ss.. 4, 2e8i G0 
Hydroida .,..... siasunerdeyeenes ie hO On 

£1608 3 10 
1864. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory.......s000: 600 0 0 
CoaliFassils, dsicockicessas comes 20 0 0 
Vertical Atmospheric Move- 

TMentS, ccna. cebinessvutees seuer ale OMMOMEO 
Dredging Shetland ............. - 75 0 0 
Dredging Northumberland ...... 25 0 0 
Balloon Committee ......cccsesees 200 0 0 
Carbon under pressure............ 10 0 0 
Standards of Electric Resistance 100 0 0 
Analysis of Rocks....0.....60+ oones 10 0: 0 
HUA VOW asiearesnsededonsesacesesees - 10 70/80 
AsikhamtaiGift ies svanessen' ees ese D0 O40 
Nitnitesof Amylec:2...ctesancauees 10 0 0 
Nomenclature Committee ....., 5 0 0 
Rain-Gaueesisisacccsssesesessness aos 19) 15s 
Cast- Iron. Investigation pe estate 20 0 0 
Tidal Observationsinthe Humber 50 0 6 
Spectralehaysttacrenscacs: tsa 45 0 0 
Luminous Meteors ............4. 20-0 0 

£1289 15 8 
1865. 7 are 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory............ 600 0 0 
Balloon Committee ..,............ 100 0 0 
Flydroida 4s.sessecess toutegereseenc ee ion nO mmG 


SS 


GENERAL STATEMENT, 


1867. 
Maintaining the Establishment 


£ s.d. 
PRAMI=GAU ECS ..... o.s0csecnvoesrare 30 0 0 
Tidal Observationsinthe Humber 6 8 0 
Hexylic Compounds...........++. - 20 0 0 
Amyl Compounds...... sigsoene vas - 20 0 0 
MEOEHIOTA  .sscessexessooneses gavek (20. OF RO 
American Mollusca ...... addpapees 3 9 0 
MAnIC ACIGS ......00sensevengoaee 20 0 0 
Lingula Flags Excavation ...... 10 0 0 
MEIEY DECKS «20.0200. 0000 caaatoned 50 0 0 
Electrical Standards............... 100 0 0 
Malta Caves Researches ......... 30 0 0 
Oyster Breeding ............+0++y¢ 25 0 0 
Gibraltar Caves Researches 150 0 0 
Kent's Hole Excavations...... -- 100 0 0 
Moon’s Surface Observations... 35 0 0 
Marine Fauna ...........scesesese 2520 0 
Dredging Aberdeenshire ......... 25 0 0 
Dredging Channel Islands ...... 50 0 0 
Zoological Nomenclature......... 5 0 0 
Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

DG atiteocnss 3.057 ccs co vccnse 100 0 0 
Bath Waters Analysis ...........+ 810 0 
Luminous Meteors ....... Kester 40 0 0 

£1591 7 10 
1866. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory............ 600 0 0 
Lunar Committee............008.8 64 13 4 
Balloon Committee ......... “Scope hie {0 wt) 
Metrical Committee...... deseneesne 90 10)'0 
British Rainfall......... mca conc 50.0 0 
Kilkenny Coal Fields ............ 16 0 0 
Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ...... 15 0 0 
Luminous Meteors ............... 50 0 0 
Lingula Flags Excavation ...... 20 0 0 
Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Mee acces iacesceccceasanese 50 0 0 
Amyl Compounds.................. 25 0 0 
Electrical Standards............... 100 0 0 
Malta Caves Exploration......... 30 0 0 
Kent’s Hole Exploration ......... 200 0 0 
Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

DPR UE se aisiss cc seascticedse sens 2a. OF 'O 
Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast... 25 0 0 
Dredging Hebrides Coast........ - 50 0 0 
Dredging the Mersey ............ 5 0 0 
Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

ETE aetse ce ccanscsccacsecsesenc 50 0 0 
Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 

2 coancnecd eae noeeppeneeeeee cae, 20 ONO 
MIP MOTHS... 0000 ccsseeceecnsceoe 10 0 0 
Trish Annelida ......... as peceanaer Los 1OG 

_ Catalogue of Crania............... 50 0 0 
Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 0 0 
Typical Crania Researches ...... 30 0 0 
Palestine Exploration Fund...... 100 0 0 

£1750 13 4 


of Kew Observatory............ 600 0 0 


Meteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 


50 0 0 


Lunar Committec..........s0e0000. 120 0 0 


Mi 


& Saeds 
Metrical Committce............... 0540050 
Kent’s Hole Explorations ...... 100 0 0 
Palestine Explorations...... vonre 00 0 O 
Insect Fauna, Palestine ...:..... 30 0 0 
British Rainfall............... boceeerOOl.Orn 0 
Kilkenny Coal Fields ...... ete (GY) 
Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ...... 25 0 0 
Luminous Meteors .............5+ 50 0 0 
Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds... 30 0 0 
Dredging Shetland ............+5 75 0 0 
Steamship Reports Condensation 100 0 O 
Electrical Standards.......... 2.2 LOO RO, <0 
Ethyle and Methyle series ...... 25 0 0 
Fossil Crustacea ........- Daseleiiie 2h 0 
Sound under Water ............+. nt 24k, eet 
North Greenland Fauna ......... 7 0 0 
Do. Plant Beds... 100 0 0 
Tron and Steel Manufacture 25, 0 0 
Patent Laws ...... Madi tstesveedsnese) GO 206 )0 
£1739 4 O 
1868. 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory............ 600 0 0 
Lunar Committee....... Agere nc pecs LAN MI aK) 
Metrical Committee....... cocbioue 50 0 0 
Zoological Record ...... Schade 100 0 0 
Kent’s Hole Explorations ...... 150 0 0 
Steamship Performances......... 100 0 0 
British Rainfall ....... bnbconaeede 50 0 0 
Luminous Meteors ............ toe OO OF 0 
Organic Acids ........... Pocpodacee GO OF 0 
Fossil Crustacea ~secvccs..scce.. 20) 0 0 
Methyl series e....0.000s. ae es OEtO 
Mercury and Bile................+ 25 0 0 
Organic remains in Limestone 

ROCKS, . repcesees dec tts ons oa 25 °0' 0 
Scottish Earthquakes ..........+ <20) 0" "0 
Fauna, Devon and Cornwall ... 30 0 0 
British Fossi] Corals..............- 50 0 0 
Bagshot Leaf-beds ............ eto OnnO 
Greenland Explorations ......... 100 0 O 
RossiliHlonay.cuosdesenceuerceseecs 25 0 O 
Tidal Observations ............... 100 0 0 

_ Underground Temperature...... o0e OF ® 
Spectroscopic investigations of 

Animal Substances ...........- 0 0 
Secondary Reptiles, &e. ......... 30 0 0 
British Marine Invertebrate 

HEE) ccpoercaracesnece sedan weet 100 0 0 

£1940 0 0 
1869. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory............ 600 0 0 
Lunar Committee...... Seeciconsece 50 0 O 
Metrical Committee............... 25 0 0 
Zoological Record...............405 100 0 0 
Committee on Gases in Deep- 

We Water’ -...s0sassserseeseree 25 0 0 
ButishRaintall:<:, é.::.0easnanteare 50 0 0 
Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

CLC rege saaploos ste eet cao sec nee 30 0 0 
Kent’s Hole Explorations ...... 150 0 0 
Steamship Performances......... 30 0 0 


Ixxxii 
; & 8. da. 
Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Tron Wit civcuvas Sieve. 80 0 0 
Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 100 0 O 
Methyl Series ......... Fesleeasaal 30 0 0 
Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks; ..1scecoes dente decavtaiveT 10 0 0 
Earthquakes in Scotland......... 10 0 0 
British Fossil Corals ............. 50 0 0 
Bagshot Leaf-Beds ........ ecdeee 30 0 0 
Fossil Flora -sirseees veertusteee ewe 25 0 0 
Tidal Observations ........6...06- 100 0 0 
Underground Temperature ...... 30 0 0 
Spectroscopic Investigations of 

Animal Substances ......... se D200 
Organic Acids ........ wtadtectedesd 12 0 0 
Kiltorcan Fossils ...........00se008 20 0 0 
Chemical Constitution and Phy- 

siological Action Relations ... 15 0 0 
Mountain Limestone Fossils...... 25 0 0 
Utilization of Sewage ............ 10 0 0 
Products of Digestion ............ 10 0 0 

£1622 0 0 
1870. 

Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory ...... sdesaseyo 600 
Metrical Committee........ stay (20 
Zoological Record ..sse+cseeeeeee 100 
Committee on Marine Fauna ... 20 
Ears in Fishes ........-0s+«ss wevatz 20, 
Chemical nature of Cast Iron... 80 
Luminous Meteors .......seceeees 


Heat in the Blood ... 

British Rainfall....scssecssecstevecs 
Thermal Conductivity of Iron &e. 20 
British Fossil Corals...........0. 50 


Kent’s Hole Explorations ...... 
Scottish Earthquakes ......s00048 4 


oqooocococoocoo 


eoooococecooco 


REPORT—1871. 


£1572 


£ 
Bagshot Leaf-Beds ...ss..sseee088 15 
Fossil Flora ...... PP htt it Po 25 
Tidal Observations ....0+...+e6.5. 100 
Underground Temperature...... 50 
Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ...... 20 
Mountain Limestone Fossils ... 25 
Utilization of Sewage «........+6. 50 
Organic Chemical Compounds. i930 
Onny River Sediment ..........++ 3 
Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 50 
1871. 
Maintaining the Establishment of 
Kew Observatory .........s..00. 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress in 
Chemistry: «....sessdera severe OO 
Metrical Committee............00. 25 
Zoological Record...............00. 100 
Thermal LTEquivalents of the 
Oxides of Chlorine ............ 10 
Tidal Observations ......... vséaes- LOO 
Koss WlOta gs...) -ccvcssereees Booey 2a) 
Luminous Meteors ............ ee 30 
British Fossil Corals........... nee POD 
Heat in the Blood = ....6....6....: 7 
British Rainfall...............0.c005 50 
Kent’s Hole Explorations ...... 150 
Fossil Crustacea ...csecsceceeseee 25 
Methyl Compounds ...,........... 25 
Lurlar Objects: .csscsssissscecceacess 20 
Fossil Corals. Sections, for Pho- 
tographing.......cccccccessesevens 20 
Bagshot Leaf-Beds ............54- 20 
Moab Explorations ......... Bogor 100 
Gaussian Constants ..........00006 40 
£1472 


wnj;yooce coooonsocococoe ooo o 


e;jooccoocoeoocoeos 


cloococooscoccoo® 


alocoo ooococonmccoeo eec o 


a 


GENERAL MEETINGS. Ixxxiii 


General Meetings. 


On Wednesday Evening, August 2, at 8 p.m., in the Music Hall, Professor 
T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., President, resigned the office of Pre- 
sident to Professor Sir William Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S., who took the Chair, 
and delivered an Address, for which see page lnxxiv: 

On Thursday Evening, August 3, at 8.30 p.m., in the Music Hall, Bo A 
Abel, Esq. F.R.S., Director of the Chemical Department, Royal Arsenal, 
Woolwich, delivered a Discourse on “Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents.” 

On Friday Evening, August 4, at 8 p.m., a Soirée took place in the Uni- 
versity Library. 

On Monday Evening, August 7, at 8.30 p.m., in the Music Hall, E. B. 
Tylor, Esq., delivered a Discourse on “The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization.” 

- On Tuesday Evening, August 8, at 8 p.a., a Soirée took place in the Museum 
of Science and Art. 

On Wednesday, August 9, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants 
of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Brighton*. 


* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 14, 1872. 


ADDRESS 


OF 


Sirk WILLIAM THOMSON, Kyr., LL.D., F.R.S., 


PRESIDENT. 


For the third time of its forty years’ history the British Association is 
assembled in the metropolis of Scotland. The origin of the Association is 
connected with Edinburgh in undying memory through the honoured names 
of Robison, Brewster, Forbes, and J ohnston. 

In this place, from this Chair, twenty- one years ago, Sir David Brewster 
said :—‘ On the return of the British Association to the metropolis of Scot- 
* land I am naturally reminded of the small band of pilgrims who carried 
* the seeds of this Institution into the more genial soil of our sister land.” 

; “Sir John Robison, Professor J ohnston, and Professor J. D. 
<< « Forbes were the earliest friends and promoters of the British Association. 
“ They went to York to assist in its establishment, and they found there the 
“very men who were qualified to foster and organize it. The Rev. Mr. 
«‘ Vernon Harcourt, whose name cannot be mentioned here without grati- 
“ tude, had provided laws for its government, and, along with Mr. Phillips, 
“the oldest and most valuable of our office-bearers, had made all those 
‘*‘ arrangements by which its success was ensured. Headed by Sir Roderick 
** Murchison, one of the very earliest and most active advocates of the 
« Association, there assembled at York about 200 of the friends of science.” 

The statement I have read contains no allusion to the real origin of the 
British Association, This blank in my predecessor’s historical sketch J am 
able to fill in from words written by himself twenty years earlier. Through 
the kindness of Professor Phillips I am enabled to read to you part of a 
letter to him at York, written by David Brewster from Allerly by Melrose, 
on the 23rd of February, 1831 :— 

“« Dear Sir,—I have taken the liberty of writing you on a subject of con- 
* siderable importance, It is proposed to establish a British Association of 
“men of science similar to that which has existed for eight years in Ger- 
“many, and which is now patronized by the most powerful Sovereigns of that 
“part of Europe. The arrangements for the first meeting are in progress; and 
** it is contemplated that it shall be held in York, as the most central city for 
“ the three kingdoms. My object in writing you at present is to beg that you 
« would ascertain if York will furnish the accommodation necessary for so 


ti 


ADDRESS, Ixxxy 


* Jarge a meeting (which may perhaps consist of above 100 individuals), if 
“the Philosophical Society would enter zealously into the plan, and if the 
** Mayor and influential persons in the town and in the vicinity would be 
“likely to promote its objects. The principal object of the Society would 
“ be to make the cultivators of science acquainted with each other, to stimu- 
“late one another to new exertions, and to bring the objects of science more 
“before the public eye, and to take measures for advancing its interests 
« and accelerating its progress.” 

Of the little band of four pilgrims from Scotland to York, not one now 
suryives. Of the seven first Associates one more has gone oyer to the 
majority since the Association last met. Vernon Harcourt is no longer with 
us; but his influence remains, a beneficent and, surely therefore, never dying 
influence. He was a Geologist and Chemist, a large-hearted lover of science, 
and an unwearied worker for its advancement. Brewster was the founder of 
the British Association ; Vernon Harcourt was its law-giver. His code re- 
mains to this day the law of the Association. 

On the eleventh of May last Sir John Herschel died, in the eightieth year of 
his age. The name of Herschel is a household word throughout Great Britain 
and Ireland—yes, and through the whole civilized world. We of this genera- 
tion have, from our lessons of childhood upwards, learned to see in Herschel, 
father and son, a presidium et dulce decus of the precious treasure of British 
scientific fame. When geography, astronomy, and the use of the globes were 
still taught, even to poor children, as a pleasant and profitable sequel to “read- 
ing, writing, and arithmetic,” which of us did not reyere the great telescope 
of Sir William Herschel (one of the Hundred Wonders of the World), and 
learn with delight, directly or indirectly from the charming pages of Sir John 
Herschel’s book, about the sun and his spots, and the fiery tornadoes sweeping 
over his surface, and about the planets, and Jupiter’s belts, and Saturn’s rings, 
and the fixed stars with their proper motions, and the double stars, and 
coloured stars, and the nebule discovered by the great telescope? Of Sir 
John Herschel it may indeed be said, nil tetiyit quod non ornavit. 

A monument to Faraday and a monument to Herschel, Britain must have. 
The nation will not be satisfied with any thing, however splendid, done by 
private subscription. A national monument, the more humble in point of 
expense the better, is required to satisfy that honourable pride with which 
a high-spirited nation cherishes the memory of its great men. But for 
the glory of Faraday or the glory of Herschel, is a monument wanted ? 
No! 

What needs my Shakespere for his honoured bones 
The labour of an age in piled stones ? 

Or that his hallowed reliques should be hid 
Under a star-ypointing pyramid ? 

Dear son of memory, great heir of fame, 

What need’st thou such weak witness of thy name! 
Thou, in our wonder and astonishment, 

Hast built thyself a live-long monument. 


And, so sepulehred, in such pomp dost lie, 
That kings for such a tomb would wish to die. 


With regard to Sir John Herschel’s scientific work, on the present occa- 
sion I can but refer briefly to a few points which seem to me salient in his 
physical and mathematical writings. First, I remark that he has put 
forward, most instructively and profitably to his readers, the general theory 
of periodicity in dynamics, and has urged the practical utilizing of it, espe- 

1871, g 


Ixxxvi REPORT— 1871. 


cially in meteorology, by the harmonic analysis. It is purely by an appli- 
cation of this principle and practical method, that the British Association’s 
Committee on Tides has for the last four years been, and still is, working 
towards the solution of the grand problem proposed forty-cight years ago by 
Thomas Young in the following words :— 

* There is, indeed, little doubt that if we were provided with a sufficiently 
“ correctseries of minutely accurate observations on the Tides, made not merely 
“¢ with a view to the times of low and high water only, but rather to the heights 
“ at the intermediate times, we might form, by degrees, with the assistance 
* of the theory contained in this article * only, almost as perfect a set of tables 
“ for the motions of the ocean as we have already obtained for those of the 
“« celestial bodies, which are the more immediate objects of the attention of 
‘* the practical astronomer.” E 

Sir John Herschel’s discovery of a right or left-handed asymmetry in the 
outward form of crystals, such as quartz, which in their inner molecular 
structure possess the helicoidal rotational property in reference to the plane 
of polarization of light, is one of the notable points of meeting between 
Natural History and Natural Philosophy. His observations on ‘ epipolie di- 
spersion’. gave Stokes the clue by which he was led to his great discovery of 
the change of periodic time experienced by light in falling on certain substances 
and being dispersively reflected from them. In respect to pure mathematies 
Sir John Herschel did more, I believe, than any other man to introduce into 
Britain the powerful methods and the valuable notation of modern analysis, 
A remarkable mode of symbolism had freshly appeared, I believe, in the 
works of Laplace, and possibly of other French mathematicians ; it certainly 
appeared in Fourier, but whether before or after Herschel’s work I cannot 
say. With the French writers, however, this was rather a short method of 
writing formule than the analytical engine which it became in the hands 
of Herschel and British followers, especially Sylvester and Gregory (com- 
petitors with Green in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos struggle of 1837) 
and Boole and Cayley. This method was greatly advanced by Gregory, who 
first gave to its working-power a secure and philosophical foundation, and so 
prepared the way for the marvellous extension it has received from Boole, 
Sylvester, and Cayley, according to which symbols of operation become the 
subjects not merely of algebraic combination, but of differentiations and in- 
tegrations, as if they were symbols expressing values of varying quantities. 
An even more marvellous deyelopment of this same idea of the separation of 
symbols (according to which Gregory separated the algebraic signs + and — 
from other symbols or quantities to be characterized by them, and dealt with 
them according to the laws of algebraic combination) received from Hamilton 
a most astonishing generalization, by the invention actually of new laws of 
combination, and led him to his famous ‘ Quaternions,” of which he gave 
his earliest exposition to the Mathematical and Physical Section of this As- 
sociation, at its meeting in Cambridge in the year 1845. Tait has taken up 
the subject of quaternions ably and zealously, and has carried it into phy- 
sical science witha faith, shared by some of the most thoughtful mathematical 
naturalists of the day, that it is destined to become an engine of perhaps 
hitherto unimagined power for investigating and expressing results in 
Natural Philosophy. Of Herschel’s gigantic work in astronomical observa- 
tion I need say nothing. Doubtless a careful account of it will be given 
in the ‘ Proceedings of the Royal Society of London’ for the next anniyer- 
sary meeting, 

* Young's; written in 1825 for the Supplement to the ‘ Encyclopadia Britannica,’ 


ADDRESS. Ixxxvil 


In the past year another representative man of British science is gone. 
Mathematics has had no steadier supporter for hglf a century than De 
Morgan. His great book on the differential caleulus was, for the mathema- 
tical student of thirty years ago, a highly prized repository of all the best 
things that could be brought together under that title. I do not believe 
it is less valuable now; and if it is less valued, may this not be because it 
is too good for examination purposes, and because the modern student, 
labouring to win marks in the struggle for existence, must not suffer himself 
to be beguiled from the stern path of duty by any attractive beauties in the 
subject of his study ? 

One of the most valuable services to science which the British Association 
has performed has been the establishment, and the twenty-nine years’ 
maintenance, of its Observatory. The Royal Meteorological Observatory of 
Kew was built originally for a Sovereign of England who was a zealous 
amateur of astronomy. George the Third used continually to repair to it 
when any celestial phenomenon of peculiar interest was to be seen; and a 
manuscript book still exists filled with observations written into it by his 
own hand. After the building had been many years unused, it was 
granted, in the year 1842, by the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Woods 
and Forests, on application of Sir Edward Sabine, for the purpose of con- 
tinuing observations (from which he had already deduced important results) 
regarding the vibration of a pendulum in various gases, and for the purpose 
of promoting pendulum observations in all parts of the world. The 
Government granted only the building—no funds for carrying on the work 
to be done in it. The Royal Society was unable to undertake the main- 
tenance of such an observatory; but, happily for science, the zeal of in- 
dividual Fellows of the Royal Society and Members of the British Asso- 
ciation gave the initial impulse, supplied the necessary initial funds, and 
recommended their new institution successfully to the fostering care of the 
British Association. The work of the Kew Observatory has, from the 
commencement, been conducted under the direction of a Committee of the 
British Association ; and annual grants from the funds ef the Association have 
been made towards defraying its expenses up to the present time. To the 
initial object of pendulum research was added continuous observation of the 
phenomena of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism, and the construction 
and verification of thermometers, barometers, and magnetometers designed 
for accurate measurement. The magnificent services which it has rendered 
to science are so well known that any statement of them which I could at- 
tempt on the present occasion would be superfluous. Their value is due ina 
great measure to the indefatigable zeal and the great ability of two Scotchmen, 
both from Edinburgh, who successively held the office of Superintendent of 
the Observatory of the British Association—Mr. Welsh for nine years, until 
his death in 1859, and Dr. Balfour Stewart from then until the present 
time. Fruits of their labours are to be found all through our volumes of 
Reports for these twenty-one years. 

The institution now enters on a new stage of its existence. The noble 
liberality of a private benefactor, one who has laboured for its welfare with 
self-sacrificing devotion unintermittingly from within a few years of its crea- 
tion, has given it a permanent independence, under the general management 
of a Committee of the Royal Society. Mr. Gassiot’s gift of £10,000 secures 
the continuance at Kew of the regular operation of the self-recording instru- 
ments for observing the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism and meteorology, 

‘without the necessity for further support from the British Association. 
g 2 


Ixxxvill REPORT—1871. 


The success of the Kew Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory affords 
an example of the great gain to be earned for science by the founda- 
tion of physical observatories and laboratories for experimental research, 
to be conducted by qualified persons, whose duties should be, not teach- 
ing, but experimenting. Whether we look to the honour of England, as a 
nation which ought always to be the foremost in promoting physical science, 
or to those yast economical advantages which must accrue from such esta- 
blishments, we cannot but feel that experimental research ought to be made 
with us an object of national concern, and not left, as hitherto, exclusively 
to the private enterprise of self-sacrificing amateurs, and the necessarily 
inconsecutive action of our present Governmental Departments and of casual 
Committees. The Council of the Royal Society of Edinburgh has moved for 
this object in a memorial presented by them to the Royal Commission on 
Scientific Education and the Advancement of Science. The Continent of 
Europe is referred to for an example to be followed with advantage in this 
country, in the following words :— 

“On the Continent there exist certain institutions, fitted with instruments, 
*‘ apparatus, chemicals, and other appliances, which are meant to be, and 
** which are made, available to men of science, to enable them, at a moderate 
“* cost, to pursue original researches.” 

This statement is fully corroborated by information, on good authority, 
which T have received from Germany, to the effect that in Prussia *‘ every 
* university, every polytechnical academy, every industrial school (Realschule 
and Gewerbeschule), most of the grammar-schools, in a word, nearly all the 
schools superior in rank to the elementary schools of the common people, are 
‘* supplied with chemical laboratories and a collection of philosophical in- 
** struments and apparatus, access to which is most liberally granted by the 
‘* directors of those schools, or the teachers of the respective disciplines, to 
“‘ any person qualified, for scientific experiments. In consequence, though 
“there exist no particular institutions like those mentioned in the me- 
“ morial, there will scarcely be found a town exceeding in number 5000 
“ inhabitants but offers the possibility of scientific explorations at no other 
“ cost than reimbursement of the expense for the materials wasted in the 
“¢ experiments.” 

Further, with reference to a remark in the Memorial to the effect that, in 
respect to the promotion of science, the British Government confines its 
action almost exclusively to scientific instruction, and fatally neglects the 
advancement of science, my informant tells me that, in Germany, “ professors, 
‘‘preceptors, and teachers of secondary schools are engaged on account of 
«their skilfulness in teaching ; but professors of universities are never engaged 
“unless they have already proved, by their own investigations, that they are 
“to be relied upon for the advancement of science. Therefore every shilling 
‘spent for instruction in universities is at the same time profitable to the ad- 
“vancement of science.” 

The physical laboratories which have grown up in the Universities of 
Glasgow and Edinburgh, and in Owens College, Manchester, show the want 
felt of Colleges of Research; but they go but infinitesimally towards sup- 
plying it, being absolutely destitute of means, material or personal, for ad- 
vancing science except at the expense of volunteers, or securing that volunteers 
shall be found to continue even such little work as at present is carried on. 

The whole of Andrews’ splendid work in Queen’s College, Belfast, has 
been done under great difficulties and disadvantages, and at great personal 
sacrifices ; and up to the present time there is not a student’s physical 


ee 
“ec 


ADDRESS. Ixxxix 


laboratory in any one of the Queen’s Colleges in Iveland—a want which 
surely ought not to remain unsupplied. Lach of these institutions (the 
four Scotch Universities, the three Queen’s Colleges, and Owens College, 
Manchester) requires two professors of Natural Philosophy—one who shall 
be responsible for the teaching, the other for the advancement of science by 
experiment. The University of Oxford has already established a physical 
laboratory. The munificence of its Chancellor is about to supply the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge with a splendid laboratory, to be constructed under the 
eye of Professor Clerk Maxwell. On this subject I shall say no more at 
present, but simply read a sentence which was spoken by Lord Milton in the 
first Presidential Address to the British Association, when it met at York in 
the year 1831 :—“ In addition to other more direct benefits, these meetings 
« fof the British Association], I hope, will be the means of impressing on the 
*¢ Government the conviction, that the love of scientific pursuits, and the 
_ © means of pursuing them, are not confined to the metropolis ; and I hope 
“ that when the Government is fully impressed with the knowledge of the 
« oreat desire entertained to promote science in every part of the empire, they 
“« will see the necessity of affording it due encouragement, and of giving every 
‘* proper stimulus to its advancement.” 

Besides abstracts of papers read, and discussions held, before the Sec- 
tions, the annual Reports of the British Association contain a large mass 
of valuable matter of another class. It was an early practice of the Associa- 
tion, a practice that might well be further developed, to call occasionally for 
a special report on some particular branch of science from a man eminently 
qualified for the task. The reports received in compliance with these invita- 
tions have all done good service in their time, and they remain permanently 
useful as landmarks in the history of science. Some of them have led to 
vast practical results; others of a more abstract character are valuable to 
this day as powerful and instructive condensations and expositions of the 
branches of science to which they relate. I cannot better illustrate the two 
kinds of efficiency realized in this department of the Association’s work than 
by referring to Cayley’s Report on Abstract Dynamics * and Sabine’s Report 
on Terrestrial Magnetism f (1838). 

To the great value of the former, personal experience of benefit received 
enables me, and gratitude impels me, to testify. In a few pages full of 
precious matter, the generalized dynamical equations of Lagrange, the 
great principle evolved from Maupertuis’ “least action” by Hamilton, and 
the later developments and applications of the Hamiltonian principle by 
other authors are described by Cayley so suggestively that the reading of 
thousands of quarto pages of papers scattered through the Transactions of the 
various learned Societies of Europe is rendered superfluous for any one who 
desires only the essence of these investigations, with no more of detail than is 
necessary for a thorough and practical understanding of the subject. 

Sabine’s Report of 1838 concludes with the following sentence :—‘ Viewed 
“in itself and its various relations, the magnetism of the earth cannot 
be counted less than one of the most important branches of the physical 
«history of the planet we inhabit; and we may feel quite assured that the 
«“ completion of our knowledge of its distribution on the surface of the earth 


* Report on the Recent Progress of Theoretical Dynamics, by A. Cayley (Report of the 
British Association 1857, p. 1). 

+ Report on the Variations of the Magnetic Intensity observed at different points of the 
Earth’s Surface, by Major Sabine, F.R.S. (forming part of the 7th Report of the British 
Association). 


xc REPORT—1871. 


“‘ would be regarded by our contemporaries and by posterity as a fitting 
« enterprise of a maritime people, and a worthy achievement of a nation 
‘«< which has ever sought to rank foremost in every arduous and honourable 
“ undertaking.” An immediate result of this Report was that the enterprise 
which it proposed was recommended to the Government by a joint Committee 
of the British Association and the Royal Society with such success, that 
Capt. James Ross was sent in command of the ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror’ to 
make a magnetic survey of the Antarctic regions, and to plant on his way 
three Magnetical and Meteorological Observatories, at St. Helena, the Cape, 
and Van Diemen’s Land. A vast mass of precious observations, made 
chiefly on board ship, were brought home from this expedition. To deduce 
the desired results from them, it was necessary to eliminate the disturbance 
produced by the ship’s magnetism; and Sabine asked his friend Archibald 
Smith to work out from Poisson’s mathematical theory, then the only avail- 
able guide, the formule required for the purpose. This voluntary task 
Smith executed skilfully and successfully. It was the beginning of a series 
of labours carried on with most remarkable practical tact, with thorough 
analytical skill, and with a rare extreme of disinterestedness, in the intervals 
of an arduous profession, for the purpose of perfecting and simplifying the 
correction of the mariner’s compass—a problem which had become one of 
vital importance for navigation, on account of the introduction of iron ships. 
Edition after edition of the ‘Admiralty Compass Manual’ has been pro- 
duced by the able superintendent of the Compass Department, Captain 
Evans, containing chapters of mathematical investigation and formule by 
Smith, on which depend wholly the practical analysis of compass-obser- 
vations, and rules for the safe use of the compass in navigation. I firmly 
believe that it is to the thoroughly scientific method thus adopted by the 
Admiralty, that no iron ship of Her Majesty’s Navy has ever been lost 
through errors of the compass. The ‘ British Admiralty Compass Manual’ 
is adopted as a guide by all the navies of the world. It has been translated 
into Russian, German, and Portuguese ; and it is at present being translated 
into French. The British Association may be gratified to know that the 
possibility of navigating ironclad war-ships with safety depends on applica- 
tion of scientific principles given to the world by three mathematicians, 
Poisson, Airy, and Archibald Smith. 

Returning to the science of terrestrial magnetism, we find in the Reports 
of early years of the British Association ample evidence of its diligent culti- 
vation. Many of the chief scientific men of the day from England, Scotland, 
and Ireland found a strong attraction to the Association in the facilities which 
it afforded to them for cooperating in their work on this subject. Lloyd,Phillips, 
Fox, Ross, and Sabine made magnetic observations all over Great Britain ; 
and their results, collected by Sabine, gave for the first time an accurate and 
complete survey of terrestrial magnetism over the area of this island. I am 
informed by Professor Phillips that, in the beginning of the Association, Her- 
schel, though a “ sincere well-wisher,” felt doubts as to the general utility and 
probable success of the plan and purpose proposed ; but his zeal for terrestrial 
magnetism brought him from being merely a sincere well-wisher to join actively 
and cordially in the work of the Association. ‘In 1838 he began to give effec- 
“tual aid in the great question of magnetical Observatories, and was indeed 
“foremost among the supporters of that which is really Sabine’s great work. 
** At intervals, until about 1858, Herschel continued to give effectual aid.” 
Sabine has carried on his great work without intermission to the present 
day; thirty years ago he gave to Gauss a large part of the data required 


ADDRESS. XC 


for working out the spherical harmonic analysis of terrestrial magnetism over 
the whole earth. A recalculation of the harmonic analysis for the altered 
state of terrestrial magnetism of the present time has been undertaken by 
Adams. He writes to me that he has “already begun some of the introduc- 
“tory work, so as to be ready when Sir Edward Sabine’s Tables of the values 
“ of the Magnetic Elements deduced from observation are completed, at once 
“to make use of them,” and that he intends to take into account terms of 
at least one order beyond those included by Gauss. The form in which 
the requisite data are to be presented to him is a magnetic Chart of the 
whole surface of the globe. Materials from scientific travellers of all 
nations, from our home magnetic observatories, from the magnetic obser- 
vatories of St. Helena, the Cape, Van Diemen’s Land, and Toronto, and 
from the scientific observatories of other countries have been brought to- 
gether by Sabine. Silently, day after day, night after night, for a quarter 
of a century he has toiled with one constant assistant always by his side 
to reduce these observations and prepare for the great work. At this moment, 
while we are here assembled, I believe that, in their quiet summer retirement 
in Wales, Sir Edward and Lady Sabine are at work on the magnetic Chart 
of the world. If two years of life and health are granted to them, science 
will be provided with a key which must powerfully conduce to the ultimate 
opening up of one of the most refractory enigmas of cosmical physics, the 
cause of terrestrial magnetism. 

To give any sketch, however slight, of scientific investigation performed 
during the past year would, even if I were competent for the task, far ex- 
ceed the limits within which I am confined on the present occasion. <A 
detailed account of work done and knowledge gained in science Britain 
ought to have every year. The Journal of the Chemical Society and the 
Zoological Record do excellent service by giving abstracts of all papers 
published in their departments. The admirable example afforded by the 
German “Fortschritte” and “Jahresbericht” is before us; but hitherto, so far 
as I know, no attempt has been made to follow it in Britain. It is true that 
several of the annual volumes of the Jahresbericht were translated; but a 
translation, published necessarily at a considerable interval of time after the 
original, cannot supply the want. An independent British publication is for 
many obyious reasons desirable. The two publications, in German and 
English, would, both by their differences and by their agreements, illustrate 
the progress of science more correctly and usefully than any single work 
could do, even if appearing simultaneously in the two languages. It seems 
to me that to promote the establishment of a British Year Book of Science is 
an object to which the powerful action of the British Association would be 
thoroughly appropriate. 

In referring to recent advances in several branches of science, | simply 
choose some of those which have struck me as most notable. 

Accurate and minute measurement seems to the non-scientific imagination 
a less lofty and dignified work than looking for something new. But nearly 
all the grandest discoveries of science have been but the rewards of accurate 
measurement and patient long-continued labour in the minute sifting of 
numerical results. The popular idea of Newton’s grandest discovery is that 
the theory of gravitation flashed into his mind, and so the discovery was 
made. It was by a long train of mathematical calculation, founded on 
results accumulated through prodigious toil of practical astronomers, that 
Newton first demonstrated the forces urging the planets towards the Sun, 
' determined the magnitudes of those forces, and discovered that a force fol- 


KCl REFORT—1871. 


lowing the same law of variation with distance urges the Moon towards the 
Earth. hen first, we may suppose, came to him the idea of the universality of 
gravitation ; but when he attempted to compare the magnitude of the force onthe 
Moon with the magnitude of the force of gravitation of a heavy body of equal 
mass at the earth’s surface, he did not find the agreement which the law he 
was discovering required. Not for years after would he publish his discovery 
asmade. Itis recounted that, being present at a meeting of the Royal Society, 
he heard a paper read, describing geodesic measurement by Picard which 
led to a serious correction of the previously accepted estimate of the Earth’s 
radius. This was what Newton required. He went home with the result, 
and commenced his calculations, but felt so much agitated that he handed 
over the arithmetical work to a friend: then (and not when, sitting in a 
garden, he saw an apple fall) did he ascertain that gravitation keeps the Moon 
in her orbit. 

Faraday’s discovery of specific inductive capacity, which inaugurated the 
new philosophy, tending to discard action at a distance, was the result of 
minute and accurate measurement of electric forces. 

Joule’s discovery of thermo-dynamic law through the regions of electro- 
chemistry, electro-magnetism, and elasticity of gases was based on a delicacy 
of thermometry which seemed simply impossible to some of the most dis- 
tinguished chemists of the day. 

Andrews’ discovery of the continuity between the gaseous and liquid states 
was worked out by many years of laborious and minute measurement of phe- 
nomena scarcely sensible to the naked eye. 

Great service has been done to science by the British Association in pro- 
moting accurate measurement in various subjects. The origin of exact 
science in terrestrial magnetism is traceable to Gauss’ invention of methods 
of finding the magnetic intensity in absolute measure. I have spoken of 
the great work done by the British Association in carrying out the ap- 
plication of this invention in all parts of the world. Gauss’ colleague in 
the German Magnetic Union, Weber, extended the practice of absolute 
measurement to electric currents, the resistance of an electric conductor, 
and the electromotive force of a galvanic element. He showed the rela- 
tion between electrostatic and electromagnetic units for absolute mea- 
surement, and made the beautiful discovery that resistance, in absolute elec- 
tromagnetic measure, and the reciprocal of resistance, or, as we call it, “ con- 
ducting power,” in electrostatic measure, are each of them a velocity. He 
made an elaborate and difficult series of experiments to measure the velocity 
which is equal to the conducting power, in electrostatic measure, and at the 
same time to the resistance in electromagnetic measure, in one and the same 
conductor. Maxwell, in making the first advance alone a road of which 
Faraday was the pioneer, discovered that this velocity is physically related to 
the velocity of light, and that, on a certain hypothesis regarding the elastic 
medium concerned, it may be exactly equal to the velocity of light. Weber’s 
measurement verifies approximately this equality, and stands in science 
monumentum wre perennius, celebrated as having suggested this most grand 
theory, and as having afforded the first quantitative test of the recondite 
properties of matter on which the relations between electricity and light 
depend. A remeasurement of Weber’s critical velocity on a new plan by Max- 
well himself, and the important correction of the velocity of light by Fou- 
cault’s laboratory experiments, verified by astronomical observation, seem to 
show a still closer agreement. The most accurate possible determination of 
Weber's critical velocity is just now a primary object of the Association’s 


ADDRESS. XClll 


Committee on Electric Measurement ; andit is at present premature to specu- 
late as to the closeness of the agreement between that velocity and the 
velocity of light. This leads me to remark how much science, even in its 
most lofty speculations, gains in return for benefits conferred by its applica- 
tion to promote the social and material welfare of man. Those who perilled 
and lost their money in the original Atlantic Telegraph were impelled and 
supported by a sense of the grandeur of their enterprise, and of the world- 
wide benefits which must flow from its success; they were at the same time 
not unmoved by the beauty of the scientific problem directly. presented to 
them; but they little thought that it was to be immediately, through their 
work, that the scientific world was to be instructed in a long-neglected and 
discredited fundamental electric discovery of Faraday’s, or that, again, when 
the assistance of the British Association was invoked to supply their elec- 
tricians with methods for absolute measurement (which they found necessary 
to secure the best economical returu for their expenditure, and to obviate 
and detect those faults in their electric material which had led to disaster), 
they were laying the foundation for accurate electric measurement in every 
scientific laboratory in the world, and initiating a train of investigation which 
now sends up branches into the loftiest regions and subtlest ether of natural 
philosophy. Long may the British Association continue a bond of union, 
and a medium for the interchange of good offices between science and the 
world ! 

The greatest achievement yet made in molecular theory of the proper- 
ties of matter is the Kinetic theory of Gases, shadowed forth by Lucretius, 
definitely stated by Danicl Bernoulli, largely developed by Herapath, made 
a reality by Joule, and worked out to its present advanced state by Clausius 
and Maxwell. Joule, from his dynamical equivalent of heat, and his expe- 
riments upon the heat produced by the condensation of gas, was able to 
estimate the average velocity of the ultimate molecules or atoms composing 
it. His estimate for hydrogen was 6225 feet per second at temperature 60° 
Fahr., and 6055 feet per second at the freezing-point. Clausius took fully 
into account the impacts of molecules on one another, and the kinetic energy 
of relative motions of the matter constituting an individual atom. He in- 
vestigated the relation between their diameters, the number in a given 
space, and the mean length of path from impact to impact, and so gave the 
foundation for estimates of the absolute dimensions of atoms, to which I shall 
refer later. He explained the slowness of gaseous diffusion by the mutual 
impacts of the atoms, and laid a secure foundation for a complete theory of 
the diffusion of fluids, previously a most refractory enigma. The deeply 
penetrating genius of Maxwell brought in viscosity and thermal conductivity, 
and thus completed the dynamical explanation of all the known properties 
of gases, except their electric resistance and brittleness to electric force. 

No such comprehensive molecular theory had ever been even imagined 
before the nineteenth century. Definite and complete in its area as it 
is, it is but a well-drawn part of a great chart, in which all physical 
science will be represented with every property of matter shown in dyna- 
mical relation to the whole. The prospect we now have of an early 
completion of this chart is based on the assumption of atoms. But there 
ean be no permanent satisfaction to the mind in explaining heat, light, elas- 
ticity, diffusion, electricity and magnetism, in gases, liquids, and solids, and 
describing precisely the relations of these different states of matter to one 
another by statistics of great numbers of atoms, when the properties of the 
atom itself are simply assumed. When the theory, of which we have the first 


xciv REvorr—1871!, 


instalment in Clausius and Maxwell’s work, is complete, we are but brought 
face to face with a superlatively grand question, what is the inner me- 
chanism of the atom ? 

In the answer to this question we must find the explanation not only 
of the atomic elasticity, by which the atom is a chronometric vibrator ac- 
cording to Stokes’s discovery, but of chemical affinity and of the differences 
of quality of different chemical clements, at present a mere mystery in 
science. Helmholtz’s exquisite theory of vortex-motion in an incompressible 
frictionless liquid has been suggested as a finger-post, pointing a way 
which may possibly lead to a full understanding of the properties of atoms, 
carrying out the grand conception of Lucretius, who “admits no subtle 
“ethers, no variety of elements with fiery, or watery, or light, or heavy 
« principles; nor supposes light to be one thing, fire another, electricity a 
“ fluid, magnetism a vital principle, but treats all phenomena as mere pro- 
“erties or accidents of simple matter.” This statement I take from 
an admirable paper on the atomic theory of Lucretius, which appeared in 
the ‘ North British Review’ for March 1868, containing a most interesting 
and instructive summary of ancient and modern doctrine regarding atoms. 
Allow me to read from that article one other short passage finely describing 
the present aspect of atomic theory:—* The existence of the chemical 
«atom, already quite a complex little world, scems very probable; and 
“ the description of the Lucretian atom is wonderfully applicable to it. We 
“are not wholly without hope that the real weight of each such atom may 
«some day be known—not merely the relative weight of the several atoms, 
«but the number in a given volume of any material; that the form and 
«motion of the parts of cach atom and the distances by which they are 
«separated may be calculated ; that the motions by which they produce heat, 
«electricity, and light may be illustrated by exact geometrical diagrams ; and 
“ that the fundamental properties of the intermediate and possibly constituent 
«medium may be arrived at. Then the motion of planets and music of the 
“ spheres will be neglected for a while in admiration of the maze in which 
“the tiny atoms run.” 

Even before this was written some of the anticipated results had been par- 
tially attained. Loschmidt in Vienna had shown, and not much latter Stoney 
independently in England showed, how to deduce from Clausius and Max- 
well’s kinetic theory of gases a superior limit to the number of atoms in a 
given measurable space. I was unfortunately quite unaware of what Loschmidt 
and Stoney had done when I made a similar estimate on the same founda- 
tion, and communicated it to ‘Nature’ in an article on “The Size of 
Atoms.” But questions of personal priority, however interesting they may be 
to the persons concerned, sink into insignificance in the prospect of any gain 
of deeper insight into the secrets of nature. The triple coincidence of inde- 
pendent reasoning in this case is valuable as confirmation of a conclusion 
violently contravening ideas and opinions which had been almost universally 
held regarding the dimensions of the molecular structure of matter. Che- 
mists and other naturalists had been in the habit of evading questions as to 
the hardness or indivisibility of atoms by virtually assuming them to be in- 
finitely small and infinitely numerous. We must now no longer look upon 
the atom, with Boscovich, as a mystic point endowed with inertia and the 
attribute of attracting or repelling other such centres with forces depending 
upon the intervening distances (a supposition only tolerated with the tacit 
assumption that the inertia and attraction of cach atom is infinitely small and 
the number of atoms infinitely great), nor can we agree with those who haye 


a ee, 


ADDRESS. XCV 


attributed to the atom occupation of space with infinite hardness and strength 
(incredible in any finite body); but we must realize it as a piece of matter 
of measurable dimensions, with shape, motion, and laws of action, intelligible 
subjects of scientific investigation. 

The prismatic analysis of light discovered by Newton was estimated by 
himself as being “the oddest, if not the most considerable, detection which 
** hath hitherto been made in the operations of nature.” 

Had he not been deflected from the subject, he could not have failed 
to obtain a pure spectrum; but this, with the inevitably consequent 
discovery of the dark lines, was reserved for the nineteenth century. 
Our fundamental knowledge of the dark lines is due solely to Fraun- 
hofer. Wollaston saw them, but did not discover them. Brewster laboured 
long and well to perfect the prismatic analysis of sunlight ; and his observa- 
tions on the dark bands produced by the absorption of interposed gases and 
vapours laid important foundations for the grand superstructure which he 
scarcely lived to see. Piazzi Smyth, by spectroscopic observation performed 
on the Peak of Teneriffe, added greatly to our knowledge of the dark lines 
produced in the solar spectrum by the absorption of our own atmosphere. 
The prism became an instrument for chemical qualitative analysis in the 
hands of Fox Talbot and Herschel, who first showed how, through it, the 
old “blowpipe test” or generally the estimation of substances from the 
colours which they give to flames, can be prosecuted with an accuracy 
and a discriminating power not to be attained when the colour is judged 
by the unaided eye. But the application of this test to solar and stellar 
chemistry had never, I believe, been suggested, either directly or indirectly, 
by any other naturalist, when Stokes taught it to me in Cambridge at some 
time prior to the summer of 1852. The observational and experimental 
foundations on which he built were :— 

(1) The discovery by Fraunhofer of a coincidence between his double dark 
line D of the solar spectrum and a double bright line which he observed in 
the spectra of ordinary artificial flames. 

(2) A very rigorous experimental test of this coincidence by Prof. W. H. 
Miller, which showed it to be accurate to an astonishing degree of minuteness. 

(3) The fact that the yellow light given out when salt is thrown on burning 
spirit consists almost solely of the two nearly identical qualities which con- 
stitute that double bright line. 

(4) Observations made by Stokes himself, which showed the bright line D 
to be absent in a candle-flame when the wick was snuffed clean, so as not to 
project into the luminous envelope, and from an alcohol flame when the spirit 
was burned in a watch-glass. And 

(5) Foucault’s admirable discovery (L’Institut, Feb. 7, 1849) that the 
voltaic are between charcoal points is “a medium which emits the rays D 
“on its own account, and at the same time absorbs them when they come 
«from another quarter.”’ 

The conclusions, theoretical and practical, which Stokes taught me, and 
which I gave regularly afterwards in my public lectures in the University of 
Glasgow, were :— 

(1) That the double line D, whether bright or dark, is due to vapour of 
sodium. 

(2) That the ultimate atom of sodium is susceptible of regular elastic vi- 
brations, like those of a tuning-fork or of stringed musical instruments ; that 
like an instrument with two strings tuned to approximate unison, or an ap- 
proximately circular elastic disk, it has two fundamental notes or vibrations 


* 


xevl REPORT—1871. 


of approximately equal pitch; and that the periods of these vibrations are 
precisely the periods of the two slightly different yellow lights constituting 
the double bright line D. 

(3) That when vapour of sodium is at a high enough temperature to be- 
come itself a source of light, each atom executes these two fundamental 
vibrations simultaneously ; and that therefore the light proceeding from it is 
of the two qualities constituting the double bright line D. 

(4) That when vapour of sodium is present in space across which light 
from another source is propagated, its atoms, according to a well-known 
general principle of dynamics, are set to vibrate in either or both of those 
fundamental modes, if some of the incident light is of one or other of their 
periods, or some of one and some of the other; so that the energy of the 
waves of those particular qualities of light is converted into thermal vibra- 
tions of the medium and dispersed in all directions, while ight of ali other 
qualities, even though very nearly agreeing with them, is transmitted with 
comparatively no loss. 

(5) That Fraunhofer’s double dark line D of solar and stellar spectra is due 
to the presence of vapour of sodium in atmospheres surrounding the sun 
and those stars in whose spectra it had been observed. 

(6) That other vapours than sodium are to be found in the atmospheres 
of sun and stars by searching for substances producing in the spectra of 
artificial flames bright lines coinciding with other dark lines of the solar 
and stellar spectra than the Fraunhofer line D. 

The last of these propositions I felt to be confirmed (it was perhaps 
partly suggested) by a striking and beautiful experiment admirably adapted 
for lecture illustrations, due to Foucault, which had been shown to me by 
M. Duboscque Soleil, and the Abbé Moigno, in Paris in the month of 
October 1850. A prism and lenses were arranged to throw upon a screen 
an approximately pure spectrum of a vertical electric arc between charcoal 
poles of a powerful battery, the lower one of which was hollowed like a cup. 
When pieces of copper and pieces of zine were separately thrown into the 
cup, the spectrum exhibited, in perfectly definite positions, magnificent well- 
marked bands of different colours characteristic of the two metals. When 
a piece of brass, compounded of copper and zinc, was put into the cup, 
the spectrum showed all the bands, each precisely in the place in which 
it had been seen when one metal or the other had been used separately. 

It is much to be regretted that this great generalization was not pub- 
lished to the world twenty years ago. I say this, not because it is to be 


regretted that Angstrém should have the credit of having in 1853 pub- 
lished independently the statement that ‘an incandescent gas emits lumi- 
«« nous rays of the same refrangibility as those which it can absorb”; or that 
Balfour Stewart should have been unassisted by it when, coming to the 
subject from a very different point of view, he made, in his extension of the 
“Theory of Exchanges”*, the still wider generalization that the radiating 
power of every kind of substanee is equal to its absorbing power for every 
kind of ray; or that Kirchhoff also should have in 1859 independently dis- 
covered the same proposition, and shown its application to solar and stellar 
chemistry ; but because we might now be in possession of the inconceivable 
riches of astronomical results which we expect from the next ten years’ 
investigation by- spectrum analysis, had Stokes given his theory to the 
world when it first occurred to him. 

To Kirchhoff belongs, I believe, solely the great credit of having first 


* Edin, Transactions, 1858-59. 


: 


ADDRESS. Xevil 


actually sought for and found other metals than sodium in the sun by the 
method of spectrum analysis. His publication of October 1859 inaugurated 
the practice of solar and stellar chemistry, and gave spectrum analysis an 
impulse to which in a great measure is due its splendidly successful cultivation 
by the labours of many able investigators within the last ten years. 


To prodigious and wearing toil of Kirchhoff himself, and of Angstrém, we 
owe large-scale maps of the solar spectrum, incomparably superior in minute- 
ness and accuracy of delineation to any thing ever attempted previously. These 
maps now constitute the standards of reference for all workers in the field. 
Pliicker and Hittorf opened ground in advancing the physics of spectrum 
analysis and made the important discovery of changes in the spectra of 
ignited gases produced by changes in the physical condition of the gas. The 
scientific value of the mectings of the British Association is well illustrated 
by the fact that it was through conyersation with Pliicker at the Newcastle 
mecting that Lockyer was first led into the investigation of the effects of varied 
pressure on the quality of the light emitted by glowing gas which he and 
Frankland have prosecuted with such admirable success. Scientific wealth 
tends to accumulation according to the law of compound interest. Every addi- 
tion to knowledge of properties of matter supplies the naturalist with new 
instrumental means for discovering and interpreting phenomena of nature, 
which in their turn afford foundations for fresh generalizations, bringing 
gains of permanent value into the great storehouse of philosophy. Thus 
Frankland, led, from observing the want of brightness of a candle burning in 
a tent on the summit of Mont Blanc, to scrutinize Davy’s theory of flame, 
discovered that brightness without incandescent solid particles is given to a 
purely gaseous flame by augmented pressure, and that a dense ignited gas 
gives a spectrum comparable with that of the light from an incandescent solid 
or liquid. Lockyer joined him ; and the two found that every incandescent 
substance gives a continuous spectrum—that an incandescent gas under 
varied pressure gives bright bars across the continuous spectrum, some of 
which, from the sharp, hard and fast lines observed where the gas is in a 
state of extreme attenuation, broaden out on each side into nebulous bands 
as the density is increased, and are ultimately lost in the continuous spec- 
trum when the condensation is pushed on till the gas becomes a fluid no 
longer to be called gaseous. More recently they have examined the influence 
of temperature, and have obtained results which seem to show that a highly 
attenuated gas, which at a high temperature gives several bright lines, gives 
a smaller and smaller number of lines, of sufticient brightness to be visible, 
when the temperature is lowered, the density being kept unchanged. I cannot 
refrain here from remarking how admirably this beautiful investigation har- 
monizes with Andrews’ great discovery of continuity between the gaseous 
and liquid states. Such things make the life-blood of science. In contem- 
plating them we fecl as if led out from narrow waters of scholastic dogma to 
a refreshing excursion on the broad and deep ocean of truth, where we learn 
from the wonders we sce that there are endlessly more and more glorious 
wonders still unseen. 

Stokes’ dynamical theory supplies the key to the philosophy of Frank- 
land and Lockyer’s discovery. Any atom of gas when struck and left to 
itself vibrates with perfect purity its fundamental note or notes. In a 
highly attenuated gas each atom is very rarely in collision with other 
atoms, and therefore is nearly at all times in a state of true vibration. 
Hence the spectrum of a highly attenuated gas consists of one or more 
perfectly sharp bright lines, with a scarcely perceptible continuous gradation 


XCVili REPORT—1871. 


of prismatic colour. In denser gas each atom is frequently in collision, but 
still is for much more time free, in intervals between collisions, than engaged 
in collision ; so that not only is the atom itself thrown sensibly out of tune 


during a sensible proportion of its whole time, but the confused jangle of © 


vibrations in eyery variety of period during the actual collision becomes more 
considerable in its influence. Hence bright lines in the spectrum broaden 
out somewhat, and the continuous spectrum becomes less faint. In still 
denser gas each atom may be almost as much time in collision as free, and 
the spectrum then consists of broad nebulous bands crossing a continuous 
spectrum of considerable brightness. When the medium is so dense that 
each atom is always in collision, that is to say never free from influence of 
its neighbours, the spectrum will generally be continuous, and may present 
little or no appearance of bands, or even of maxima of brightness. In this 
condition the fluid can be no longer regarded as a gas, and we must judge 
of its relation to the vaporous or liquid states according to the critical 
conditions discovered by Andrews. 

While these great investigations of properties of matter were going on, 
naturalists were not idle with the newly recognized power of the spectro- 
scope at their service. Chemists soon followed the example of Bunsen 
in discovering new metals in terrestrial matter by the old blow-pipe and 
prism test of Fox Talbot and Herschel. Biologists applied spectrum analysis 
to animal and vegetable chemistry, and to sanitary investigations, But 
it is in astronomy that spectroscopic research has been carried on with 
the greatest activity, and been most richly rewarded with results. The 
chemist and the astronomer have joined their forces, An astronomical ob- 
servatory has now, appended to it, a stock of reagents such as hitherto was 
only to be found in the chemical laboratory. A devoted corps of volunteers 
of all nations, whose motto might well be whigue, have directed their artil- 
lery to every region of the universe. The sun, the spots on his surface, 
the corona and the red and yellow prominences seen round him during 
total eclipses, the moon, the planets, comets, auroras, nebule, white 
stars, yellow stars, red stars, variable and temporary stars, each tested by the 
prism was compelled to show its distinguishing colours. Rarely before in 
the history of science has enthusiastic perseverance directed by penetra- 
tive genius produced within ten years so brilliant a succession of dis- 
coveries. It is not merely the chemistry of sun and stars, as first sug- 
gested, that is subjected to analysis by the spectroscope. Their whole laws 
of being are now subjects of direct investigation; and already we have 
glimpses of their evolutional history through the stupendous power of this 
most subtle and delicate test. We had only solar and stellar chemistry; 
we now have solar and stellar physiology. 

It is an old idea that the colour of a stur may be influenced by its motion 
relatively to the eye of the spectator, so as to be tinged with red if it moves 
from the earth, or blue if it moves towards the earth. William Allen Miller, 
Huggins, and Maxwell showed how, by aid of the spectroscope, this idea may 
be made the foundation of a method of measuring the relative velocity with 
which a star approaches to or recedes from the earth. The principle is, first to 
identify, if possible, one or more of the lines in the spectrum of the star, with a 
line or lines in the spectrum of sodium, or some other terrestrial substance, 
and then (by observing the star and the artificial light simultaneously by 
the same spectroscope) to find the difference, if any, between their refran- 
gibilities. From this difference of refrangibility the ratio of the periods of 
the two lights is calculated, according to data determined by Fraunhofer from 


a 


_ ADDRESS. XC1x 


comparisons between the positions of the dark lines in the prismatic spectrum 
and in his own “ interference spectrum ” (produced by substituting for the 
prism a fine grating). A first comparatively rough application of the test by 
Miller and Huggins to a large number ef the principal stars of our skies, 
including Aldebaran, a Orionis, 3 Pegasi, Sirius, a Lyre, Capella, Arcturus, 
Pollux, Castor (which they had obseryed rather for the chemical purpose than 
for this), proved that not one of them had so great a velocity as 515 kilometres 
per second to or from the earth, which is a most momentous result in respect 
to cosmical dynamics. Afterwards Huggins made special observations of 
the velocity test, and succeeded in making the measurement in one case, 
that of Sirius, which he then found to be receding from the earth at the rate 
of 66 kilometres per second. This, corrected for the velocity of the earth at 
the time of the observation, gave a velocity of Sirius, relatively to the Sun, 
amounting to 47 kilometres per second. The minuteness of the difference to 
be measured, and the smallness of the amount of light, even when the brightest 
star is observed, renders the observation extremely difficult. Still, with 
such great skill as Mr. Huggins has brought to bear on the investigation, 
it can scarcely be doubted that velocities of many other stars may be 
measured. What is now wanted is, certainly not greater skill, perhaps not 
eyen more powerful instruments, but more instruments and more observers. 
Lockyer’s applications of the velocity test to the relative motions of different 
gases in the Sun’s photosphere, spots, chromosphere, and chromospheric pro- 
minences, and his observations of the varying spectra presented by the same 
substance as it moves from one position to another in the Sun’s atmosphere, 
and his interpretations of these observations, according to the laboratory 
results of Frankland and himself, go far towards confirming the conviction 
that in a few years all the marvels of the Sun will be dynamically explained 
according to known properties of matter. 

During six or eight precious minutes of time, spectroscopes have been ap- 
plied to the solar atmosphere and to the corona seen round the dark disk of 
the Moon eclipsing the Sun. Some of the wonderful results of such obser- 
vations, made in India on the occasion of the eclipse of August 1868, were 
deseribed by Professor Stokes in a previous address. Valuable results have, 
through the liberal assistance given by the British and American Govern- 
ments, been obtained also from the total eclipse of last December, notwith- 
standing a generally unfavourable condition of weather. It seems to have 
been proved that at least some sensible part of the light of the “corona” is a 
terrestrial atmospheric halo or dispersive reflection of the light of the glow- 
ing hydrogen and “helium” * round the sun. I belieye I may say, on the 
present occasion when preparation must again be made to utilize a total 
eclipse of the Sun, that the British Association confidently trusts to our 
Goyernment exercising the same wise liberality as heretofore in the interests 
of science. . 

The old nebular hypothesis supposes the solar system, and other similar 
systems through the universe which we see at a distance as stars, to have 
originated in the condensation of fiery nebulous matter. This hypothesis 
was invented before the discovery of thermo-dynamics, or the nebule would 
not have been supposed to be fiery; and the idea seems never to have 
oceurred to any of its inventors or early supporters that the matter, the con- 
densation of which they supposed to constitute the Sun and stars, could haye 


* Frankland and Lockyer find the yellow prominences to give a very decided bright line 
not far from D, but hitherto not identified with any terrestrial flame. It seems to indicate 
a new substance, which they propose to call Helium, 


Cc REPORT—1871. 


been other than fiery in the beginning. Mayer first suggested that the heat 
of the Sun may be due to gravitation: but he supposed meteors falling in 
to keep always generating the heat which is radiated year by year from the 
Sun. Helmholtz, on the other hand, adopting the nebular hypothesis, showed 
in 1854 that it was not necessary to suppose the nebulous matter to have 
been originally fiery, but that mutual gravitation between its parts may 
have generated the heat to which the present high temperature of the Sun is 
due. Further he made the important observations that the potential energy 
of gravitation in the Sun is even now far from exhausted; but that with 
further and further shrinking more and more heat is to be generated, and 
that thus we can conceive the Sun even now to possess a sufficient store of 
energy to produce heat and light, almost as at present, for several million 
years of time future. It ought, however, tu be added that this condensation 
can only follow from cooling, and therefore that Helmholtz’s gravitational 
explanation of future Sun-heat amounts really to showing that the Sun’s 
thermal capacity is enormously greater, in virtue of the mutual gravitation 
between the parts of so enormous a mass, than the sum of the thermal capa- 
cities of separate and smaller bodies of the same material and same total 
mass. Reasons for adopting this theory, and the consequences which follow 
from it, are discussed in an article ‘‘ On the Age of the Sun’s Heat,” published 
in ‘ Macmillan’s Magazine’ for March 1862. 

For a few years Mayer’s theory of solar heat had seemed to me probable ; 
but I had been led to regard it as no longer tenable, because I had been in 
the first place driven, by consideration of the very approximate constancy of 
the Earth’s period of revolution round the Sun for the last 2000 years, to 
conclude that “The principal source, perhaps the sole appreciably effective 
“ source of Sun-heat, is in bodies circulating round the Sun at present inside 
‘¢ the Karth’s orbit” * ; and because Le Verrier’s researches on the motion of 
the planet Mercury, though giving evidence of a sensible influence attributable 
to matter circulating as a great number of small planets within his orbit 
round the Sun, showed that the amount of matter that could possibly be as- 
sumed to circulate at any considerable distance from the Sun must be very 
small; and therefore “if the meteoric influx taking place at present is 
“ enough to produce any appreciable portion of the heat radiated away, it 
“ must be supposed to be from matter circulating round the Sun, within very 
“ short distances of his surface. The density of this meteoric cloud would 
“have to be supposed so great that comets could scarcely have escaped as 
“‘ comets actually have escaped, showing no diseoverable effects of resistance, 
‘‘after passing his surface within a distance equal to one-eighth of his radius. 
«‘ All things considered, there seems little probability in the hypothesis that 
“ solar radiation is compensated to any appreciable degree, by heat generated 
«by meteors falling in, at present; and, as it can be shown that no chemical 
«theory is tenablet, it must be concluded as most probable that the Sun is 
‘* at present mere an incandescent liquid mass cooling ” f. 

Thus on purely astronomical grounds was I long ago led to abandon as 
very improbable the hypothesis that the Sun’s heat is supplied dynamically 
from year to year by the influx of meteors. But now spectrum analysis gives 
proof finally conclusive against it. 

Each meteor circulating round the Sun must fall in along a very gradual 


* “On the mechanical energies of the Solar System.” Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, 1854; and Phil. Mag. 1854, second half year, 
“‘ Mechanical Hnergies” &e. 
t ‘Age of the Sun’s Heat” (Macmillan’s Magazine, March 1862), 


ADDRESS, cl 


spiral path, and before reaching the Sun must have been for a long time 
exposed to an enormous heating effect from his radiation when very near, 
and must thus have been driven into vapour before actually falling into the 
Sun. Thus, if Mayer’s hypothesis is correct, friction between vortices of 
meteoric vapours and the Sun’s atmosphere must be the immediate cause of 
solar heat ; and the velocity with which these vapours circulate round equa- 
torial parts of the Sun must amount to 435 kilometres per second. The 
spectrum test of velocity applied by Lockyer showed but a twentieth part of 
this amount as the greatest observed relative velocity between different 
vapours in the Sun’s atmosphere. 

At the first Liverpool Meeting of the British Association (1854), in ad- 
vancing a gravitational theory to account for all the heat, light, and motions 
of the universe, I urged that the immediately antecedent condition of the 
matter of which the Sun and Planets were formed, not being fiery, could not 
have been gascous; but that it probably was solid, and may have been like 
the meteoric stones which we still so frequently meet with through space. 
The discovery of Huggins, that the light of the nebuli, so far as hitherto 
sensible to us, proceeds from incandescent hydrogen and nitrogen gases, and 
that the heads of comets also give us light of incandescent gas, seems at first 
sight literally to fulfil that part of the nebular hypothesis to which I had 
objected. But a solution, which seems to me in the highest degree probable, 
has been suggested by Tait. He supposes that it may be by ignited gaseous 
exhalations proceeding from the collision of meteoric stones that Nebulze and 
the heads of comets show themselves to us; and he suggested, at a former 
meeting of the Association, that experiments should be made for the purpose 
of applying spectrum analysis to the light which has been observed in 
gunnery trials, such as those at Shoeburyness, when iron strikes against iron 
at a great velocity, but varied by substituting for the iron various solid 
materials, metallic or stony. Hitherto this suggestion has not been acted 
upon ; but surely it is one the carrying out of which ought to be promoted 
by the British Association. 

Most important steps have been recently made towards the discovery of the 
nature of comets, establishing with nothing short of certainty the truth of a 
hypothesis which had long appeared to me probable, that they consist of groups 
of meteoric stones, accounting satisfactorily for the light of the nucleus, 
and giving a simple and rational explanation of phenomena presented by 
the tails of comets which had been regarded by the greatest astronomers as 
almost preternaturally marvellous. The meteoric hypothesis to which I have 
referred remained a mere hypothesis (I do not know that it was ever even 
published) until, in 1866, Schiaparelli calculated, from observations on the 
August meteors, an orbit for these bodies which he found to agree almost 
perfectly with the orbit of the great comet of 1862 as calculated by Oppolzer ; 
and so discovered and demonstrated that a comet consists of a group of 
meteoric stones. Professor Newton, of Yale College, United States, by examin- 
ing ancient records, ascertained that in periods of about thirty-three years, 
since the year 902, there have been exceptionally brilliant displays of the 
November meteors. Jt had long been believed that these interesting visi- 
tants came from a train of small detached planets circulating round the Sun 
all in nearly the same orbit, and constituting a belt analogous to Saturn’s 
ring, and that the reason for the comparatively large number of meteors 
which we observe annually about the 14th of November is, that at that 
‘time the earth’s orbit cuts through the supposed meteoric belt. Professor 
Newton concluded from his investigation that there is a denser part of 

1871. h 


cli REPORT—1871. 


the group of meteors which extends over a portion of the orbit so great 
as to occupy about one-tenth or one-fifteenth of the periodic time in 
passing any particular point, and gave a choice of five different periods for 
the revolution of this meteoric stream round the sun, any one of which would 
satisfy his statistical result. He further concluded that the line of nodes 
(that is to say, the line in which the plane of the meteoric belt cuts the plane 
of the Earth’s orbit) has a progressive sidereal motion of about 52'-4 per 
annum. Here, then, was a splendid problem for the physical astronomer ; 
and, happily, one well qualified for the task, took it up. Adams, by the 
application of a beautiful method invented by Gauss, found that of the five 
periods allowed by Newton just one permitted the motion of the line of nodes 
to be explained by the disturbing influence of Jupiter, Saturn, and other 
planets. The period chosen on these grounds is 33; years. The inves- 
tigation showed further that the form of the orbit is a long ellipse, giving 
for shortest distance from the Sun 145 million kilometres, and for longest 
distance 2895 million kilometres. Adams also worked out the longitude 
of the perihelion and the inclination of the orbit’s plane to the plane of the 
ecliptic. The orbit which he thus found agreed so closely with that of 
Temple’s Comet I. 1866 that he was able to identify the comet and the 
meteoric belt *. The same conclusion had been pointed out a few weeks 
earlier by Schiaparelli, from calculations by himself on data supplied by 
direct observations on the meteors, and independently by Peters from ealeu- 
lations by Leverrier on the same foundation. It is therefore thoroughly 
established that Temple’s Comet I. 1866 consists of an elliptic train of minute 
planets, of which a few thousands or millions fall to the earth annually about 
the 14th of November, when we cross their track. We have probably not 
yet passed through the very nucleus or densest part; but thirteen times, in 
Octobers and Noyembers, from October 13, a.p. 902, to November 14, 1866 
inclusive (this last time having been correctly predicted by Prof. Newton), 
we have passed through a part of the belt greatly denser than the average. 
The densest part of the train, when near enough to us, is visible as the head 
of the comet. This astounding result, taken along with Huggins’s spectro- 
scopic observations on thie light of the heads and tails of comets, confirms 
most strikingly Tait’s theory of comets, to which I have already referred ; 
according to which the comet, a group of meteoric stones, is self-luminous 
in its nucleus, on account of collisions among its constituents, while its “ tail” 
is merely a portion of the less dense part of the train illuminated by sunlight, 
and visible or invisible to us according to circumstances, not only of density, 
degree of illumination, and nearness, but also of tactic arrangement, as of a 
flock of birds or the edge of a cloud of tobacco-smoke! What prodigious diffi- 
culties are to be explained, you may judge from two or three sentences which 


* Signor Schiaparelli, Director of the Observatory of Milan, who, in a letter dated 31st 
December 1866, pointed out that the elements of the orbit of the Aawgust Meteors, caleu- 
lated from the observed position of their radiant point on the supposition of the orbit 
being avery elongated ellipse, agreed very closely with those of the orbit of Comet IT. 1862, 
calculated by Dr. Oppolzer. In the same letter Schiaparelli gives elements of the orbit 
of the November meteors, but these were not sufficiently accurate to enable him to identify 
the orbit with that of any known comet. On the 21st January, 1867, M. Leverrier gave 
. more accurate elements of the orbit of the November Meteors, and in the ‘ Astronomische 
Nachrichten’ of January 9, Mr. C. F. W. Peters, of Altona, pointed out that these elements 
closely agreed with those of Temple’s Comet (I 1866), calculated by Dr. Oppolzer; and 
on February 2, Schiaparelli haying recalculated the elements of the orbit of the meteors, 
himself noticed the same agreement. Adams arrived quite independently at the conclusion 
that the orbit of 333 years period is the one which must be chosen out of the five indi- 
cated by Prof. Newton, His calculations were sufficiently advanced before the letters. 


ADDRESS. cll 


I shall read from Herschel’s Astronomy, and from the fact that even Schiaparelli 
seems still to believe in the repulsion. “There is, beyond question, some 
profound secret and mystery of nature concerned in the phenomenon of 
“their tails. Perhaps it is not too much to hope that future observation, 
“ borrowing every aid from rational speculation, grounded on the progress of 
* physical science generally (especially those branches of it which relate to 
* the ethereal or imponderable elements), may enable us ere long to penetrate 
“this mystery, and to declare whether it is really matter in the ordinary 
* acceptation of the term which is projected from their heads with such 
* extraordinary velocity, and if not impelled, at least directed, in its course, 
“ by reference to the Sun, as its point of avoidance” *. 

“Tn no respect is the question as to the materiality of the tail more for- 
« cibly pressed on us for consideration than in that of the enormous sweep 
“which it makes round the sun in perihelio in the manner of a straight and 
rigid rod, in defiance of the law of gravitation, nay, even, of the received laws 
* of motion”’*. : 

«The projection of this ray . . . to so enormous a length, in a single day, 
conveys an impression of the intensity of the forces acting to produce such 
“a velocity of material transfer through space, such as no other natural phe- 
“nomenon is capable of exciting. It is clear that if we have to deal here with 
“matter, such as we conceive it (viz. possessing inertia), at all, it must be under 
“the dominion of forces incomparably more energetic than gravitation, and 
“quite of a different nature” rT. 

Think, now, of the admirable simplicity with which Tait’s beautiful ‘“ sea- 
bird analogy,” as it has been called, can explain all these phenomena. 

The essence of science, as is well illustrated by astronomy and 
cosmical physics, consists in inferring antecedent conditions, and an- 
ticipating future evolutions, from phenomena which have actually come 
under observation. In biology the difficulties of successfully acting up 
to this ideal are prodigious. ‘The earnest naturalists of the present day 
are, however, not appalled or paralyzed by them, and are struggling boldly 
and laboriously to pass out of the mere “ Natural History stage” of 
their study, and bring zoology within the range of Natural Philosophy. 
A very ancient speculation, still clung to by many naturalists (so much so 
that I have a choice of modern terms to quote in expressing it), supposes that, 
under moteorological conditions very different from the present, dead matter 
may have run together or crystallized or fermented into “germs of life,” 
or “organic cells,” or “protoplasm.” But science brings a vast mass of in- 
ductive evidence against this hypothesis of spontaneous generation, as you 
have heard from my predecessor in the Presidential chair. Careful enough 
scrutiny has, in every case up to the present day, discovered life as antecedent 
to life. Dead matter cannot become living without coming under the influ- 
ence of matter previously alive. This seems to me as sure a teaching of science 
as the law of gravitation. I utterly repudiate, as opposed to all philosophical 
uniformitarianism, the assumption of “ different meteorological conditions ”— 
that is to say, somewhat different vicissitudes of temperature, pressure, 


referred to appeared, to show that the other four orbits offered by Newton were inadmissible. 
But the calculations to be gone through to find the secular motion of the node in such an 
elongated orbit as that of the meteors were necessarily very long, so that they were not 
completed till about March 1867. They were communicated in that month to the 
: orleans Philosophical Society, and in the month following to the Astronomical 
ociety. 
* Herschel’s Astronomy, § 599. 
T Herschel’s Astronomy, 10th edition, § 589. 
h2 


Civ” REPORT— 1871. 


moisture, gaseous atmosphere—to produce or to permit that to take place by 
force or motion of dead matter alone, which is a direct contravention of what 
seems to us biological law. Iam prepared for the answer, “our code of 
‘ biological law is an expression of our ignorance as well as of our know- 
“ledge.” And I say yes: search for spontaneous generation out of inorganic 
materials; let any one not satisfied with the purely negative testimony, of 
which we have now so much against it, throw himself into the inquiry. Such 
investigations as those of Pasteur, Pouchet, and Bastian are among the most 
interesting and momentous in the whole range of Natural History, and their 
results, whether positive or negative, must richly reward the most careful 
and laborious experimenting. I confess to being deeply impressed by the 
evidence put before us by Professor Huxley, and I am ready to adopt, as an 
article of scientific faith, true through all space and through all time, that 
life proceeds from life, and from nothing but life. 

How, then, did life originate on the Earth? Tracing the physical history 
of the Earth backwards, on strict dynamical principles, we are brought to a 
red-hot melted globe on which no life could exist. Hence when the Earth 
was first fit for life, there was no living thing onit. There were rocks solid and 
disintegrated, water, air all round, warmed and illuminated by a brilliant Sun, 
ready to become a garden. Did grass and trees and flowers spring into exist- 
ence, in all the fulness of ripe beauty, by a fiat of Creative Power? or did vege- 
tation, growing up from seed sown, spread and multiply over the whole Earth ? 
Science is bound, by the everlasting law of honour, to face fearlessly every pro- 
blem which can fairly be presented to it. If a probable solution, consistent 
with the ordinary course of nature, can be found, we must not invoke an abnor- 
mal act of Creative Power. When a lava stream flows down the sides of Vesu- 
vius or Etna it quickly cools and becomes solid; and after a few weeks or. 
years it teems with vegetable and animal life, which for it originated by the 
transport of seed and ova and by the migration of individual living creatures. 
When a volcanic island springs up from the sea, and after a few years is 
found clothed with vegetation, we do not hesitate to assume that seed has | 
been wafted to it through the air, or floated to it on rafts. ITs it not possible, 
and if possible, is it not probable, that the beginning of vegetable life on the 
Earth is to be similarly explained? Every year thousands, probably mil- 
lions, of fragments of solid matter fall upon the Earth—whence came these 
fragments ? What is the previous history of any one of them? Was it created 
in the beginning of time an amorphous mass? ‘This idea is so unacceptable 
that, tacitly or explicitly, all men discard it. It is often assumed that all, 
and it is certain that some, meteoric stones are fragments which had been 
broken off from greater masses and launched free into space. It is as sure 
that collisions must occur between great masses moving through space as it 
is that ships, steered without intelligence directed to prevent collision, could 
not cross and recross the Atlantic for thousands of years with immunity from 
collisions. When two great masses come into collision in space it is certain 
that a large part of each is melted; but it seems also quite certain that in 
many cases a large quantity of débris must be shot forth in all directions, 
much of which may have experienced no greater violence than individual 
pieces of rock experience in a Jand-slip or in blasting by gunpowder. Should 
the time when this Earth comes into collision with another body, comparable 
in dimensions to itself, be when it is still clothed as at present with vege- 
tation, many great and small fragments carrying sced and living plants and 
animals would undoubtedly be scattered through space. Hence and because 
we all confidently believe that there are at present, and have becn from time 


* 


ADDRESS, CV 


immemorial, many worlds of life besides our own, we must regard it as pro- 
bable in the highest degree that there are countless secd-bearing meteoric 
stones moving about through space. If at the present instant no life existed 
upon this Earth, one such stone falling upon it might, by what we blindly 
call natural causes, lead to its becoming covered with vegetation. I am fully 
conscious of the many scientific objections which may be urged against this 
hypothesis ; but I believe them to be all answerable. I have already taxed 
your patience too severely to allow me to think of discussing any of them on 
the present occasion. The hypothesis that life originated on this Earth 
through moss-grown fragments from the ruins of another world may seem 
wild and visionary ; all I maintain is that it is not unscientific. 

From the Earth stocked with such vegetation as it could receive meteorically, 
to the Earth teeming with all the endless variety of plants and animals which 
now inhabit it, the step is prodigious ; yet, according to the doctrine of conti- 
nuity, most ably laid before the Association by a predecessor in this Chair 
(Mr. Grove), all creatures now living on earth have proceeded by orderly 
evolution from some such origin. Darwin concludes his great work on ‘ The 
Origin of Species’ with the following words :—“ It is interesting to contem- 
“ plate an entangled bank clothed with many plants of many kinds, with 
“‘ birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with 
“worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elabo- 
“‘ rately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on 
“‘ each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting 
“around us.” . . . . “There is grandeur in this view of life with its 
“ seyeral powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few 
“ forms or into one ; and that, whilst this planct has gone cycling on accord- 
‘ing to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms, 
“most beautiful and most wonderful, have been and are being evolved.” 
With the feeling expressed in these two sentences I most cordially sympathize. 
I have omitted two sentences which come between them, describing briefly 
the hypothesis of “the origin ef species by natural selection,” because I 
have always felt that this hypothesis does not contain the true theory of 
evolution, if evolution there has been, in biology. Sir John Herschel, in 
expressing a favourable judgment on the hypothesis of zoological evolution 
(with, however, some reservation in respect to the origin of man), objected to 
the doctrine of natural selection, that it was too like the Laputan method of 
making books, and that it did not sufficiently take into account a continually 
guiding and controlling intelligence. This seems to me a most valuable and 
instructive criticism. I feel profoundly convinced that the argument of 
design has been greatly too much lost sight of in recent zoological specula- 
tions. Reaction against the frivolities of teleology, such as are to be found, 
not rarely, in the notes of the learned commentators on Paley’s ‘ Natural 
Theology,’ has I believe had a temporary effect in turning attention from the 
solid and irrefragable argument so well put forward in that excellent old book. 
But overpoweringly strong proofs of intelligent and benevolent design lie 
all round us ; and if ever perplexities, whether metaphysical or scientific, turn 
us away from them for a time, they come back upon us with irresistible 
force, showing to us through Nature the influence of a free will, and teaching 
us that all living keings depend on one eycr-acting Creator and Ruler. 


—. aa he antl gs 


bec sono Strparnaaee a abisieed: Ait Yo noe wen ial 
Meshes deuce tse dl ual sorgpol ; St gt 
G lupe daewerng dé: tn Thy baa ttn ia 
a eed Abgien Hi nogd. 31 ited Bunion dou. Mtoe 
KES emi oe av-qities. (rartin. fer tes ari até it Desk i 
RRA ol Sy are hotel ah oct Liss atial cater yon ott 
babies sralsi- eo fin ash of ate de! Started tL intthy 
Bee tB98> Bee Ra Seber’ elo sb out telly Oh temmged mt 
oo OS ie a tentigran tif ai cieadigyed onto nelbaapary 
, ie oboe aii Ehurer, tortiaga Yo erslud ob: sites u Abinder rere se ant 9 


Ss he Sa c: Sapisicwes dest si dedads nt wie dai ieart Debeeng 
me, Wer estiypinnt wi isgo id: Saad Se aged ad vee af swe « 1 fen Lodsdinsl 
aay ipa slong baanaphg hi idee atictegit Lin Ae yagi a 
: dea tosa thins . dill ant. gctifatovrces vtige: eas tgihory +i pin odd RE. 
| PEs AP thesia noe wilaloe t oT eid bed 
re G8: Byiiadoen uyrnd lives wavmATTL. wom: meaty ah, 
ere aewtieds tieks il eihighines civil wiuiy, Gina ape, 
PMT TOL gil tiiul) wal AsL:o vpn gate (fh Meat 
yay ea, visto: Senedd’ gctsicr titted head rota, donend Bh aegendl 
ihiy ‘aedse pnt tilt: etioweat relate ct Hever sodeod,. cls pte whey ik.“ a 
tool eidbepdh rialberidsiyodiuen ocach odicdguordt eaten Dy atte 
} Binet alii so ator lem itify: oF Janae ‘ionyeaee seelieae 
Li alonera greed Tie -Seatt rinoenton! ie a ote 0h : tae 
y traky apis ae yin deve ai oni ah SMe shut 7 * 


re ieaarsest dienlep abt}, idficien. fot Pe iy ind oe Agpartyat 
wai Ftp’ 6 ssigarie Wik pont andl cersy: Yel wk dead ead 
“era bng (A ah ding Phir o. 4h wert Late h 


oa af thaifir. y Tae. wD ohgeries nee crs oral ail ea 2 
ay Dlitiaah sete) ett acted ihe or polmen ond 
a, Aer Ay, nO dsfewa leonnce eis, 0 Ree 
2, Solty stab IE doves medi abeardtons ri. wirld) dnd ats) epee 
a . PRE i? hye “ith nar: i> toad rat mead cro tree 0 4 
1s lets (eit! pes ee mag rat aif ins Petinaeaiet( volarage sh, Gal ee 
i aon sneak Ob Diepenket aniguicnetst Sttomae tail We 


wading score hott apntivstse beni mec a 
‘hegaineca + {cowieobaee oobetbe aulind: apf Remi ites Grea sisal he @ Aheape 
Méanleyr inva hb ob beer AE: apaettenily ; vena if 


gl? tele footages Hers TAR» fae 
ie Jeipoginn’, Tod! Sowa daria ook r 


Z fet fed wrndert mets: a hemtinsl “ai a 
Td pptiy ries atest: y cent heepertad aay 
ult whine) +:4; ile ond 


sara xi ini ' 


REPORTS 


ON 


THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 


REPORTS 


ON 


THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 


Seventh Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent’s Cavern, Devon- 
shire,—the Committee consisting of Sir Cuartus Lyset, Bart., 
F.R.S., Professor Puiiurres, F.R.S., Sir Joun Lussock, Bart., 
F.R.S., Joun Evans, F.R.S., Epwarp Vivian, Grorce Busk, 
F.R.S., Witt1am Boyp Dawkins, F.R.S., Wittiam AysHFrorpD 
SanrorD, F.G.S., and Witu1amM Pencetty, F.R.S. (Reporter). 


Dvcrine the year which has elapsed since the Sixth Report was sent in 
(Liverpool, 1870), the Committee have without intermission carried on 
their researches, and have strictly followed the mode of working with which 
the exploration was commenced in 1865. The Superintendents have con- 
tinued to visit the Cavern, and to record the results daily; they have, as 
from the beginning, sent Monthly Reports to the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee ; the work has been carried on by the same workmen, George Smerdon 
and John Farr, who have discharged their duties in a most efficient and 
satisfactory manner; and the Cavern is as much resorted to as ever by visitors 
feeling an interest in the researches. 

In June 1871, Mr. Busk, a Member of the Committee, spent some time 
at Torquay, when he visited the Cavern accompanied by the Superintendents, 
who took him through all its branches, explored and unexplored. Having 
carefully watched the progress of the work, and made himself familiar with 
all its details, he spent some time at the Secretary’s residence, examining and 
identifying a portion of the mammalian remains which had been disinterred. 

In November 1870 the Superintendents had also the pleasure of going 
through the cavern with Mr. W. Morrison, M.P., who takes so active an 
interest in the exploration of the caves near Settle in Yorkshire. 

Besides the foregoing, and exclusive of the large number attended by the 
guide appointed by the proprietor, Sir L. Palk, Bart., M.P., the Cavern has 
been visited during the year by the Earl and Countess Russell, Sir R. Sin- 
elair, Bart., Sir C. Trevelyan, Mr. C. Gilpin, M.P., Governor Wayland, U.S., 
Colonel Ward, Major Bryce, U.S., Rev. Mr. Dickenson, Rev. E. N. Dumble- 
ton, Rey. J. P. Foster, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Dr. Ashford, Dr. Tate, and 
es S. Bate, R. Bellasis, L. Bowring, W. R. A. Boyle, W. Bridges, 

1871. B 


o REPORT—1871. 


C. Busk, A. Champernowne, Channing, Chaplin, F. A. Fellows, T. Fox, 
T. Glaisher, J. Harrison, Howard, W. Jones, C. Pannel, Richie, W. Spriggs, 
KE. B. Tawney, G. H. Wollaston, and many others. 

Smerdon’s Passage—The Committee stated in their last Report that, in 
excavating the “North Sally-port,’” they had been led to a third External En- 
trance to the Cavern, in the same limestone cliff as the two Entrances known 
from time immemorial, but at a considerably lower level, where it was com- 
pletely buried in a great talus of débris. After adding that it had not been 
thought necessary, or desirable, or even safe to dig through the talus to the 
open day, they stated the facts which left no doubt of their having pene- 
trated to the outside of the Cavern. During the winter of 1870-71, the 
question of the existence of the third Entrance was put beyond all doubt; 
for, after a considerable rainfall, that portion of the talus which the workmen 
had undermined fell in, and thereby laid open the Entrance. This cavity 
was at once filled up, in order to prevent any one from intruding into the 
Cavern. 

It was also stated last year that the new or low-level opening was the 
External Entrance not only of the North Sally-port, but of another and 
unsuspected branch of the Cavern, to which had been given the name of 
«“Smerdon’s Passage,” the exploration of which had been begun. 

This Passage was found to consist of two Reaches, the first, or outermost, 
being about 25 feet long, from 3 to 10 feet wide, and having a northerly 
direction. Near its entrance, or southern end, there are in the roof a few 
circular holes, from 6 to 12 inches in diameter, apparently the mouths of 
tortuous shafts extending for some distance into, or perhaps through, the 
limestone rock, The roof itself and the adjacent portions of the wall bear 
traces of the long-continued erosive action of running water, but below the 
uppermost 12 or 18 inches the walls have many sharp angular inequa- 
lities. Further in, the roof has an irregular fretted aspect, apparently the 
result of the corrosive action of acidulated water, whilst the walls retain the 
angular appearance just mentioned. 

The Second Reach runs nearly east and west, is about 32 feet long, some- 
what wider than the first, and its roof is several feet higher. At its outer or 
eastern end the roof and walls are much fretted; further in, there are holes 
in the roof similar to those just mentioned, with the exception of being 
larger. Some of them contain a small quantity of soil, resembling 
Caye-earth, and firmly cemented to the wall; whilst adjacent to others 
there is a considerable amount of stalactitic matter. Still further in, the 
roof, which has the aspect of a watercourse, is covered with a thin veneer 
of white stalactite; and near the inner end there is a considerable hole in 
the roof containing a large accumulation of the same material. 

At the western or inner end of this Second Reach, the limestone roof gave 
place to one consisting of angular pieces of limestone cemented with carbo- 
nate of lime into a very firm concrete. In breaking this up, the workman 
thrust his iron bar up through it, and found he had thereby opened a pas- 
sage into the easfern end of that branch of the Cavern known as the “Sloping 
Chamber,” the concrete floor of which was at the same time the roof of the 
Passage. 

At the outer or eastern end of the Second Reach there was found another 
Low-level Entrance, about 20 feet from that previously mentioned, and 
having no marks of the action of water. 

Narrow ramifications extend through the limestone rock from both Reaches 
of Smerdon’s Passage (westward from the first, and southwards. from the 


ON KENT’S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 3 


second) and intersect one another; their roofs are also perforated with holes, 
and exhibit traces of the action of running water, 

Throughout both Reaches there were in certain places strips of Stalag- 
mitic Floor extending continuously across from wall to wall, and varying 
from a quarter of an inch to 6 inches in thickness. The most important 
of these strips was about 8 feet long. Elsewhere the Cave-earth was either 
completely bare, or had on it here and there what may be called conical 
scales of stalagmite, from 3 to 12 inches in diameter at the base, and from 
1 to 4 inches in thickness at the centre. From them, and generally near 
the middle, there not unfrequently rose one or more rudely cylindrical 
masses of the same material, sometimes 9 inches high, 6 inches in circum- 
ference, and locally known as ‘“ Cow’s Paps.” In almost every instance of 
the kind there depended from the limestone roof, vertically over them, a 
long, slender, quill-like tube of stalactite, occasionally reaching and uniting 
with the “Paps.” Such tubes occurred also in certain places where there 
were no “ Paps,” and in some spots there was quite a forest of them, ex- 
tending from the roof to the Stalagmitic Floor. Wherever it was possible 
to excavate the deposit beneath without breaking them, they were left 
intact. In some cases the Stalagmitic Floor, or the Cave-earth where the 
latter was bare, reached the roof; and where this was not the case, the unoc- 
eupied space was rarely more than a foot in height. 

About midway in the Second Reach there was on each wall a remnant 
of an old floor of stalagmite, about 8 inches above the floor found intact, 
fully 6 inches thick, about 6 feet in length, and within a few inches of the 
roof, 

The mechanical deposit in the Passage was the ordinary red Cave-earth, 
in some places sandy, but occasionally avery compactclay. It contained a 
considerable number of angular fragments of limestone, numerous blocks of 
old crystalline stalagmite, and a few well-rolled pebbles of quartz, red grit, 
and flint. The masses of limestone were not unfrequently of considerable 
size; indeed one of them required to be blasted twice, and another three 
times, in order to effect their removal; and some of the blocks of stalagmite 
measured fully 15 cubic feet. 

From the entrance of the First Reach to about 10 feet within it, the 
upper surface of the Cave-earth was almost perfectly horizontal; but from 
the latter point it rose irregularly higher and higher, until, at the inner end 
of the Second Reach, the increased height amounted to about 9 feet. There 
were no tunnels or burrows in the deposit, such as occurred in both the 
Sally-ports, and were described in the Fifth and Sixth Reports (1869 and 
1870). Near the inner end of the Second Reach the Caye-earth adjacent to 
the walls was cemented into a concrete. 

The deposit in the lateral ramifications of the Passage was the same typi- 
cal Cave-earth, containing blocks of old crystalline stalagmite and angular 
pieces of limestone, but without any Stalagmitie Floor. 

It was stated in the Sixth Report (1870), p. 26, that at the third External 
Entrance, 2. ¢. the first of the low-level series, the deposits were of two 
kinds—the ordinary Cave-earth, with the usual osseous remains, below; and 
small angular pieces of limestone, with but little earth and no fossils, above. 
Materials of precisely the same character, and in the same order, were found 
at the new low-level Entrance, at the eastern end of the Second Reach of 
Smerdon’s Passage, as already stated. 

Besides a large number of bones, portions of bones, and fragments of 
antlers, a total of fully 2900 teeth were found in the Passage andits rami- 

B2 


A REPORT—1871. 


fications, of which 700 were reported at Liverpool*. The remaining 2200, 
exhumed since the end of August 1870, belonged to different kinds of animals, 
in the ratios shown in the following list :— 


Ayena i. 666s. 335 per thousand. | Bear 2.4..5..%. 18 per thousand. 
Horse IE PP. 295 5 Oa are a ac 12 A 
Rhinoceros .... 161 a Ton, #2520 RAS on by 
“Trish Elk”.... 55 55 Reindeer ...... 5 M 
Ome Cie ren 2a 35 Z, Wolf “7. 24 eya 4 z 
Meer!) LPF I4 27 4 ar) as 2 
Badger)! 22 “5 Rabbit ¢ View A 1 Pe 
Elephant ...... 20 + Dog (?) .. less than 1 E 


On comparing the foregoing list with those given for the Sally-ports in 
the Sixth Report (pp. 19 and 24), it will be found to differ from them in 
containing neither Sheep nor Pig, and in the diminished prevalence of Rabbit 
and Badger. 

Many of the teeth are in fragments of jaws, which have, in most cases, 
lost their condyles and their inferior borders. They belong to individuals of 
all ages, from the baby Elephant, whose molar crown was no more than ‘8 
inch long, and the Hyzna, whose second set had made their appearance 
before the dislodgement of the first, to the wasted remnant of an adult tooth 
of the Mammoth, and the canine of the Bear worn quite to the fang. 

Many of the bones and teeth are discoloured, a large number are gnawed 
(generally, no doubt, by the Hyzena, but occasionally by some smaller animal), 
and a considerable proportion of them, at all levels, are more or less covered 
with films of stalagmitic matter. On some of the specimens are peculiar 
markings, produced perhaps by fine rootlets of trees having grown round 
them. Some marked in this way were found with living rootlets surround- 
ing them. 

Coprolitic matter was by no means abundant, only one example of it 
having been met with in the entire Passage. 

In various parts of the Passage considerable heaps of small bones, some- 
times agglutinated, were found here and there on the surface, or but little 
below it. In one instance as many as 8400 were picked out of 120 cubic 
inches of material. 

At the junction of the two Reaches of the Passage, a large ledge or cur- 
tain of limestone projected downwards from the roof considerably below the 
usual level. On the inner or northern side of it there was found a wheel- 
barrow full of bones, fragments of bones, and teeth, of a considerable variety 
of animals, all huddled together. 

It was stated in the First Report (Birmingham, 1865+) that the Cayve- 
earth was excavated in “ Parallels,” the length of which was thesame as 
the width of the Chamber &c., where this was not excessive, breadth in- 
variably 1 foot, and depth 4 feet, where this gave the men sufficient height 
to work in comfort, or 5 feet where it did not; that each parallel was 
divided into successive horizontal “ Levels,” a foot in depth ; and that each 
level was subdivided into lengths or “ Yards,” each 3 feet long and, from 
what has been stated, a foot square in the section, thus rendering it easy 
to define and record the position of every object discovered. 

Smerdon’s Passage and its lateral branches contained 78 “Parallels” of 


* See Sixth Report, 1870, p. 27. t See pp. 19, 20. 


_ —— ed 


ON KENT’S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 5 


Cave-earth, and, as it was necessary to excavate to the depth of 5 feet*, a 
total of 390 separate “ foot-levels.”” The following Table shows the distri- 
bution of the teeth of the different kinds of animals in the various “ Paral- 
lels” and “ Levels.” 


| _|# Bi 
3S : 2 H 4 3) oe] 
q g So | F o | 4 : . | os 2 7S la. 
aol ea loset all meces x | © 1S.) 3 mel ich Wtete lai leet = 
BS ot | u : o rs 2 oS 4 .S I Oo |+/-Q} 40 
Hitia@ lr |/é6/Als@lelalaelslie/e eligea 
Sreiloles es: 71| 68| 60| 29 | 43/23/14] 27) 99/14/11} 11| 9 \1lels 
icc ..... aa 44092 16 }-16) oF IL |e | @l mie, bei ioe 
aaa Bal | 49/11/23) 7| 2) 1 ot or at Pees len 
> 43| 37| 83/16/13} 7| 2] 9/10] 4] 6] 4] 4/0 Ile 
mike... 98} 922} 9/13] 7/...1 51 5| 4/ 21 5/3 
RRB icy cao, FON AERO IO eve Goh Bila WasBiles 4ahe Behucde by Bok ae 
Total Levels ...|188|176/139| 49 | 71 | 33 | 15 | 40 | 34 | 18 | 13 | 14 | 10 /1l2l3 


By way of explanation, it may be stated that teeth of Hyzna, for exam- 
ple, were found in 71 of the 78 “parallels,” at all “levels,” and in 188 
*‘ foot-levels,” or very nearly one half of the total number ; and,so on for the 
other kinds of animals. 

A glance at the Table shows that, in the case of the most prevalent 
animals—Hyzena, Horse, and Rhinoceros—their teeth were most frequently 
met with (not necessarily met with in greatest numbers) in the second 
“ foot-level,” below which they were less and less frequent as the level was 
lower ; that the Badger was most frequently met with in the uppermost 
*< foot-level,” and never found below the third; that teeth of Lion were not 
found in the uppermost “level,” and occurred most frequently in the third; 
that those of Wolf did not present themselves in the lowest or fifth “ foot- 
level; ” that Bat and Rabbit were restricted to the uppermost “ level,” the 
former to one “parallel” and the latter to two; and that the Hyena had 
the widest distribution, both as regards “ parallels” and “levels.” 

Twelve Flint flakes and chips were found in the Second Reach of the 
Passage—=3 in the first or uppermost “ foot-level,”’ 3 in the second, 3 in the 
third, and 4 in the fourth; there were none in the First Reach, or in the 
lateral branches. Compared with the fine specimens met with in previous 
years in other parts of the Cavern, they are perhaps of but little value. 
Some of them are rather chert than flint, and with one exception (No. 3554) 
—a well-designed but roughly finished lanceolate implement—they are all 
of the prevalent white colour. 

In the Second Reach there was also found a lance-shaped bone tool 

_ (No, 3428), 2-7 inches long, 1-1 inch broad at the butt end, flat on one face and 
uniformly convex on the other, reduced to a thin edge all round the margin 
except at the butt end, where it was cut off sharply but somewhat obliquely, 
tapering gradually to a rounded point, and -4 inch in greatest thickness. In 
short, it closely resembled in form and size many of the lanceolate flint im- 
plements of the Cavern series, with the single exception that it was not cari- 
nated on the convex face. It was found on October 5th, 1870, in the first 
“foot-level” of Cave-earth, lying with 6 teeth of Hyzna, 1 of Rhinoceros, 


_ * In two or three “ Parallels” it was requisite to go to the depth of 6 feet, in order to 
pass under the “Curtain” of limestone mentioned above. 


6 REPORT—1871. 


1 of Bear, 1 of Horse, 1 of “ Irish Elk,” 2 jaws of Badger containing four 
teeth, bones and fragments of bone, some of which were gnawed and some 
invested with films of stalagmite. 

It has been already stated that at its eastern extremity the Second Reach 
of Smerdon’s Passage terminated in a “ low-level”? External Entrance, filled 
with true Cave-earth below, above which lay an accumulation of small an- 
gular stones with but little earth. In the lower deposit the ordinary mam- 
malian remains were found, including teeth and bones of Hyzna, Horse, 
Rhinoceros, “ Irish Elk,” Ox, Elephant, Bear, and Reindeer; but the only 
thing met with in the materials above was an amber bead, ellipsoidal in form, 
but somewhat thicker on one side than the other, -9 inch in greatest dia- 
meter and ‘5 inch in least, and haying at its centre a cylindrical perforation 
about *2 inch in diameter. 

The excavation of Smerdon’s Passage was completed on December 31st, 
1870, after very nearly five months having been expended on it. From its 
prevalent narrowness, the labour in it had been attended with much dis- 
comfort ; but probably no branch of the Cavern had, on the whole, yielded 
a larger number of mammalian remains. 

Minor Ramifications of the North Sally-port.—It was stated in the Sixth 
Report (1870)*, that there were one or two ramifications of the North Sally- 
port which had not been excavated, having been passed intentionally in the 
progress of the work. To these attention was given on the completion of 
Smerdon’s Passage, and they were taken in the order of their proximity to 
the “‘ Third External Entrance,’’—the first discovered of the low-level series. 

The first was a small opening in the east wall of the last Reach of the 
North Sally-port, having its limestone floor very slightly above the top of 
the deposit in that Reach. It proved to be a tunnel in the limestone, having 
a rudely triangular transverse section, from 2°5 to 3 feet in height and 
breadth, and extending eastwards or outwards towards the hill-side for 
about 8 feet, where it terminated in material of the same character as that 
found above the Cave-earth in the first and second low-level External En- 
trances, from the first of which it was about 12 feet distant. There is no 
doubt that it is a third of these low-level Entrances, and, to use the time- 
honoured phraseology in descriptions of Kent’s Hole, it may be termed the 
“Oven” Entrance. It contained but little deposit, and the only noteworthy 
objects found in it were one tooth of Horse, a few bones and bone fragments, 
and a grit pebble. 

The second of these small lateral branches was in the south wall of the 
immediately preceding or penultimate Reach of the Sally-port, and was 
too narrow to admit of being excavated in “ Parallels” and “ Levels.” In 
it were found 7 teeth of Hyzna, 10 of Horse, 3 of Rhinoceros, 1 of Bear, 
1 of Lion, 1 of “ Irish Elk,” 1 of Ox, 16 of Badger in parts of 4 jaws, 10 of 
Rabbit in parts of 2 jaws, portion of an antler, a right femur of Beaver, 
bones and fragments of bone, a bit of charcoal, and a grit pebble. It is 
noteworthy, perhaps, that the fine specimen of Beayer’s jaw meutioned last 
yeart was found about 4 or 5 feet from the femur just named, and in the 
fourth “ foot-level.” 

The third and last of these lateral ramifications was near that part of the 
Sally-port termed the “Isiands”t. It yielded 2 teeth of Hyena, 1 of 
Horse, 3 of Rhinoceros, 1 of Bear, 3 of “ Irish Elk,” 4 of Deer, 2 of Badger, 
4 of Rabbit, an astragalus of Ox, bones and bone fragments, and, in the 
uppermost ‘‘ foot-level,” 2 land-shells, 


* See p. 25. t See Sixth Report, 1870, p. 24. t Ibid. p. 21. 


————? 


ae 


—— oe 


ON KENT’S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 7 


- On January 17th, 1871, the workmen finally and gladly emerged from the 

labyrinth of low narrow passages in which they had been engaged from day 
to day from November 13th, 1869, or upwards of 14 months. In this time 
they had not only excavated and taken to the day the deposits, to the depth 
of 5 feet, in all the extensive and ramifying branches known as the North 
Sally-port and Smerdon’s Passage, and exhumed eartloads of the remains of 
various animals, including 5900 of their teeth, as well as 20 flint implements 
and flakes, but, beyond the first Reach of the Sally-port (27 feet long), they 
had actually discovered the whole of these branches, including three new 
entrances to the Cavern itself, and had thus added greatly, not only to the 
extent of Kent’s Hole, but to a knowledge of its structure. 

The completion of these branches concluded the excavation, to the depth 
of 4 feet generally, and 5 feet in some instances, below the Stalagmitic Floor, 
of the whole of the Eastern Division of the Cavern. 

The Cavern Entrances.—Before proceeding to a description of the branch 
which next engaged attention, it may be of service to devote a few words to 
the Entrances of the Cavern, of which there are now known to be five (two 
at a high and three at a low level), all in the eastern side of the hill, and 
within a horizontal distance of 53 feet. Those at the high-level (known 
from time immemorial) are about 53 feet apart, almost exactly on the same 
level, and about 189 feet above mean tide. The most northerly of them is 
that invariably spoken of in all early descriptions of the Cavern as “ The 
Entrance.” Those of the lower series are also at very nearly the same level 
with one another, but from 18 to 20 feet below the former two. Being 
lower in the sloping hill-side, they are about 24 feet outside or east of the 
vertical plane passing through the higher entrances. The most southerly 
ones in the two series are nearly in the same east and west vertical plane. 

In order to distinguish them, they are respectively termed :— _ 

1. **The Entrance,’’=the more northerly of the upper series, and, from its 
form, sometimes termed the “Triangular Entrance.” It opens into the 
“ Vestibule.” 

2. The “ Arched Entrance,”=the more southerly of the upper series. 
It opens into the ‘* Great Chamber.” 

3. The “ First Low-level Entrance,”=the middle one of the lower series— 
the first discovered. It opens into the “ North Sally-port” and the “ First 
Reach of Smerdon’s Passage.” 

4, The “ Second Low-level Entrance,”=the most northerly of the lower 
series—the second discovered. It opens into the “‘ Second Reach of Smerdon’s 
Passage.” 

5. The “Oven Entrance,”=the most southerly of the lower series—the 
last discovered. It opens into the “ North Sally-port.” 

The Sloping Chamber.—That branch of the Cavern termed the “ Sloping 
Chamber” by Mr. M‘Enery was, prior to the Committee’s exploration of 
the “ Great Chamber,” the largest apartment in it, and is still, perhaps, more 
ealeulated than any other to impress visitors. It is the only connexion of 
the two great divisions of the Cavern, and measures 80 feet from east to 
west, 25 in greatest breadth, and, since the excavation of its deposits to the 
depth of 4 feet below the base of the Stalagmitic Floor, 25 in greatest 
height. Its name was derived from its floor, which, from 20 feet from its 
eastern side, sloped rapidly towards its western side, falling as much as 14 
feet in 60, or at an average angle of 13°-5. Its ceiling sloped more 

rapidly still, being, as already stated, 25 feet high near the eastern wall, but 
not more than 6 feet at the western. This ceiling, though representing the 


8 REPORT—1871. 


dip of the limestone strata in a general way, is extremely rugged,—here re- 
treating into deep cavities whence huge masses of limestone have fallen, and 
there ornamented with numerous and heavy masses of Stalactite. Indeed 
the finest Stalactites in the Cavern occur in it ; and one known as the “‘ Chan- 
delier” has always been much admired. A very strong light is required, 
however, to bring out all the features of the ceiling. 

During the autumn of 1866, the upper, or eastern, or level portion of this 
Chamber was explored, and the results were described in the Third Report 
(Dundee, 1867). Mr. M‘Enery, too, had made extensive, no doubt his most 
extensive, diggings near the foot of the incline, where he “ succeeded in sink- 
ing a shaft to the depth of 30 feet at the bottom of the slope, with the view 
of reaching the original floor ”*, which, however, was not realized. Having 
broken the floor for his shaft, and finding the work very laborious, he availed 
himself of the opening thus made to extend his diggings eastward, keeping 
just beneath the floor, which he left spanning his broken ground like an 
arch, 

As it was obvious that a very considerable amount of deposit still remained 
intact, it was decided, on the completion of Smerdon’s Passage, to resume the 
excavation, not only in the hope of obtaining some of the paleontological 
treasures with which, according to Mr. M‘Enery, the Chamber abounded, but 
also as a pre-requisite to the exploration of the “ Wolf’s Den” and the “ Long 
Arcade,” into which it opened on the north and south respectively. 

The uppermost deposit, as in the adjacent parts of the Cavern, was the 
Black Mould so frequently mentioned in all previous Reports; and as the 
Chamber was the only capacious apartment near the Entrance, and the only 
road to the Western Division of the Cavern, which, from some cause, seems 
to have been more attractive than the Eastern to visitors in, at least, all 
recent times}, it might have been expected that many comparatively modern 
objects of interest would have been found in the Mould. In reality,how- 
ever, such objects were by no means abundant—a fact which may be ex- 
plicable, perhaps, on the hypothesis that they had been collected by Mr. 
M‘Enery and other early explorers. The only things found in this deposit 
(which, it may be stated, was of inconsiderable depth) were shells of cockle, 
limpet, and pecten ; two potsherds—one black and of coarse clay, the other 
brown, in which the clay was finer; a flint chip and a core of the same ma- 
terial ; a spindle-whorl of fine-grained micaceous grit, 1°5 inch in diameter, 
‘5 inch in thickness, and having its external edges rounded off; and a bone 
awl, 3:7 inches long, ‘7 inch broad at the butt end, and partially covered 
with a film of stalagmite. 

Beneath the Black Mould came the ordinary floor of granular and lami- 
nated stalagmite, in which, as well as in the deposit beneath, the rugged 
character of the ceiling suggested that a considerable number of large masses 
of limestone would be found. Their presence in the floor, moreover, was 
indicated by the nature of its upper surface, which, though a continuous 
sheet, with one exception to be noticed hereafter, was so very uneven 
as to induce an early guide to the Cavern to confer on it the appellation of 
the ‘“ Frozen Billows.” Accordingly, the Floor proved to be, with an excep- 


* See Trans. Devon. Assoc. vol. iii. p. 248 (1869). 

t The following fact seems to be confirmatory on this point:—There are in the various 
branches of the Western Division (sometimes in places of difficult access) numerous 
initials and dates on the limestone walls and on bosses of stalagmite—some engraved, 


some smoked, and some merely chalked—while there are extremely few in the Eastern 
Division, 


ON KENT’S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 9 


tion here and there, a brecciated mass composed of large and small pieces of 
limestone and blocks of the well-known old crystalline stalagmite, all ce- 
mented together and covered with a sheet of the cementing material. 

Near the upper part of the slope, and on its southern margin, a space about 
14 feet long and varying from 3 to 12 feet broad was without any trace of 
floor, but occupied with large loose pieces of limestone. Elsewhere the sheet 
was perfectly continuous until reaching the area in which Mr. M‘Enery had 
dug his shaft. The Floor commonly measured from 12 to 30 inches in thick- 
ness, but adjacent to the southern wall it was fully 3 feet, and contained few 
or no stones. 

On being broken into small pieces and carefully examined, it was found 
to contain 2 teeth of Horse, a portion of a jaw, 2 bones, and half of a frac- 
tured flint nodule. About 30 feet down the slope, a series of dark parallel 
lines were observed in the Floor, the uppermost being about 2 inches below 
the upper surface. On the advance of the work, they proved to be continuous 
downward, and to have a greater and greater thickness of stalagmite over 
them. On careful examination, it was found that each represented what for 
a time had been the upper surface of the Stalagmitic Floor of the Chamber, 
and was due to the presence of comminuted charcoal and other dark-coloured 
extraneous matter. Such a “charcoal streak” also occurred, according to 
Mr. M‘Enery, in the “ Long Arcade,” within a few feet of the same spot*. 
The workmen were directed to detach a specimen of the Floor where the 
streaks were well displayed, and in doing so were so fortunate as to make 
their fracture at a place where a large cockle-shell lay firmly imbedded in 
the lowest streak, at a depth of about 8 inches below the surface. Whilst 
splitting up the Stalagmite on May 16th, 1871, two specimens of well-marked 
fern-impressions were found in it, about 3 inches below the surface, Nothing 
of the kind had ever been noticed before. 

Below the Stalagmite, as usual, lay the Cave-earth, in which, as was an- 
ticipated, pieces of limestone were unusually abundant. Some of them 
~ieasured several feet in length and breadth, and were fully 2 feet thick. 
There were also numerous blocks of the old crystalline stalagmite, measuring 
in some instances upwards of 4 cubic yards, and not unfrequently projecting 
from the Cave-earth into the overlying granular floor. Though they were 
carefully broken up, nothing was found in them. 

In that portion of the Cave-earth which was found intact, there occurred, 
as usual, remains of the ordinary Cave-mammals, including about 550 teeth, 
which may be apportioned as in the following list :— 


Meeeenia....... 25... 39 per cent. | Reindeer.......... 2 per cent. 
lig 1) See 285 ap Osere ta. ie arte eisions 2 BS 
Rhinoceros ........ 14 ¥ Hlephant.. ..ccee sO . 
MM st. ee eee 4 “*s Wrage Ae foe st st ce i Fe 
men Blk” ...... ee leah INEGI tess atk) ahs s Sore 1 A 

_ ASS aoe tons Dog (?) only one tooth. 


It is, perhaps, worthy of remark that though wild animals still frequent 
Kent’s Hole, and there is reason to believe that some of them have in recent 
times carried in the bones of others on which they preyed, though the Sloping 
Chamber is near and between the two high-level Entrances, though the 
Floor was broken up and thus gave the readiest access to the Cave-earth, and 
though Mr. M‘Enery discontinued his labours upwards of 40 years ago, of 
which more than 30 were years of quietude in the Cavern, there is in the 


* See Trans. Devon. Assoc. vol. iii. pp. 236, 261, 262 (1869), 


10 . REPORT—1871.. 


foregoing list not only neither Sheep nor Pig, but neither Badger, Rabbit, 
Hare, nor Vole, all of which have been found in other branches, in deposits 
accessible to burrowing animals. 

In the Cave-earth there were also found 52 flint implements, flakes, and 
chips,—-3 of them in the first or uppermost foot-level, 16 im the second, 15 in 
the third, and 18 in the fourth or lowest. Though none of them are equal 
to the best the Cavern has yielded in previous years, there are some good 
lanceolate implements amongst them. 

No. 3693 is of light brown translucent flint, 1-85 inch in length, *9 inch in 
greatest breadth, -175 inch in greatest thickness, nearly flat on one side, and 
carinated on the other. It was found with a few bones in the first foot- 
level, amongst loose stones, where there was no Stalagmitic Floor over it; 
hence it may be doubted whether it belongs to the Paleolithic series—a doubt 
strengthened by the modern aspect of the implement. 

No. 3754, of the usual white flint, is 4-2 inches long, -9 inch in greatest 
breadth, -3 inch in-greatest thickness, both longitudinally and transversely 
concave on one side, has a medial ridge on the other, from which, at about 
an inch from one end, a second ridge proceeds, and has a thin but uneven 
edge. It was probably pointed at each end, but has unfortunately been 
broken at one of them. It was found on March the 6th, 1871, in the second 
foot-level, with splinters of bone, beneath a Stalagmitic Floor 18 inches 
thick. 

No. 5430, also of white flint, as somewhat irregular in form, but 1 may be 
termed rudely lanceolate; it is 2°7 inches in length, 1°5 inch in extreme 
breadth, -3 inch in greatest thickness, slightly concave on one face and ir- 
regularly convex on the other. It was found on March 30th, 1871, with 2 
teeth of Horse, 1 of Hyzena, and fragments of bone, in the second “ foot- 
level,” without any Stalagmitic Floor over it. 

No. 3732, a whitish flint, is 2°3 inches long, 1-1 inch in breadth, which is 
nearly uniform from end to end, slightly concave on one face, convex on the 
other, on which there are three slight, parallel, longitudinal , ridges, sharply 
truncated at both ends, but primarily thin at the sides. It was found on 
February 27th, 1871, in the third “ foot-level,” with a tooth of Hyena and 
fragments of bone, without any Stalagmitic Floor over it. 

No. 5435, a slightly mottled white flint, is 2-1 inches long, 1-1 inch broad, 
‘4 inch in greatest thickness, flat on one face, strongly ridged on the other, 
abruptly truncated at one end, but thin everywhere else; and retains its width 
almost to the opposite end, which is bluntly rounded. It was found on 31st 
March, 1871, with a portion of Deer’s jaw and fragments of bone, in the 
third “ foot-level,” beneath a Stalagmitic Floor, 2 feet thick. 

No. 3687, a mottled flint with white prevailing, is 2°6 inches long, 1-2 
inch in greatest breadth, -3 inch in greatest thickness, broadest near the 
middle, whence it tapers in both directions, somewhat pointed at one end 
but not at the other, nearly flat on one face and convex on the other, on 
which there are two ridges—one subcentral and the other nearly marginal. 
It was found on February 7th, 1871, in the fourth or lowest foot-level, with 
1 tooth of Horse, 1 of Hyena, and a fragment of bone, without any Stalag- 
mitic Floor over it. 

No. 5475 so closely resembles No. 3732, mentioned above, as to need no 
further description. It was found February 27th, 1871, with 1 tooth of Hyena 
and fragments of bone, in the fourth “ foot-level,” but had no Stalagmitie 
Floor over it. 

In this connexion may be mentioned a piece of calcareous spar, which 


ON KENT’S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. il 


appears to have been tised as a polishing-stone. It was found March 8th, 
1871, with 2 teeth of Hyena, 2 of Horse, 3 of Rhinoceros, gnawed bones, 
and a flint flake, in the fourth “ foot-level,’’ having over it a Stalagmitic Floor 
18 inches thick. No such specimen had been noticed before. 

A piece of burnt bone was found on the 22nd of the same month, with 
fragments of bone and fxcal matter, in the second “ foot-level,” having a 
Stalagmitic Floor over it. 

Mr. M‘Enery appears to have excavated beyond the limits of his shaft, not 
only in an easterly direction, as has been already stated, but also, at least, 
north and south of it. So far as can be determined, the shaft was first sunk, 
and the material taken out lodged between it and the western wall of the 
Chamber, after which he undertook what may be called the adjacent hori- 
zontal diggings, and filled up the shaft with a portion of the excavated matter, 
thereby rendering it impossible to determine the exact site of the shaft itself, 
He does not appear to have taken outside the Cavern any portion of the deposit 
in order to ensure its more complete examination; hence it is not probable 
that all its contents were detected. Indeed, when speaking of his researches 
in this Chamber, he says, “ It was feared that in the ardour of the first search, 
facts of importance might have been overlooked. The mass of mould thrown 
up on the former occasion was therefore a second time turned over and care- 
fully searched, but nothing new was brought to light ’’*. 

This mass the Superintendents decided on taking out of the Cavern, 
partly to facilitate the excavation of deposits certainly intact beyond, and 
also because it was thought likely to be lodged on unbroken ground. Though 
there seemed but little prospect of finding any thing by subjecting it to a 
third search, such a search was nevertheless made, and did not go unre- 
warded. The heap, though mainly of Cave-earth, included fragments of the 
granular Stalagmitic Floor and portions of the Black Mould, and yielded 
hundreds of bones and portions of bones (one having an artificial hole lined 
with stalagmitic matter), fragments of antlers, the largest fragment of an Ele- 
phant’s tusk that the Committee have met with, 143 teeth of Hyzena, 153 of 
Horse, 45 of Rhinoceros, 27 of Deer, including “ Irish Elk ” and Reindeer, 6 
of Bear, 5 of Ox, 5 of Sheep, 3 of Elephant, 3 of Wolf, 3 of Dog (?), 2 of Fox, 
2 of Pig, and 1 of Lion, a few marine shells, several fragments of black pot- 
tery, 4 pieces of stalagmite with fern-impressions, and 13 flint implements 
and flakes,—all, with one exception, of the prevalent white colour, and two 
of them decidedly good specimens of the strongly ridged lanceolate forms. 
In short, the virgin soil, in some parts of the Cavern, has been less pro- 
ductive than was this mass which had been twice carefully searched, but by 
eandle-light only. 

As was thought probable, the mass of dislodged materials proved to be 
lying on ground which had never been broken. Between Mr. M‘Enery’s 
shaft and the west wall of the Chamber there was a space of at least 17 
feet; and at 14 fect from the wall the Cave-earth was found to have not 
only the ordinary granular Stalagmitic Floor overlying it, but to be de- 
posited on another and necessarily an older Floor of the same material, but 
which, instead of being granular, was made up of prismatic crystals—posses+ 
sing, in short, the characters both of position and structure of the Old Crys- 
talline Floor found in the “ Lecture Hall” and “ South-west Chamber,” and 
described in the Fourth Report (Norwich, 1868),—a remnant, in situ, of the 
Floor which had furnished the large blocks of stalagmite found in the Cave-~ 


* See Trans. Devon. Assoc. vol, iii. p. 289 (1869). 


12 REPORT—1871. 


earth in the Sloping Chamber, as already stated. From the point where it was 
first seen, it was everywhere continuous up to the western wall. Its thickness 
has not been ascertained; for though it was partially broken up in cutting 
the four-feet section, the bottom of it was not reached. No objects of any 
kind were found in it. Had Mr. M‘Enery’s excavations been carried but a 
yard further west he must have encountered it, and would have been enabled 
to solve the problem of the blocks which he so often found in the Cave- 
earth, 

The Committee are most anxious to guard against the impression that, in 
any of the foregoing remarks, they have been unmindful of the service which 
Mr. M‘Enery rendered to science, or have the most remote wish to depre- 
ciate the value of his long-continued labours. Indeed, when they remember 
that the means at his disposal must have been very limited, and that he was 
amongst the pioneers in cavern searching, they cannot but feel that the 
extent and results of his investigations are richly entitled to the warmest 
praise. 

They venture, however, to take this opportunity of stating that, in order 
to a thorough and satisfactory investigation, cavern-deposits should be ex- 
cavated, not by sinking occasional shafts, but continuously in a horizontal direc- 
tion, to a uniform depth not exceeding 5 or at most 6 feet at first; that 
the material should be carefully examined in situ, and then taken to day- 
light for re-examination. Through not following the first, Mr. M‘Enery 
failed to understand the exact historical order of the Cavern-deposits ; and 
through not being able to accomplish the second, he passed over many speci- 
mens calculated to have modified his conclusions, and which he would have 
been delighted to have found. For example, when speaking of the Sloping 
Chamber, he says, “ The [Stalagmitic] crust is thickest in the middle... . 
for opening the excavation, the same means were employed as to break up 
a mass of ancient masonry. Flint blades were detected in it at all depths, 
even so low as to come in contact with the fossil bones and their earthy 
matrix, but never below them” *. During the last six months, however, the ex- 
cayations made in the same Chamber, and in the immediate neighbourhood of 
his, have brought forth Flint implements from every level of the Cave-earth 
to which the work has been carried, and they were actually found in 
greatest numbers in the lowest levels. To this may be added the fact that 
in his heap of refuse-matter, which he had twice examined, there were, as 
has been already said, upwards of a dozen flint blades, such as he stated 
never occurred 7m the Cave-earth. Had the soil been examined in daylight, 
they could not have been overlooked; for, instead of being specimens of 
little value, they are better far than some of those which he figured ; and it 
is but right to add that many of those found by the Committee were thus 
detected. 

Again, Mr. M‘Enery was keenly watchful for extraneous objects in the 
Stalagmitic Floor; and, from his silence on the question, it may be safely 
concluded that he never saw fern-impressions in it; nevertheless his refuse- 
heap contained four small slabs of the floor, in each of which was a 
well-marked impression, requiring not additional manipulation, but simple 
daylight for their detection. Indeed every specimen of this kind has been 
recognized outside the Cavern only. 

The four slabs just mentioned, as well as the two found by the Committee 
in the Floor they broke up, have been submitted to Mr. W. Carruthers, 


* See Trans. Devon. Assoc. vol. iii. p. 247 (1869). 


ON KENT’S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. lo 


F.R.S8., of the British Museum, who has kindly furnished the following note 
respecting them :— 
“ British Museum, 10 July, 1871. 

“ The ferns are specimens of Pteris aquilina, Linn., and have belonged to 
very luxuriant plants; they do not differ from those now growing in Eng- 
land. It is possible that the fragment ;,, may be another species, but it 
is too imperfect to determine, and it may only be a barren portion of the 
Pteris, with shorter and broader pinnules than the other specimens. 

(Signed) « Wa. CARRUTHERS.” 


Returning for a moment to the Old Crystalline Stalagmitic Floor beneath 
the Cave-earth, it was observed that, like the modern and granular one, it 
had here and there on its upper surface conical bosses rising above its gene- 
ral level, and that there were corresponding protuberances vertically above 
them on the upper floor. The same fact had been noticed in the other 
branches of the Cavern where the two Floors occurred in the same vertical 
sections,—a fact apparently warranting the conclusion that the drainage 
through the Cayern-roof underwent no important change during the entire 
period represented by the two floors and the intervening Cave-earth. 
When to this it is added that such bosses are, at least in most cases, verti- 
cally beneath Stalactitic pendants on the ceiling, it may be further inferred 
that the ancient and modern lines of drainage are, in the main, identical. 

On the completion of the work in the Sloping Chamber, on July 11, 
1871, the excavation of the “‘ Wolf’s Den,” which opens out of its northern 
side, was begun. It was in this Den that Mr. M‘Enery found the canines 
of Machairodus latidens, which have excited so much attention. No such 
specimens haye been met with during the present investigation up to this 
time. 

The Committee, believing it possible that the subject might prove to be 
‘connected with their researches, have from time to time mentioned the 
-occasional occurrence of living animals in the Cavern*. Indeed, Kent’s 
Hole is not better known to the paleontologist as a store-house of mamma- 
Jian remains, than to the Devonshire naturalist as a home of the Great 
Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, Leach) ; and every visitor, be- 
fore the present exploration, must have frequently seen them hanging from 
the walls of the more retired branches. The following facts have presented 
themselves during the last twelve months :— 

Whilst the excavation of one of the lateral branches of Smerdon’s Passage 
was in progress, a considerable number of fresh spindle-shaped feeces, about 
*6 inch long and -2 inch thick, were observed lying on the surface of the 
Cave-earth, while between it and the roof there was an interspace just 
sufficient to allow an animal about the size of a Badger to pass. 

The workmen having observed that the candles were much nibbled during 
their absence, that the greasy wooden candlesticks were sometimes carried off 
and some of them, after a few days, found secreted in small holes, set a suit- 
ably baited gin for the suspected offender. Their efforts were rewarded the 
next morning by finding a rat dead in the trap. 

Old newspapers cc. are occasionally sent to the Cavern for the purpose of 
wrapping up small boxes of specimens, or such delicate objects as need more 
than ordinary care. On November 28th, 1871, the workmen, using in this way 
a part of a copy of the ‘ Saturday Review,’ unintentionally left one complete 
and sound sheet, 7. ¢. two leaves, near the spot where they had been at work. 


* See Reports Brit. Assoc. 1869, p. 204, and 1870, p. 27. 


14. ei REPORT—1871, 


The next morning they found the paper precisely where they had left it, 
but with about one-fifth of one of the leaves gone, and the broken margin 
of the remainder apparently nibbled. There was nothing to prevent the 
whole from being taken off, and it was noted that, though left in a preca- 
rious position, it had not fallen down. The broken leaf was then torn off 
and preserved, whilst the unbroken one was allowed to remain as a further 
experiment. The next morning no trace of it was to be seen. That eyen- 
ing a rat-trap was set at the spot, and very near it another leaf of paper was 
placed, haying on it a small stone, which it was supposed a rat, but not 
a smaller animal, might be capable of moving. The next morning the 
paper was found where it had been put, but very much nibbled, whilst the 
trap and the grease with which it was baited appeared to have not been 
touched. Before leaving work, the men baited the trap with a tempting end 
of candle, and placed it on a leaf of paper; whilst another leaf, weighted 
with a lump of earth, was placed near. On the following morning both 
pieces of paper were found to be considerably eaten or torn; and it was 
noted that the injury done to the former was within the margin of the trap 
placed on it, whilst the trap itself, as well as its bait, remained unaffected, 
further than that there were on it a few spindle-shaped feces about a quar- 
ter of an inch long. There can be no doubt that some animal, probably 
smaller than a rat, carried off the missing leaf to a recess in the Cavern, 
where it may serve to make its nest comfortable, and perhaps hereafter to 
puzzle a cavern searcher who may discover it. 


Fourth Report of the Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in vari- 
ous Localities of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Prof. 
Everett, at the request of the Committee, consisting of Sir Wm. 
Tomson, F.R.S., Sir Coartes Lye, Bart., F.R.S., Prof. J. Churx 
Maxwe tt, F.R.S., Prof. Puruures, F.R.S., G. J. Symons, F.M.S., 
Dr. Batrour Stewart, F.R.S., Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., Prof. A. 
Geikiz, F.R.S., James Guatsner, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Granam, 
E. W. Binney, F.R.S., Grorcze Maw, F.G.S., W. PEence.ty, 
F.R.S., 8. J. Mackin, £.G.S., Epwarp Huu, F.R.S., and Prof. 
Everert, D.C.L. (Secretary). 


In last year’s Report, the intention was expressed of boring down at the 
bottom of Rosebridge Colliery, if the Association would provide the necessary 
funds. The circumstances were exceptionally inviting, and the Association 
very liberally granted the sum asked. The Secretary thereupon paid two 
visits to Rosebridge, descended and to some extent explored the colliery, in 
company with Mr. Bryham, and, after a careful study of the plans and sec- 
tions, agreed upon a particular spot where the bore was to be sunk. Tra- 
cings of the plans and sections were kindly sent by Mr. Bryham, who in 
every way cooperated most cordially, and gave much valuable assistance in 
arranging the scheme of operations. Several weeks elapsed, which were 
occupied in making and testing a very large spirit thermometer, suitable for 
reading in the bad light of a mine, and capable of being read, by estimation, 


i 


ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 15 


to the hundredth of a degree, from 90° to 110° F.; and on the 7th 
November the Secretary wrote to Mr. Bryham requesting him to commence 
operations. Unfortunately, during this brief interval, circumstances had 
changed. Ina neighbouring pit, where the workings were in the same seam of 
coal as at Rosebridge, though less deep by 200 yards, a considerable quantity 
of water was found in sinking into the strata underlying this seam. This 
was a very unexpected circumstance; and as any irruption of water at the 
bottom of Rosebridge pit, which is now quite dry, would be a most serious 
affair, Mr, Bryham was afraid to risk the experiment of boring down. Sub- 
sequent reflection has only confirmed him in the opinion that such a step 
would be hazardous, and the Committee have accordingly been most reluc- 
tantly compelled to renounce the plan. Mr. Bryham’s final refusal was 
received on the 28th February. 

Professor Ansted read a paper last year, in the Geological Section of the 
Association, upon the Alpine tunnel, commonly called the Mont-Cenis tun- 
nel, and in that paper some interesting statements were made regarding its 
temperature. Since that time, Professor Ansted has interchanged very 
numerous letters with the Secretary, and has furnished much valuable in- 
formation, gathered from Prof. Sismonda, of Turin, and from M. Borelli, the 
resident engineer of the tunnel. Observations which appear to be reliable 
have been made in bore-holes in the sides of the tunnel, and the tempera- 
tures thus observed have been compared with the estimated mean tempera- 
ture at the surface overhead, which in the highest part is a mile above the tun- 
nel, or 2905 metres above sea-level. It is directly under this highest part that 
the highest temperature is found in the walls of the tunnel, namely 299-5 C., 
or 85°:1 F., which is 9° F. lower than the temperature found at the bottom 
of the Rosebridge shaft at the depth of only 815 yards. But though the 
tunnel is at more than double this depth from the crest of the mountain 
over it, we must bear in mind that the surface-temperatures are very dif- 
ferent. In a paper published by the engineer of the tunnel, M. F. Giordano, 
the mean temperature of the air at the crest of the mountain (Mont Frejus) 
is calculated to be —2°-6 C., or 27°°3 F. Assuming this estimate to be 
correct, we haye a difference of 57°8 F. between the deepest part of the tun- 
nel and the air at the surface vertically over it; assuming further, as we did 
in the case of Rosebridge in last year’s Report, that the surface of the hill itself 
has a mean temperature 1° F. lower than that of the air above it, we have a 
difference of 56°-8 F., and the thickness of rock between is 1610 metres, or 
5280 feet (exactly a mile). This gives, by simple division, a rate of increase of 
1° F. for 93 feet ; but a very large correction must be applied for the con- 
yexity of the ground; for it is evident that a point in the ground vertically 
under a steep crest is more exposed to the cooling influence of the air than 
a point at the same depth beneath an extensive level surface. No correction 
for convexity would be needed if the temperature of the air decreased up- 
wards as fast as the temperature of the internal rock; but this is very far 
from being the case, the decrease being about 34 times more rapid in the 
rock than in the air. To form an approximate notion of the amount of this 
correction, we must determine, as well as we can, the forms of the succes- 
sive isothermal surfaces in the interior of the mountain. The tendency is 
for all corners and bends to be eased off as we descend, so that each suc- 
ceeding isothermal surface is flatter than the one above it. Accordingly, if 
we have a mountain rising out of a plain, without any change of material, the 
 isothermals will be further apart in a vertical through the crest of the moun- 
tain than under the plain on either side; they will also be further apart 


16 RrEPORT—1871. 


at the highest part of this vertical, that is close under the crest, than at a 
lower level in the same vertical. It would be absurd to pretend to fix the 
amount of the correction with accuracy; but it seems not unreasonable to 
estimate that, in the present case, the numer of isothermals cut through by a 
vertical line descending from the crest of the ridge to the tunnel itself is 
about seven-eighths of the number which would be cut through in sinking 
through an equal distance in level ground, other circumstances being the same. 
Instead of 1°in 93 feet, we should thus have 1° in 7 of 93, that is, in 81 feet. 

This is a slow rate of increase, and is about the same as Mr. Fairbairn 
found at Dukenfield. The rocks penetrated by the tunnel consist of highly 
metamorphosed material, and are described as belonging to the Jurassic 
series. No fossils have been found in them. For two-thirds of the length 
of the tunnel, beginning from the Italian end, they are remarkably uniform, 
and it is in this part that the observations have been taken. The following 
account of them has been given by Prof. Ansted (Pop. Sci. Review, Oct. 
1870, p. 351) :—‘ The rocks on which the observations have been made are 
absolutely the same, geologically and otherwise, from the entrance to the 
tunnel, on the Italian side, for a distance of nearly 10,000 yards. They 
are not faulted to any extent, though highly inclined, contorted, and sub- 
jected to slight slips and slides. They contain little water and no mineral 
veins. They consist, to a very large extent indeed, of silica, either as 
quartz or in the form of silicates, chiefly of alumina, and the small quantity 
of lime they contain is a crystalline carbonate.” 

This uniformity of material is very favourable to conduction, and the high 
inclination of the strata (in which respect these rocks resemble those at 
Dukenfield) also appears to promote either conduction proper or aqueous con- 
vection, which resembles conduction in its effects. As regards Mons. Gior- 
dano’s estimate of the mean air-temperature at the crest, it is obtained in 
the following way :—The hill of San Theodule is 430 metres higher, and 
the city of Turin is 2650 metres lower than the crest; the temperature of 
the former has been determined by one year’s observations to be —5°-1 C., 
and that of the latter is 12°5 C. Ifa decrease of 1° C. for every 174 metres 
of elevation be assumed (1° F. for 317 feet), we obtain, either by com- 
parison with San Theodule or with Turin, the same determination —2°-6 
for the air-temperature at the crest of the ridge over the tunnel. 

This mode of estimating the temperature appears very fair, though of 
course subject to much uncertainty ; and there is another element of uncer- 
tainty in the difference which may exist between the air-temperature and 
the rock-temperature at the summit. 

These two elements of uncertainty would be eliminated if a boring of 
from 50 to 100 feet were sunk at the summit, and observations of tempera- 
ture taken in it. The uncertain correction for convexity would still remain 
to be applied. It would therefore be desirable also to sink a boring, of about 
the same depth, in the plateau which extends for about a quarter of the 
length of the tunnel, beginning near the Italian end, its height above the 
tunnel being about a third of a mile. 

In November last, when very little information had reached this country 
respecting the temperature-observations in the tunnel, an urgent appeal was 
addressed, jointly by your Committee and by the Geographical Society (of 
which Prof. Ansted is Foreign Secretary), to M. Sismonda, requesting him 
to use his influence with the Italian authorities to-secure a series of accu- 
rate observations of the temperature in the sides of the tunnel, before time had 
been allowed for this temperature to undergo sensible change from its original 


ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 17 


value. It was also suggested that the mean temperature of the surface 
overhead should be examined by boring. 

M. Sismonda speedily replied, stating that he fully recognized the impor- 
tance of such experiments, and had already made arrangements with the 
Government at Turin, and with the contractors for the railway works, to 
have them carried out as fully and fairly as possible. Had the communica- 
tion reached him at a time of year when he could have travelled without 
great inconvenience, he would have gone to the spot himself; but as that 
was now impossible, the Government Commissioner for the works, M. Salva- 
tori, had undertaken to see the experiments carried through by employés 
under his orders. M. Sismonda further stated that, from the commence- 
ment of the tunnel, the Academy of Sciences of Turin had instituted a series 
of scientific observations in it, in which observations of temperature were 
included. The results of these observations he promised to forward as soon 
as they were completed and tabulated. 

On the receipt of the final refusal to bore down at the bottom of Rose- 
bridge Colliery, inquiries were instituted as to the feasibility of executing a 
similar operation in the deepest part of the Alpine tunnel. The contractors 
have, however, declined to grant permission, as the operation would involve 
additional encumbrance of the very narrow space in which their works are 
proceeding. It appears that.a length of a mile or more in the deepest part 
of the tunnel has not yet been opened out to the full width, so that oppor- 
tunity may yet be given to excavate a lateral heading and bore down, if the 
Association encourage the plan. 

Mr. G. J. Symons has repeated his observations in the Kentish Town 
well, at every fiftieth foot of depth, from 350 to 1100 feet, which is the 
lowest point attainable. As the water begins at the depth of 210 feet, all 
these observations may be regarded as unaffected by the influence of the 
external air, and they have now been sufficiently numerous at each depth 
to render further verification needless. The following are the results finally 
adopted, and they do not differ materially from those first published (Report 
for 1869). 


Depth, in | Tempera- | Difference | Difference | Difference | Feet per 
feet. ture. for 50 feet. | from 69°-9. from 1100 ft.| degree. 
ft. j ft. - ft. 
Pe ao 1-9 13-9 750 54-0 
: 115i) 12:0 700 58°3 
450 59-0 
1:0 10:9 650 59°6 
500 60-0 
9 9-9 600 60°6 
550 60-9 2 
3 9:0 550 61:1 
600 61:2 
“il 8°7 500 57°5 
650 61:3 = 
4 15 8:6 450 52°3 
700 62:8 
F 6 roi 400 56°3 
750 63°4 ~ 
; 3 65 350 53'8 
800 64-2 
; ‘8 5:7 300 52-6 
850 65:0 ¢ 
900 65-8 8 4:9 250 51:0 
1:0 4] 200 48-8 
950 66°38 
1:0 31 150 48-4 
1000 67°8 
1-2 2-1 100 476 
Bee? walt pontine 9 9 50 55:6 
1100 69-9 


1871. c 


18. REPoRT—1871. 


The numbers in the last column are the quotients of those in the two pre- 
ceding, and denote the average number of feet of descent for 1° F. of in- 
crease, as deduced from comparing the temperature at each depth of obser- 
vation with the temperature at the lowest depth. The earlier numbers in 
this column of course carry more weight than the later ones. The amount 
of steadiness in the increase of temperature of the water is best seen by 
inspecting the third column, which shows that the freest interchange of heat 
occurs at about the depth of 600 feet. This must be due to springs. The 
soil, from the depth of 569 to that of 702 feet, is described as “light-grey 
chalk, with a few thin beds of chalk-marl subordinate.” The soil consists 
in general of chalk and marl, from 325 to 910 feet, and below this of sandy 
marl, sand, and clay (see list of strata in last year’s Report, p. 41). The 
mean rate of increase in the former is a degree in 56 feet, and in the latter 
a degree in 49 feet. The mean rate of increase from the surface of the 
ground to the lowest depth reached is certainly very nearly 1° F. in 54 feet. 

Mr. David Burns, of H.M. Geological Survey, has furnished observations 
taken in the W. B. lead-mines, at and near Allenheads, Northumberland, by 
the kind permission of Thomas Sopwith, Esq., F.R.S., and with the valuable 
assistance of Mr. Ridley, Underground Surveyor, who continued the obser- 
vations after Mr. Burns had left. 

The mineral for which these mines are worked is galena. There are very 
extensive old workings at a lower level than the present workings, and filled 
with water, which is kept down by pumping; but the quantity daily pumped 
out is very small in comparison with the whole, so that the change of water 
is slow. 

From the offices of the lead-mines a small windlass with a supply of fine 
brass wire was obtained, which enabled the thermometer to be lowered 
steadily and quickly. 

The first observations were taken in Gin-Hill shaft, 8rd June, 1871. The 
observers proceeded as far down in the works as they were able, and took 
their station in a level leading from the shaft, 290 feet from the surface of 
the ground, and 38 feet above the surface of the water in the shaft. 

The following observations were then made :— 


Depth under Depth in Temperature. 
ground. de: water. Fahr. 
ft. iyi a 
SD cucerte keen - La ani sara at CuRi a i, 49°3 
OAs OR ap ss es dial, ae Alar tc engese i 49-2 
LOU ei dx oe kN GZ, te he sev cae 51:2 
5) Ma 8 aR ay. OP SF... te ee 51:2 
cL Ls Sr 1 pa RRR ch 51:3 
BA Peas tates EE ot. ac. aoe 51:3 


The mean temperature at the shaft mouth for the year ending 31st May 
1871, was 44°-3, as derived from daily observations of maximum and mini- 
mum thermometers, without applying a correction for diurnal range. Add- 
ing 1° to this, to obtain the probable mean temperature of the surface of 
the ground, and taking the temperature at 400 feet of depth as 51°-3, Mr. 
Burns computes that the rate of increase downwards is 6° in 400 feet, or 1° 
in 66:6 feet. The data for this calculation are obviously in many respects 
very uncertain. 

On the 21st June Mr. Ridley took observations in another shaft in the 
same workings, called the High Underground Engine Shaft. It is sunk 


ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 19 


from a level at the depth of 398 feet below ground, and the surface of the 
water in it is 899 feet down the shaft, or 797 feet below the surface of the 
ground. There are pumps in the shaft, but they had been stationary for more 
than 24 hours before the observations were made. Immediately after the 
observations they were started, and when they had been working for some 
time the temperature of the water lifted was found to be 65°-2. They draw 
their water at a depth of 957 feet below the surface of the ground. 
The following were the observations :— 


Depth under Depth in Temperature. 
ground. water. Fahr. 
ft ft. 

a ee OURS. J a, eae 65-1) 
oT eee LOGEE 2.22.22 be. 64-9 f 
RS as AS, laws DURE Eo siok wa ae « 65:4 
2.) EOE eee GUODRTS eins aoe 65:7 
ot Ferre I aS Sp RP 65:4 


The thermometer could not be lowered beyond 857 feet without risk of 
losing it, by getting fast in the wooden framework with which the pumps 
were secured. Mr. Burns thinks that some of the temperatures here re- 
corded are too low, from the index being shaken down by reason of the im- 
pediments presented by the upper portions of the framework. The surface 
of the ground over this shaft is about 300 feet higher than over Gin-Hill 
shaft. IPf we allow 1° for this increase of height, and call the temperature of 
the surface of the ground 44°-3, as against 45°-3 at Gin Hill, we have, by 
comparison with the observed temperature 65°7 at the depth of 857 feet, 
an increase of 21°-4 in 857 feet, or 1° in 40 feet. 

On the 6th July Mr. Ridley took observations in another sump or under- 
_ ground shaft at Slitt mine, Weardale. This shaft is sunk from the lowest 
level in the working, and had been standing full of water during the five 
months which had elapsed since it was sunk. The only source of disturbance 
was a little water running along the level across the top of the shaft, so as 
to enter the shaft (so to speak) on one side and leave it on the other. This 
may affect the temperature at 3 feet, but could scarcely affect the tempera- 
ture at 53 feet, which may be regarded as very reliable. 

The following are the obseryations ;— 


Depth under Depth in Temperature. 
ground. water. Fahr. 
ft. ft. 
BRED (sin, s\019 ARO aie SO 62) ae 64:5 
Ae ene oy Re Se ee 64:5 
20, Seeegoneegpaedaileae Tenis, achat sloces + 65:1 
Se pth cde aan D2 oneness eon 64°9 


Mr. Burns says “the surface-temperature at Slitt mine will be nearly the 
same as that at Gin-Hill shaft, judging from their relative elevations, 
aspects, and ‘exposure to the winds.” Assuming it then to be 45%3, and 
reckoning the temperature at 660 feet as 65°,we have an increase down- 
wards of 19°-7 in 660 feet, or 1° in 33:5 feet. The only datum that seems 
doubtful here is the surface-temperature. If, instead of 45%3, it be assumed 

°° . 
“i { ae , 1t gives an increase of 1° in a l feet, 

Mr. Ridley has also taken observations in Breckon-Hill shaft, which is 
near the river Allen, about 14 mile from Gin-Hill shaft, and at an elevation 

c2 


20- REPORT—1871. 


not much above the bottom of the valley, but 1174 feet above sea-level. It 
was sunk some years ago, and has since stood nearly full of water, At the 
time of the observations the surface of the water was 24 feet down the 
shaft. The following are the observations taken in this shaft on June 
13th :-— 


Depth under Depth in Temperature. 
ground. water. Fahr. 
ft. ft. x 
5) UN ee ate OEE aoa, « eee 47-2 
DOP Perseve¥. etree. PA NRT IE ici Gia 47-2 \ 
AOOw iy, Ho Setepsth. IH: AG Me SN Soh Se 46:9 
NC Bao Re aoice GO 82.1. ye bats 46°8 
LIME: Shae eats L260 Cages site cee eee 46°8 
AOR. 3 I oer 126 46°7 
200 i CAND 8 ere 46-6 
POUMER: Soss Sis clo ate AGM M tte s sere 46:8 
B00 Bi. n alain? Sonat GME. 0 Sut ea. 46°8 
2 Rader lg aad er 2) ah eatresshe C 46:9 


These observations were taken early in the morning, when the air and 
springs were so cold as to allow the maximum thermometer to be cooled below 
the temperature of the shaft. In order to test more thoroughly the apparent 
uniformity of temperature from 100 feet down to 350 feet, Mr. Ridley took 
a second series of observations, extending from the 22nd to the 27th June. 
In these observations the thermometer was lowered in a tin case filled with 
water colder than that of the shaft. The thermometer was supported within 
the case in a vertical position by a wooden frame, and prevented from shak- 
ing about. It was allowed to remain at each depth several hours, was then 


lifted, and read with all possible care. The following are the observations - 


thus obtained :— 


Depth under Length of Temperature before Temperature after 
ground. immersion. immersion. immersion. 
ft. h m = 
AD shits soridleae tee 3D, Discs ded dee AZO, ussesaaernte 46-5 
O2BN Macioe sexe EL 20 rege bobse AAO ore Seibert 46°5 
TARE ovo incke Td 40 > Meeasn. aust. ADA cdh. oo 46°6 
gs sine Mio OR EIR erate eee AGT as aes 46-6 
DAD cota AORY 6 2 AAO ARr CL aere eri cS eae 46°6 
OP) toasts alee tre ES AO! sxe Mh os Ad Siete 46°6 
5 eee Res 22 ae 5 aes aie AVA . isda 46:6 


Here the temperature is even more uniform than in the first series. As 
to the causes of this uniformity, Mr. Burns remarks that the shaft is not 
connected with any working, but is cut through solid strata. It is a 
few yards to the east of the Allen, while, in the bed of that stream, and 
making a great spread on the west side of the valley, is a bed of limestone 
nearly 70 feet thick, and dipping at an angle of about 10° to the east. The 
top of this limestone was cut in the shaft about 40 feet down, which occa- 
sioned a great influx of water into the shaft, and drained a strong spring on 
the other side of the river. 

It will be observed that the chief difference between the two sets of ob- 
servations is just at the place where this limestone was cut. The second set 
were taken after and during much rain, and the first set after a week of very 
little rain. It appears probable that the difference of temperature at this 


a a 


ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 21 


depth was due to the difference of temperature of the surface-water which 
soaked in through the limestone in the two cases. As regards the tempera- 
tures at depths exceeding 200 feet, it would appear that, in times of compa- 
rative drought (as in the first set), the heat of the soil at the greater depths 
has time to produce a little augmentation in the temperature of the water 
before it soaks away. 

This shaft is obviously not adapted for giving any information as to the 
rate of increase downwards. Collecting the best determinations from the 
other shafts we have :— 


Depth of Temperature. Calculated 
thermometer. Fahr. eau: 
ft. ‘ t. 
Gin-Hill Shaft.......... ‘1 lp Doebea Si eo ea 1 in 66-6 
High Underground Engine 857 ...... Coes ote osieks dmg 
“S) ihn) Gr GGOs messes csr ac Gb cae. lin 33°5 


Mr. Burns considers that little or no weight should be attached to the first 
of these determinations, as a pumping-engine was working in a neighbouring 
shaft communicating with it at the time when the ebservations were taken. 
The jump of 2° in descending from 340 to 390 feet also renders the inter- 
pretation of these observations difficult. 

The closeness of the temperatures in the other two shafts, at depths differ- 
ing by about 200 feet, suggests the idea that they are both fed by the same 
spring, and that the temperatures indicated are the temperature of the origin 
of the spring slightly modified by the different temperatures of the strata 
through which it has passed; but their positions appear to render this im- 
possible. 

Mr. Burns’s opinion from all the observations is that the mean rate of in- 
crease downwards at Allenheads is about 1° in 35 feet ; but this cannot at 
present be held as proved. 

The strata consist mainly of alternate beds of sandstone and shale, with a 
few beds of limestone intermixed. In Slitt mine there is also a bed of 
basalt 158 feet thick, overlying the vein of fluor-spar in which the workings 
are carried on, the workings being 55 feet down in this vein. 

Preparations are being made for taking observations in the dry part of the 
mines, by making shallow bores at different levels, inserting the thermometer, 
plugging up the hole for a few days, and then reading. 

Another gentleman connected with H.M. Geological Survey, Mr. R. L. 
Jack, has taken observations in a bore at Crawriggs, Kirkintilloch, near 
Glasgow. They were taken on the 29th November 1870, the temperature 
of the air being 34°. The surface of the water in the bore was 6 feet below 
the surface of the ground, the latter being 200 feet above sea-level. The 
following were the observations :— 


Depth from surface Time of lowering Time of withdrawing Temperature. 

of ground. thermometer. thermometer. Fabr. 
feet. hm h m 
ee 12 52 pm 1 7pm 47 
LOOMS ene Le aes ee Ie ion 481 
AE ai ock fac i LE ae Rr Ons DRI, os saalect ser sua 49} 
1) ee by OSE 5 ceil coe at Sc 7 eee a 50 
AU) rash Be sects I) OO DADS) 03 i 50 
IO a aan chan eee ee re a BG ey aed oor 503 
BAD aboie. ofa: i's SA os sve haih carols OU is Sein ipog tee 51 


_ A few feet below 350 feet an obstruction in the bore prevented further 


22 REPORT—1871. 


observations ; but the bore continues for about 70 feet further. We have 
here a total increase of 4° in 300 feet, which is at the rate of 1° in 75 feet ; 
but the intermediate steps are so irregular that not much weight can be 
attached to this determination. 

The Secretary has corresponded with the Smithsonian Institution respect- 
ing the great bore at St. Louis, which was described in last year’s Report, 
and also respecting the Hoosac Tunnel which passes under a mountain and 
will be 4? miles long, but the correspondence has not yet led to any definite 
result. . 

It was stated in last Report that application had been made to General 
Helmersen, of the Mining College, St. Petersburg, for information regarding 
the temperature of a very deep bore in course of sinking at Moscow, as well 
as regarding underground temperatures in Russia generally. A long delay 
occurred, owing to the General being absent from home for seven months, 
and not receiving the communication till his return; but shortly after his 
return he dispatched a very polite answer, from which the following passages 
are extracted :—“ We have an artesian well in St. Petersburg, bored in the 
Lower Silurian strata. At the depth of 656 English feet this well stops at the 
granite, a granite which perfectly resembles that of Finland. The lowest 
portion of these Silurian strata is merely a degraded granite, a grit combined 
with débris of felspar. About 353,000 hectolitres of water flow from the 
well per diem, and this water issues with a constant temperature of 9°8 
Reaumur. .. i. 4% You are doubtless aware of the existence of a series 
of observations on the temperature of the soil at the bottom of a well which 
was sunk in the town of Yakoutsk in Eastern Siberia. This well has shown 
us that the soil of Siberia, at least in this part of its great extent, is frozen 
to a depth of 540 English feet. The mean temperature of Yakoutsk is 
—8°2 R. Atthe depth of 100 feet the temperature of the soil was found to 
be —5°-2. From this depth to the bottom the temperature increased at the 
rate of 1° R. for every 117 feet; whence it would follow that the soil at 
Yakoutsk is frozen to the depth of about 700 feet. 

‘“‘It appears to me a very interesting circumstance that, according to ac- 
counts just received by the Academy of Sciences from Baron Maydel, traveller 
in the country of the Tchukchees [des Tschouktschi], there are found in 
those regions layers of ice, quite pure, alternating with sand and clay. The 
interesting letter of the Baron will shortly be printed in the publications of 
the Academy. It was in making excavations in search of mammoths that 
Maydel made this discovery.” 

If we assume the temperature of the surface of the soil at St. Petersburg 
to be 39°17 F., which, according to ‘ Herschel’s Meteorology, is the mean 
temperature of the air at the Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory, and 
if we take the temperature of the water as that of the bottom of the well, 
we have an increase downwards of 14°-88 F. in 656 feet, which is at the rate 
of 1° F. in 44-1 feet. If, on the other hand, we suppose the surface of the 
ground to be 4° F. warmer than the air (and the difference at Yakoutsk ap- 
pears to be greater than this), we deduce an increase at the rate of 1° F. in 
60 feet. 

The rate of increase at Yakoutsk from the depth of 100 feet to the bottom 
of the frozen well at 540 feet is given above by General Helmersen as 1° R. 
in 117 feet. This is 1° F. in 52 feet. 

An account of the Yakoutsk well is given in ‘Comptes Rendus,’ tome vi. 
1838, p. 501, in an extract from a letter by Erman (fils), who visited Ya- 
koutsk when the well had attained a depth of 50 feet. He gives the tem- 


ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 23 


perature at this depth from his own observations, and the temperatures at 
77, 119, and 382 feet from the subsequent observations of the merchant to 
whom the well belonged. His figures differ very materially from those given 
above; but it may fairly be presumed that General Helmersen’s account is 
the more accurate. 

Before the receipt of General Helmersen’s letter, the following communi- 
cation respecting the Moscow boring had been received by the Secretary from 
Mons. N, Lubimoff, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of 
Moscow. 

« December $3, 1870. 

« Dear Srr,—lI beg your pardon for not having replied sooner to your letter. 
I am sorry to say that the information which I can now communicate is very 
deficient. The great bore of Moscow is not yet terminated, and the experi- 
ments on temperature which have been made hitherto are but of a preli- 
minary kind. It was in the hope of renewing the measurements under more 
satisfactory conditions that I delayed my answer; but as certain circum- 
stances did not permit me to resume the observations, which are therefore 
deferred to the spring of 1871, I must restrict myself to describing the old ones, 

« These were made, on my commission, by M. Schiller, B.A., in April 1869. 
The bore was then about 994 feet deep, and, from 56 feet to the bottom, 
full of water. A mercury thermometer of a peculiar kind was constructed, 
on an idea of my own. It consisted of a capillary tube of thick glass, ter- 
minating below in a large reservoir; at the upper end a funnel-like piece 
was adjusted, into which the mercury flowed off as soon as the temperature 
rose above a certain value [sketch annexed]. The whole was placed within 
a closed case, which was plunged to a chosen depth into the bore, and re- 
versed by means of a special arrangement. It was then brought again to the 
right position and drawn up to the surface, a portion of mercury having 
flowed away. Here the thermometer was plunged into a water-bath, the 
temperature of which was so regulated that the mercury attained the end of 
the capillary tube ; this was then the temperature required. 

“« The measurements were made at the depths of 175, 350, 525, 700, 875, 
and 994 feet. From 350 feet to the bottom the temperature throughout the 
bore was found to be nearly constant, namely 10°-1 C., with deviations of 
+0°1. The temperatures of the upper parts of the bore were not quite 
precisely ascertained, the chief attention being given, in these first experi- 
ments, to the deeper parts. The air-temperature at the surface for the time 

17 - ,. 23 April ; Bb: bls 
a April to ee varied between +7°5 and —1°9 C, 

‘* As soon as the boring is completed, and the present impediments removed 
from the bore, the observations will be resumed, and perhaps some new 
methods will be applied for the sake of verification, though the above de- 
seribed apparatus, previously tried, seemed to give very exact results. 

“I shall be very glad to communicate to you, as soon as possible, the re- 
sults of the new experiments. As to underground temperatures for Russia 
in general, there is, so far as I know, no place where regular and trustworthy 
observations have been made [should be made in original] except the Central 
Physical Observatory at St. Petersburg, the results of which are published by 
Dr. Wild, Director of the establishment, in his printed Annual Reports.” 

From the sketch annexed to the description in Professor Lubimoff’s letter, 
it appears that the enlargement at the open end of the capillary tube is quite 
‘sudden, and not likely to retain any mercury when inverted. The idea of 
error from this cause may therefore be dismissed; but the instrument’is en- 


24 REPORT—1871. 


tirely unprotected against the pressure of the water in which it is immersed, 
and it is important to consider what effect this pressure will have. 

In thermometers of the ordinary construction this pressure acts only ex- 
ternally, and produces much greater diminution of the internal volume than 
when, as in Prof. Lubimoff’s thermometer, it acts both externally and in- 
ternally, a mode of action with which we are familiar in the case of Cirsted’s 
plezometer. 

From Regnault’s experiments it appears that the apparent compression of 
mercury in glass, when the pressure is thus applied, is -000001234 per atmo- 
sphere, whereas the apparent expansion of mercury in glass for heat is‘0000857 
per degree Fahrenheit. The latter number is 69 times the former ; it there- 
fore appears that a pressure of 69 atmospheres would be required to falsify 
the indications of Prof. Lubimoff’s thermometer to the extent of 1° F. The 
actual pressure at the bottom of the well is less than the half of this, and 
therefore should only produce an error of a few tenths of a degree. This, 
however, is on the assumption that the glass undergoes no change of figure, a 
condition which may easily fail of being fulfilled, owing to the want of perfect 
uniformity in the glass. 

Mr. Donaldson has written from Calcutta to the effect that the thermo- 
meter which was sent to him has been entrusted to a competent observer, 
who has taken numerous observations with it, which will be sent shortly. 

M. Erman’s letter above referred to is immediately followed in the ‘ Comptes 
Rendus’ by an account, by M. Walferdin, of some observations, which appear 
to be very reliable, taken in artesian wells in the basin in which Paris is 
situated. They were taken with maximum thermometers of the kind in- 
vented by Walferdin himself, in which the mercury overflows into a reservoir 
when the temperature exceeds a certain limit, the thermometers being her- 
metically sealed in glas¥ tubes to protect them from pressure. 

The observations which he first describes were taken in a well, newly 
sunk to the depth of 263 metres, at St. André, about 50 miles to the west of 
Paris, and which failed to yield a supply of water. The temperature was 
carefully observed at the depth of 253 metres by means of two thermometers, 
which were allowed to remain at that depth for ten hours. Their indications 
agreed to ‘03 of a degree Centigrade, and gave a mean of 17°95 C. For the 
sake of comparison, M. Walferdin observed the temperature at the bottom of 
a well 75 metres deep, situated at a distance of only 13 metres from the other 
well, and found it 12°-2C., showing a difference of 5°-75C. in 178 metres, which 
is at the rate of 1° C. in 30-95 metres, or 1° F. in 56-4 feet. He mentions that 
he also employed two Six’s thermometers (deux thermométrographes) enclosed 
in copper tubes to protect them from pressure, but both of these gave erroneous 
indications. The copper case of one was imperfect, and allowed a little water 
to enter. This one read 1°25 too high, owing probably to the effect of 
pressure; the other read 2°-15 too low, owing probably to the index being 
shaken down. 

The temperature at the depth of 400 metres in the puits de Grenelle at 
Paris was observed on two different occasions. The indications were 23°5 
on the first and 23°-75 on the second occasion; and these M. Walferdin com- 
pares with the constant temperature 11°-7 in the caves of the Observatory at 
the depth of 28 metres. Taking the mean of the two observations, 23°°6, we 
have a difference of 11°-9 in 372 metres, which is at the rate of 1° C. in 31-2 
metres, or 1° F, in 56:9 feet. 

Observations in the well of the Military School, at a distance of 600 metres 
from the puits de Grenelle, showed a temperature of 16°-4 C. at the depth of 


ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 25 


173 metres. This gives, by comparison with the Observatory caves, an in- 
crease at the rate of 1° C. in 30°85 metres, or 1° F. in 56°25 feet. 

These three determinations are in wonderfully close agreement with each 
other. All three wells are sunk in the chalk of the Paris basin. In the 
case of the St. André well the thicknesses of the different strata were :— 


metres. 
Plas Cla Ye oo ste. ags sispce 3 souk 13°52 
Whitesehnallc « sxirc ty annals 122°46 
OUSREEY ICRU oman niga Bila al 29°24 
GIAMCONIE boven cca tet sane ocokenieys 13:64 
GHECNSANG on. cf5 shee bisis) alte ait: 84:36 

263:22 


The thermometer which the Committee have been employing for the last 
three years is a Phillips’s maximum, having so fine a bore that the detached 
column of mercury which serves as the index is sustained in the vertical 
position by capillary action, and will bear a moderate amount of shaking 
without slipping down. Numerous instances, however, have occurred in 
which the index has slipped in consequence of jerks or concussions sustained 
by the thermometer in hauling it up from a depth. During the past six 
months the Secretary has been in correspondence with Messrs. Negretti and 
Zambra respecting a proposed modification of the maximum thermometer 
known by their name, which occurred to him more than a year ago, and was 
described by him privately to some meteorological friends at the last Meeting 
of the Association. It was then supposd to be new, but it now appears that 
Messrs. Negretti and Zambra have made something of the kind for the last 
fourteen or fifteen years. Several changes, however, were necessary before 
the thermometer was adapted to the uses of the Committee, and the first 
complete instruments were received in June last. They are enclosed, like the 
thermometers previously used, in hermetically sealed tubes, for protection 
against pressure, and they have the advantages (1) of being able to bear 
more severe jolts without derangement of their indications, and (2) of pre- 
senting to view a much broader column of mercury, so as to be more easily 
read in a dim light. 

The instrument is to be used in a vertical position, with the bulb uppermost. 
Between the bulb and the stem there is a contraction, through which the 
mercury will not pass except under pressure. It is set by holding it with 
the bulb end lowest, and tapping this end on the palm of the hand, till the 
part between the contraction and the bulb is full of mercury. It can then 
be held with the bulb up, and the mercury in the stem will run down to the 
lower end, from which the graduations begin. In this position, the top of 
the column indicates the temperature of setting, which must be lower than 
the temperature intended to be observed. 

The instrument is then to be lowered into the bore to any required depth, 
and allowed to remain there for about half an hour, to ensure its taking the 
temperature of the surrounding water. The expansion of the mercury in 
the bulb with heat will force a portion of the liquid through the contraction, 
and subsequent cooling in hauling up will not cause any of it to return. 
The portion which has thus escaped from the bulb into the stem will usually 
be found remaining close to the contraction, when the thermometer has been 
hauled up. The instrument must then be gently inclined, so as to make the 
bulb end slightly the lowest, when the mercury in the stem will all unite 
‘into one column, which will run down to its place on again raising the bulb. 
The head of the column will then indicate the required temperature. 


26 | REPORT—1871. 


Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1870-71. By a Com- 
mittee consisting of James. GuaisHer, F.R.S., of the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, Roprrt P. Gruc, F.R.S., ALEXANDER 
S. Herscuegr, F.R.A.S., and Cuartes Brooks, F.R.S., Secre- 
tary to the Meteorological Society. 


Tue object of the Committee being, as in the previous year, to present a 
condensed Report of the observations which they have received, and to indi- 
cate the progress of Meteoric Astronomy during the interval which has 
elapsed since their last Report, the reviews of recent publications relating to 
Meteoric Science which will be found in the sequel are preceded by a state- 
ment of the results obtained by the observers, who have during the past 
year contributed a valuable list of communications on the appearances of 
luminous meteors and regular observations of star-showers to the Com- 
mittee. The real heights and velocities of thirteen shooting-stars obtained 
by the cooperation of Mr. Glaisher’s staff of observers at the Royal Obser- 
vatory, Greenwich, during the simultaneous watch for meteors on the nights 
of the 5th to 12th of August last, are sufficiently accordant with the real 
velocity of the Perseids (as already previously determined by similar means, 
in the year 1863) to afford a satisfactory conclusion that the results of direct 
observation are in very close agreement with those derived from the astro- 
nomical theory of the August meteor-stream. Shooting-stars were observed 
to be more than usually frequent on the nights of the 17th of August and 
24th of September last, accompanying on the latter night a rather brilliant 
display of the Aurora. On the nights of the 18th—20th of October last the 
sky was so generally overcast as to conceal the view of any meteoric shower 
which may have taken place on that well-established meteoric date. But on the 
mornings of 13th—15th of November last a satisfactory series of observations of 
the November star-shower (so far as its return could be identified) recorded 
at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and at several other British stations, 
concurs with very similar descriptions of its appearance in the United States 
of America in showing the rapid decrease of intensity of this display since 
the period of greatest brightness, which it attained in the years 1866 and 
1867. Notices of the extreme brightness with which it was visible in the 
following year (1868) are extracted from astronomical and meteorological 
journals kept in Switzerland and Scotland. A short view of the sky on the 
night of the 12th of December last was obtained at Birmingham, where the 
accurate divergence of the meteors observed by Mr. Wood from the radiant 
point in Gemini of the December meteors sufficed to verify the periodical 
return of that meteoric current. The state of the sky was not favourable 
for observations of meteors on the first two nights of January; but during 
two hours, when the sky was clear, on the night of the 20th of April last, 
the well-known group of April meteors was noted, on the periodical date, 
diverging in considerable numbers, and with the characteristic features of 
brightness, and leaving a persistent streak from the direction of a nearly fixed 
centre in the constellation Lyra. One meteor of the shower, simultaneously 
observed at Birmingham and Bury St. Edmunds, afforded sufficiently accu- 
rate materials for calculating its real distance from the observers, and the 
length and velocity of its visible flight relatively to the earth. The com- 
bined observations of the regularly recurring meteor-showers during the 
past year having at present proved successful in contributing some valuable 
materials to their history, the Committee propose to resume during the 
coming year a systematic watch for their return, and to provide observers 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 27 


of the regular star-showers of August and November, and those of smaller 
interest and abundance in January, April, October, and December, with 
suitable maps and instructions to enable them to obtain, without unnecessary 
pains bestowed in preparations or expense, the most careful and complete 
records of their extraordinary displays. In order that the operations of the 
Committee may thus continue to be systematically directed towards the 
objects which have acquired important interest from the discovery of the as- 
tronomical connexion of shooting-stars with the orbits of comets, introducing 
the strictest methods of inquiry into the laws of their appearance, the Com- 
mittee earnestly desire the renewal, in the coming year, of the support which, 
since its first formation, by their correspondence and cooperation, observers 
have hitherto freely contributed to the British Association. 

Notices of the appearance of twenty-two fireballs and small bolides have 
during the past year been received by the Committee, fourteen of which 
were compared to the apparent size and brightness of the moon, and the 
latter include three detonating meteors of the largest class. -Descriptions of 
some of the largest of these meteors are contained in the accompanying list 
and in the following paragraphs of the Report. No notice of the fall of an 
aérolite during the past year has been received, although the occurrences of 
large meteors during the months of autumn and spring, preceding April last, 
were more than ordinarily frequent. Of one of these, which appeared with 
unusual prilliancy in Cornwall, Devonshire, and the south-western counties 
of England on the evening of the 13th of February, it is possible to estimate, 
at least approximately, the locality and the real elevation of its flight. 
Careful observations of such phenomena when they appear are, however, 
again recommended by the Committee to all observers who may have the 
necessary astronomical skill, and the rare opportunity to note their brilliant 
courses by the stars. 

In the discussion of some papers on Meteoric Astronomy which follow the 
foregoing observations, it will be seen that in the hands of its talented origi- 
nator, Prof. Schiaparelli, the cosmical theory of periodical shooting-stars has 
received fresh and valuable illustrations, and the apparently inexplicable 
grouping of radiant-points for several successive days in the neighbourhood 
of ageneral centre of divergence, if notexplained, appears to depend upon effects 
of planetary disturbances of a single meteoric stream from which the parasitic 
radiant-points have been derived. The discussion of such examples is sim- 
plified, and their complete explanation is, perhaps, not beyond the reach of 
the persevering application with which skilled astronomers in every country 
are now bent on the solution of the complicated and intricate geometrical 
problems presented to them by the distribution and features of the known 
radiant-points of shooting-stars. To a brief description of this interesting 
memoir are added, at the close of the Report, some notices of works which 
have recently appeared on the more general branches of meteoric science. 


I. METEORS DOUBLY OBSERVED. 


1. A Table of the real heights of sixteen shooting-stars doubly observed in 
England during the meteoric shower of August 1870, independently of the 
observations recorded at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, was presented 
in the last volume of these Reports. A comparison of the observations made 
on that occasion at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, with those recorded 

at the other stations, enables the real paths of thirteen meteors (ten of 
‘which are new to the former list), seen by Mr. Glaisher’s staff of observers, 
to be satisfactorily determined; and the real heights and velocities of the 


28 REPORT—187]1. 


meteors thus identified, together with the particulars of the observations 
from which they are concluded, are entered in the Table opposite. 

The accompanying diagram (drawn on the same scale as that in the last 
Report) readily exhibits to the eye the actual heights at appearance and dis- 
appearance (or the heights of the centres of the visible paths of the meteors 
Nos. 1, 4, 9) above the earth’s surface. The last vertical line on the right 
represents (as in the last Report) the average height at first appearance and 
that at disappearance of all the meteors regarded as identified in the present 
list, of which the approximate heights of those points have been satisfactorily 
ascertained. The resulting average heights are :— 


At first appearance. At disappearance. 
Of 16 meteors in the last Report.... 74-1 B.S. miles. 6 


Of 10 meteors in the present list .. 71-7 55 54-4 
Of 20 meteors observed in Aug. 1863 81-6 sd 57-7 
Fig. 1. 


Reference numbers. 
1 2846 “SMO OL 12.518 


Heights above the earth’s surface in British statute miles. 
Heights above the earth’s surface in British statute miles. 


Heights at appearance and disappearance of thirteen shooting-stars simultaneously ob- 
served at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and at other stations in England, August 
6th-11th, 1870. (Nos. 1, 4, 9 are calculated heights at the centres of the real paths.) 


The present average heights are somewhat less than those observed in the 
year 1863; but they agree more closely with the general average height at 
first appearance, 70-05 miles, and that at disappearance, 54-22 miles (as given 
in the Report for 1863, footnote on p. 328), of nearly all the shooting-stars 


[To face page 28. 


—(B.) Birmingham; (H.) Hawkhurst, Kent; (L.) Regent’s Park, 
ust, 1870. 


ee 


& 
o 
2 . 
5 Velocity | Position of the radiant-point. 
» ||in B.S. 
° miles Observers, Remarks, &e. | 
5 per 
Se), fe Xpprosimats by 
3S . pproximate by 
a R. A. Deel the stars. 
eet ay 
= © { G. L. Schultz. 
«| conser Ml) RGABG sis sconcra |Meerccerccccce Aare | W. H. Wood 
2 15 195 | +64 | « Draconis......... {RP Gee 
{ W. Barber Course apparently 
gel| sees | terete | cereee | ceeeeeeeeeeeeeees FE Howlett. ascending? 
W. C. Nash. { A very doubtful 
PRISE SSE FOL TN |)  PaaieNsinetie-nesisises dM Crumplen, 1 accordance. 
5.| 123? 26 | +58 |e Cassiopeix ...... {a eee Be 
: W. C. Nash. 
6! 73? Sol) |! 4-54. |'@ Bersei ....2.-.005. ‘A. @: Heseebel. 
: Pg aa B 
7; 123? 23 | +58 |e Cassiopeix ...... 1 Lie ae Eas 
g2? 27 | +62 | 6 Cassiopeiz ...... ee Ae a Marriott, W. Barber. | 
hanes 40 | +71 | Custos Messium... es de aaa Biaoitet 
W. Barber. 
Ce es se A. S. Herschel. | 
Th 
oe re 462 |B Camelopardi... ve Wats Marriott, W. Barber. | 
: ae: ht, W. M t, W. Barb 
39 4ov | 4257, hq? Bersel.....-:..0-+00 yas ieee: pedo giciic 
52 54 | +67 | B Camelopardi... (i pe 
37 Average velocity and position of the 
miles | 46 | +62 | Camelopardi ... radiant-point of the Perseids, 
per sec. Nos. 11, 12, 13 


[To face page 28. 


Real Heights aud Velocities of Shooting-stars simultaneously observed at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich (Gr.), and at other stations in England—(B.) Birmingham; (H.) Hawkhurst, Kent; (L.) Regent's Park, 
London; (M.) Manchester ; (T.) East Tisted, Hants—on the nights of the 6th-11th August, 1870. 


; z - 
Ble|é Obseryed points of s E 
q & e Approxi- | 4Pparent 2 3 Computed heights and places of Lenath | Velocity | Position of the radiant-point. 
2 || & | APPS: | agnitude, ane Se z cnet, [in B. 8, 
lele|3 sete as per Colour. Rimes, ANG x Disappear- | © 3 on pat’ | miles Observers, Remarks, &. 
jels|e| fixed stars, its duration, Ppearance. | ““onee. | 3 Appearance. Disappearance. | 188 S:| her 
Bale || 2 Ke, Bal 2 * | second. 
g|8 N. wn |ea| 8 |BS. B.S. N. | Approximate by 
B ala BoA! Dect, |B A+! pect, | “| Z| atiles.|N: 19t:| Long. |ariies,| N: lat) Long. R.A) Decl.| — the stars, 
hms 
} | g{|Gr| xn 1 28 2 Bluish. (9° | +70 contre] of | NG BE ell lbs jG. TL. Schultz, 
3 B. ua 2 15) z * Yellow. 2 t4e ia lesen (71 | 52 50]0 208. | cen! ‘ ma MSY || oncecco. |" ecree |W. HE Wood 
| | 19 10 1 uish white, 175 17o | + 7, 4 ‘ Cc, 
2.| s{ x. Heed Catal eee lish white. ate? a aH } 77|53 22/1 49W.| 56 |53 8|1 32W.| 29 15 | 195 | +64 | © Draconis........ RP. Gre wee | 
|} Gr.| 10 25 2 ite. 27 | + +38 2 we Ey ent 
| 3 rof T. |(10 =o 3) S ; 29 i é a } 6r 51 39)2 3H. | 80 | sr s6]1 19K. | 42 {f Howlett. { ascending? 
10{|9%| 10 29 2 > 160 | +65] 170 | +56 W. t f th?) }veeeee | seseee | renee W.C. Nash. j A very doubtful 
* L. |(10 28 30) ik fans 145 | +80] 185 | +66 (10 | 51 43/0 14 W.|centre} of | path?) T. Crumplen, |_ accordance. 
|of| Gr | Bluish white. ? 2 W. Marriott, W. Barber. 
| sped|slis 3 oy) 3 | Mw” | guroma, | 3s | Sey (28 | 58] 38 |, [poetse ale som | se [oe fo som | rast | saat | a6 | +38 ecominin 110s etre 
| -|o!|Gr-| 10 49 45 | Jupiter. | Yellowish. Fino atroak. 60 | +67| 140 | +80] 1o | 12 the C. Nash. 
6-19) | F. |(10 49 0)|>Capella, | Orange-red. } second. 88 | +69 | 155 | +62| 25 | 15 | g0|53 |x x5E.| 4x |52 4/0 7W.| 100? | 752 | so | +54)a Perse... ALS Horschel 
7 10f oe Gs 55 19 2 Bluish white, | Bright streak, | 18 13 Ul see i \\ SH \ 1357 52 30/2 3E.| 75 |51 s4]057H.] 862 | 123? | 23 | +58 | Cassiopeim {1 Gramplen et 
10 56 0) 3 : fant receceer) 20 5 2 Cel leet lire Dheelen “ = | 
)Gr.| 11 1 go 2 : 7 | +56'| 344 |\+4a| 10 | 07 Gi ee T. Wright, W. Marriott, W. Barber. 
| 8 ref 2 ie ° 0) 3 Bl vie ai 27 | +72 | 27 | +80 8 o'6 } 5) Sols | Biase saa case Las i er Ae eet (AS 
} r.| 10 37 50 ct uish white. 1 | +59 1 ABZ | cee | O'S a sentre| of: ||-path'?) ||), waxes eth tos M LS ‘ 
} %H™4) (10 46 0)) 2 Yellow. 332 | +08 | 317 | +61 06 | (4s Seay GI Hearts) GL Wye) GE) | aechs [ORM nie \a8. Cla 
| xo. |rx | GF) 39 39 20 Yellowish. ine streak, | 242 | +66 | 267 | +40 35il| \eoaa| eee |e Co Voserlegar|| coo |) cen Ae ae lee ee | 
| *" |" 1] H. | (10 37 0) a hite, 2 seconds, 235 | +58 | 232 | +38 Ci l eeotea| Pesca | (i Seat 7 ais " es 
ol Gr. in 4 18 1 Bluish. Fine streak. | 347 | +45 | 333 | +30 5 |l alsx a7lo soe. | sr Js aloaB| 3: = | ae ee liens, ie Wright, W. Marriott, W. Buster. 
[| H. (1x 2 0)| «Lyrw. | Orange-yellow. | Bright, 3 seconds. 345 | +71 | 305 | +64 o8 A or gfe inci 
1, J) Gre] 12 38 2 i Yollowish. fine streak. 15 | +65 | 325 | +63 o7 E E >, 457 | 9 Persei. {Te Wright W- Marriott; S 
} 72-14) la 36 30)| 3 White. None. 165 | +81 | 193 | +69 ora) |p) S20 SE Sapo. 2a te) 330) ata |S Se 5 SO ADS esa | A. S. Herschel. 
| Gr.| 11 45 0 2 Bluish. Streak. 450 | +45} 344 | +28 \ 6 8 a) <6 67 |B Camelopardi.., {i LES. 
| a3.jtr{ H. |(11 43 30) 3 et ce None. 327. | +78 | 287 | +67] ...... | 6 ian 26/0 4rE | 38 | 51 14/0 25 EB 2 52 54 | +67 op ‘ALS. Herschel. 
| ¥ (Oe 37 UGE ese seine ae 
| Average heights and length of path (omitting doubtful values, marked thus ?), in British statute miles ........... | 787 fewssssesren] S44 | path, 71 miles.) 304 eae zo lasbes Ee rane op a Ge 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 29 


simultaneously observed until the beginning of that year. The average 
velocity of the Perseids, relatively to the earth, observed in the year 1863 
was 34-4 miles per second, and that of the three Perseids satisfactorily well 
observed in the present list is 37 miles per second. In his original letters to 
Father Secchi on their connexion with Tuttle’s comet (Comet IIJ., 1862), 
now universally accepted as a true basis of their cosmical theory, Prof. 
Schiaparelli calculated, from the known elements of the comet’s orbit, that 
the velocity with which the Perseids enter the earth’s atmosphere (allowing 
for a very minute influence of the earth’s attraction) is 38 miles per second. 
That the direct determination of the velocities of the August shooting-stars 
which were made last year should, in this instance, so exactly agree with the 
value found by calculation (although from the small number of identifiable 
meteors the probable error of the determination is rather large), is, from the 
great scale and general excellence of the observations, at least provisionally, 
a successful confirmation of the astronomical theory of the August meteors, 
and a satisfactory conclusion from the simultaneous watch. 

2. During the corresponding observations of the meteor-shower of No- 
vember last, in which the observers of Mr. Glaisher’s staff at the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, also took an important share, the coincidence of 
the times of appearance and of the other particulars of a single meteor only 
of the shower simultaneously observed at Greenwich and at Tooting, near 
London, could be established, the descriptions of which, as given by the 
observers at those stations, were as follows :— 


No. Approximate : 
. Place of | Magnitude Appearance, 
lane Date. eer nGaeneAtionlaa pcbaiaes Colour. Duration. |Apparent course. streak, &e. 
1870 hm s 
7 |Nov.15; 1 5 56 Royal |=Istmagni-| Bluish | 0:7 seconds. |From@ Urse#Ma-| Left a streak. 
A.M. Observatory,| tude star. white. joris, passed a 
Greenwich. little belowPo- 
laris, in the di- 
rection of B 
Cephei. 
(8) | » 15] 15 0 | Tooting, =Sirius. White. Short (From _between|Lefta long streak 
| A.M, London, duration. the ‘Pointers’|} lastingasecond 
8.W. of the Great} or two. 
Bear, shot one- 
third of the 
way towards a 
Cygni. 


7 
(8) 


PAG ool en 5, 56 
Pegi i's 0 


Greenwich...|Length of path 15°. Observer, WM. MARRIOrT. 


Tooting ...... Meteor fairly well observed. Observer, H. W. JACKSON. 


The apparent paths of the meteor among the constellations present a con- 
siderable parallax in the right direction of displacement, as seen from the 
two observers’ stations, to lead to a positive determination of its real altitude 
above the earth. The concluded path of the meteor is nearly horizontal at 
a height of about fifteen miles above the earth’s surface. The small distance 
(only seven miles) between the two stations, greatly increasing the effect of 
the errors most difficult to avoid in the observation and description of such 
transitory phenomena, must, however, for the present be regarded as pre- 
cluding certainty from the conclusion, which would otherwise attach to this 
unusually low elevation of a meteor’s real path. 


30 


REPORT—1871. 


3. Preparations for observing the meteors of the 20th of April last were 
also made at many stations in England and Scotland with only partial 
A meteor of the April shower was, however, observed simul- 
taneously at Birmingham and Bury St, Edmunds, of which the following 
descriptions were recorded :— 


success. 


Approximate! piace of | Magnitude a Appearance, 
? 
No. | Date. foo ie ation? (is mee ate Colour. Duration. Apparent course. oak, Ke. 
1871. hm 
(6) | Apr.20| 118 P.M. |Birmingham|=Ist magni-}| Blue. 1:25 second. | From A, Hercu-/The meteor in- 
tude star. lis to y Draco-| creased in size. 
nis—8°, 
hm s 
(9) y» 20) 111015 Thurston, | =1lst mag- White. 3 seconds. [From 4aDraco-|Small in the] 
P.M. near nitude nis,¢é Urse Ma-| first, growing) © 
Bury St. Ed-| star. joris, crossing] brighter in the 
munds. tUrseMajoris,| last half of its 
to % (k& 12)) course. Lefta 
Lyncis. slender streak 
at first, which 
remained 2 se- 
conds on the 
last half of its 
| course. i 
» 20) BL & ..c | pigeaicshnt Length of path 11°. One-third of the sky overcast. Observer, W. H. Woop. 
5 20.) 1110 sia) asi ...| Length of path 45°. Sky very clear. Observer, A. 8. HERSCHEL. 
4 


Although the times at both the stations were uncertain to rather more 
than a minute from true Greenwich time, and the approximate times of the 


meteor’s appearance recorded at the two stations differ from each other by 


rather more than two minutes, yet the very similar descriptions of its ap- 
pearance at the two stations, and the fact that no other meteor at either 
station preceded it or followed it within a quarter of an hour, during a very 
attentive watch, as well as the good agreement together of the apparent 
paths recorded by the two observers, render it scarcely possible to doubt that 
the same meteor was simultaneously observed. The apparent length of path 
and duration are, however, much longer at Bury St. Edmunds than at Bir- 
mingham, where the meteor was seen foreshortened near the radiant-point ; 
and on this peculiar circumstance Mr. Wood (in a letter to Mr. Herschel) 
makes some important remarks, which offer a very interesting field for fur- 
ther observations. ‘My view of the meteor’s course was evidently very 
oblique, and yours, very direct (nearly at right angles), would obscure a faint 
tail to me. There is also another peculiarity which I have observed in 
oblique-visioned courses, that they appear to endure about half the time of 
that obtained by direct vision, which I fancy arises from its invisibility to 
one observer, whilst it is visible to the other in the earliest portion of its flight, 
and the amount of the invisible course to bear some proportion to the recorded 
differences in the durations.” In perfect agreement with this explanation the 
point of disappearance of the meteor is well fixed (by combining the observations) 
at a height of about sixty-five miles above a place near Bourne, in Lincolnshire. 
The observations, on the other hand, do not agree in determining the point of 
first appearance. The first and faint half of the meteor’s apparent path, as 
recorded at Bury St, Edmunds, is placed too far from the north pole of the 
heavens to be nearly comformable to the radiant-point near 6 Lyre (from 
some point near and below which the apparent course of the meteor, as seen 


—————————— LS ee ee ee 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 3l 


at Birmingham, was directed), while this portion of the meteor’s flight 
appears to have entirely escaped observation at Birmingham. Prolonging 
the meteor’s visible flight at Birmingham 7° backwards towards the radiant- 
point, and approaching the point of first appearance at Bury St. Edmunds 
about the same distance towards the north pole of the heavens, the agree- 
ment of the observations in fixing the point of first commencement at a 
height of about eighty miles over the neighbourhood of Norwich is nearly 
as exact as the determination of the place of the meteor’s disappearance. 
The length of its visible path was about seventy-five miles, and its radiant- 
point in Taurus Poniatovii, on the same meridian, was about 40° south of 
the usual radiant-point (QH,) of the April meteors. Although its apparent 
course, as observed at Bury St. Edmunds, evidently denoted it as an erratic 
member of the group, its general resemblance to the other Lyraids observed 
on the same evening was a remarkable feature in its long and striking course. 
Adopting Mr. Wood’s suggestion of (provisionally) increasing the duration, 
as observed at Birmingham, from 1°25 to 2 seconds in the simple proportion 
of the increased length of the apparent course, prolonged towards the radiant- 
point, and adopting 23 seconds (the average between this duration and that 
recorded at Bury St. Edmunds) as the time of flight, the resulting velocity, 
relative to the earth, of this single member of the April meteoric stream 
doubly observed on the night of the 20th of April last, was, within very few 
miles, about thirty miles per second. The theoretical velocity of the same 
meteors (see the Note on the last page of this Report) is not quite thirty miles 
per second. 

4, Several observations of the very brilliant fireball observed in Devyon- 
shire and in the south-western counties of England on the evening of the 
13th of February last were collected and compared together by Mr. Wood, 
the result of whose investigation will shortly be given, with descriptions of 
that meteor, as the most probable conjecture, from the materials at present 
at their disposal, arrived at by the Committee respecting its real height and 
the locality of its nearest approach to the British isles. 


II. Larner Mereors. 
In addition to the conspicuous meteors described in the accompanying list, 
the following descriptions of remarkable meteors have appeared, or were 
communicated to the Committee by the observers :— 


1. 1870, Nov. 1, 115 30™ p.m., London. “I saw a splendid meteor last 
night, at 115 30™, through the blind of my bedroom window. The whole room 
was illuminated, and the meteor must have been at least half as large as the 
moon. I went to the window quickly, but could see no trail. The path 
must have been, say, 5° to the right of a Aurige, ending 10° to left of a, B 
Geminorum. I only saw the end. 

“T, Crumpten, London, N.W., Noy. 2nd, 1870.” 


2. 1870, Nov. 4, shortly before 3" a.m. (local time), Agra, India :— 

Extraordinary Meteor.—“ The following account of an extraordinary me- 
teor occurs in a letter I received from a brother who is a missionary stationed in 
Agra. He does not give the exact place where he was at the time, but it 
must have been very near to Agra. The letter is dated Agra, 24th November, 
1870. <A missionary from Allahabad was with him when he saw it. 

“* Mills Hill, Chadderston, near Manchester. Rosert Gryson. 


** Agra, Nov. 24, 1870.—I recently saw a marvellous meteor. I was in 
camp, and had risen for an early march a few minutes before 3 a.m. on 


32 REPORT—187 1. 


November 4th. I was standing under the shade of a cluster of trees, when 
a sudden flash of light fell around. Two or three camp fires were blazing 
near, and at first I thought it might be a sudden flare up from one of them ; 
but on casting my eyes up towards the heavens, I saw a large oval light, 
stationary. It appeared to be composed of a large number of irregularly 
shaped, differently sized stars, yet so closely packed as to form one light, yet 
giving the whole a sort of dappled appearance. At first I was struck dumb 
with amazement—thought it must be some mental illusion, or that my eyes 
were playing me false. But as I gazed it remained steadily fixed. : 
of Allahabad, was with me. I roused him; he was soundly asleep, and some 
seconds passed in waking him up. In the interval it appeared to have been 
lengthened, nearly, though not quite, by a straight line, and as we gazed it 
assumed the shape of a large magnet, with the upper limb rather shorter than 
the other. It then gradually expanded, diminishing in brightness as it in- 
creased in size, assuming a wavy, serpentine form, though keeping much to 
a horseshoe shape, until it became so attenuated as to be no longer visible. 
It must have continued in sight five minutes. It was seen by all the ser- 
vants; and one of them cried out, ‘ Bhagwauka seela hae,’ by which he ap- 
peared to mean that in his opinion the Almighty was amusing Himself with 
fireworks ; literally, ‘It is God’s sport or amusement.’ ”—Nature, Jan. 12th, 
1871. 

3. 1870, Dec. 20, 6" 40™ p.w., Hawkhurst. Kent.— This evening at 
6" 40™ I noticed the descent of a beautiful meteor. It appeared to start 
almost from the zenith towards the §S.S.E., and it was visible for about three 
seconds. It had very much the appearance of a sky-rocket in its flight, but 
without any explosion, and it displayed vivid red and orange colours. The 
evening was very dark, but the stars were visible; the meteor did not in- 
crease the amount of light in the place where I was walking. According 
to my ‘star-map,’ I should lay down its course as follows.” [See the sketch 
of the meteor’s course. |—T. Humpnrey, Hawkhurst, Dec. 20th, 1870. 


e ° 
° 
° 
Pegasus 
og? 
° 
° ° 
° o Od Pisces 
Ss Cetus 


4, 1871, Feb. 13, 95 4™ p.m., Bristol—‘‘I saw a very brilliant meteor 
last evening, February 13th, at 9 4™. During the time that it continued 
visible the whole of the sky was illuminated by the light it emitted. The 
first appearance of the meteor was not witnessed, but the direction and 
situation of the latter portion of its path was approximately determined. It 
passed through the S. part of Orion, just under Rigel, so [see sketch] :— 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 33 


_It disappeared near B, which is equal to about R.A. 4" 10™, Decl. 8. 15°. 
At A it left a train about 2° in length, which endured for ten minutes. In 
that portion of the sky near which the meteor disappeared many stratus 
clouds were visible. 

« P.S.—I omitted to state that the brilliancy of the meteor excelled that 
of any of the planets. When at its brightest the light was about equal to that 
of aclearfull moon. Ionly saw the disappearance.” —W11.1Am F, Dennrne, 
Bristol, February 14th, 1871. 


At Rugby the meteor was observed very bright at about 9" 10™ p.m., and 
it was described as “‘ starting from near @ Orionis, and proceeding towards a 
point a little north of y Eridani, when it was lost behind a belt of cloud.” 
(Communicated to ‘ Nature,’ February 16th, 1871, by J. M. Witson.) 

These two descriptions of its visible path (apparently from the relative 
positions of the stations) are so similar that little can be certainly concluded 
from them regarding the real distance of the meteor. 

At Exeter “a brilliant meteor traversed the constellation of Orion, ap- 
pearing near the Belt and passing from south to west. The direction was 
south-west, altitude 35°, Its light equalled or exceeded that of full moon, 
and it left a train of colours for some time.” (‘ English Mechanic,’ Feb. 24th.) 

At Torquay, “‘ The meteor started near Bellatrix in Orion, altitude 35°, 
passing due west, leaving in its track a brilliant train of colours, green pre- 
dominating.” (Jbid., March 3rd.) 

The meteor was also seen at Callington, in Cornwall, casting a brilliant dif- 
fused light, and occupying two seconds in its transit. (Jbid.) 

By comparing together the foregoing observations of its course, and obtain- 
ing an approximate estimation of its real height, Mr. Wood is led to adopt 
the following provisional positions of its visible track. The meteor first 
appeared at an elevation of fifty-five miles over the English Channel, seventy 
miles 8.8.W. from Torquay. It thence descended, with an inclination of 
16°, to a height of thirty-five miles over a point sixty-four miles west of 
Torquay, thus describing, from 8.E. by 8. to N.W. by N., a path of eighty 
miles in two seconds, across the centre of the county of Cornwall, terminating 
at its western coast, near St. Columb Minor. The radiant of the meteor was 
near a Hydre. As the meteor was probably distinctly seen in Cornwall, the 
Scilly Isles, and in the south of Ireland, additional descriptions of its appa- 
rent course from those places, as seen from points considerably west of the 
place where'it appears to have approached the earth, would afford the best 
materials for verifying the present approximate conjecture of its real path. 
As seen at Torquay, it was notably described by an observer to Mr. Greg as 


lighting up the whole bay and presenting a magnificent appearance. 
1871. D 


34. REPORT—1871. 


5. 1871, July 31st, 94 27" p.m., Bristol.—« 1 observed a meteor of some 
prilliancy on Monday evening last, July 31st, at 9" 27™. It was first seen a 
little above 8 Pegasi, and passing downwards obliquely, it went about 3° east 
of a Pegasi, and disappeared when it reached a point somewhere near R.A. 13°, 
N. Declin. 29°. It left no train of light that was perceptible, and I suppose 
that the meteor was visible for about three seconds. As far as could be 


Date.| Hour. Caan ct Apparent Size. Colour. Duration. | Apparent Course, | 
1870.|h m 
Sep. 12|10 25 p.m.|Camden Town, |3 x 3}, large disk... Blue............ Slow moving.../Began near # Ursa] 
London. Majoris, and ends} 
ed near Cor C 
roli. 
» 23} 8 10 p.m.|Birmingham ...|One-third diameter|Pale blue...... About 2 secs...|Commenced at 
of the full moon, a=66, 6=+8 
or 2X Q. 
Oct. 2) 10 8 p.m.|Ibid ........eeeee Sash 4-dde dung .....|Silvery-white..|3 seconds...... a= 0= 
From 92°+44° 
to 116 +37 
», 29/12 15 am.|Glasgow ......... =59P Ss sta Pesca REG fcdngopases 0:4 second ...|\Commenced at 
Caroli. 
Noy.13) 9 37 59 [Royal Observa-|> 2%  ese-.sseeeeves Yeilowish...... 3 seconds...... Passed midway bes 
tory, Green- tween @ and 
wich. Draconis, a 
continued 
path parallel tod 
and n Urse Ma 
joris. : 
» 21} 9 35 p.m.|Glasgow ......6 Wo ctecseeaacossates White... theses 3 seconds...... From 4 (6, 6) Aw 
rige to o U 
Majoris. 
» 20/9 0 p.m./Scarborough .../Apparent shape and Bluish .........)-+++ssseeesseerees Descended from 
size of the half- point about 
moon. above the S.W 
1871. horizon. 
Mar. 1)10 10 p.m./Charing Cross, |> 2  ..sesecerserees Brilliant white|About 3 secs...|From near 6 Canit 
London. Minoris to about 
5° or 6° east 
and at the sax 
altitude as, « O} 
onis. 
» 17\About 10 40/Paris, Rochelle,|Splendid meteor ...|Green ......... 20 SeCONdS .,.|-c...ceaccensesnss 
p-m. &c., France. 
(local time). 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 


85 


judged it was of a red colour, and somewhat star-like in appearance. At the 
time of its appearance the sky was rather cloudy and misty, and the meteor 
was not, therefore, seen advantageously. It did not seem to explode at the 


time of its extin 


ction. 


Park, Bristol, August 2nd, 1871. 


ge Meteors, 1870-71. 


. DENNING 


I have sent the above particulars thinking they may 
be useful for comparison with other results.””—Wittam F 


, Cotham 


Appearance; Train or 
Sparks. 


very large globular nu- 
cleus. Seen through 
haze, which dimmed its 
light. 

globular nucleus, with- 
out tail or streak. 


cleus pear-shaped, with 
short adhering white 
tail, projecting dull-red 
fragments forwards on 
its course; increasing 
and exploding at maxi- 
mum brightness. 


ft a very fine streak ... 


ft no streak............ sae 


€ meteor only seen as it 
assed behind the edge 
f a cloud. 


cleus pear-shaped, fol- 
owed by a short train 
or a second. Point of 

i appearance near 
jouses, which concealed 
he neighbouring star 


Length of Path and 
Direction. 


25°; downwards to left... 


>10°; directed from Ca- 
pella, radiant F). 


From radiant F, ............ 


5° while in sight; directed 
from @ Urse Majoris. 
40° 


Pree E Teer eee ee 


15°; from radiant in Taurus 


Fell perpendicularly | 


rocyon. 
explosion; but many 
parks projected from 
he nucleus. Left a lu- 


han an hour. 


TPO RRO Tere ete eet ereretereteans 


Sky clear. 


Remarks. 


The stars scarcely visible through 
haze, but recognized sufficiently 
near the meteor’s path. 


View of the end of its course in- 
tercepted when at an altitude 
of 4° or 5°. 


From radiant « Tauri. End of 
path hidden by houses. 


eer enees POO e eee eee ee ee ernst ansaseee 


lit up all the heavens. 


extremely bright in the full 
moonlight. 


p-m., >, from near the ze- 
nith, with a remarkably long 
duration, to near the S.W. hori- 
zon. Bright gold colour at 


last, leaving a brilliant train 
visible for 3 or 4 minutes (‘ The 
Times,’ Mar. 21st). 


Observer and 
References &c. 


T. Crumplen. 


W. H. Wood. 


.|Id. 


Robert Maclure. 


..|T. Wright. 


Robert Maclure. 


Appeared with two flashes, which|T. H. Waller. 


The meteor appeared/F. H. Ward. 


.|Seen also at Chichester, 10" 30™|/Messrs. Prevost, 


Samberg, and 
other  obser- 
vers (‘ Comp- 
tes Rendus,’ 
March 20th, 
1871). 


36 REPORT—1871. 

Date.| Hour. Be ahs pal Apparent Size. Colour. Duration. | Apparent Course. ; 
1871.|h m ; ; | 
Mar.18/12 20 a.m.|Turin and other|Apparent diameter)Brilliant white|About 2 mi- Passed directly over 
(local time).| places in Pied-| of full moon. nutes. Very| the townof Turin 
mont. protracted from the moun- 
course, and| tains near Susa, 
slow speed.| towards the op j 

posite horizon. 
» 23] 6 35 p.m. Broadstairs Disk of apparent/Nucleus green,|.........+++4++-|First appearance at 
(Kent). size of Sirius, in-| with red a point about 30° 
cluding his rays.| train. above the N. } E,| 
horizon. 

» 24) 4 25 a.m.|Volpeglino, and|Nucleus 25’ diame-|Brilliant white/Slow and (From a Cygni, a 
(local time).) other stations) ter. stately mo-| cross « Andros) 
in Piedmont. tion. meds, to near ¢ 


Apr.11} 9 46 p.m.| 


Ibid, Moncalieri, 


Nucleus 10’ diame- 


Bluish white... 


Piscium, or 
a — 

From 309°-+45° 
to 10+ 7 


o= 


- cc 


(local time).| Piedmont. ter. From 211°—10° 
to 223 +28 — 
[From 221 —11 
to lll +28 — 
From 175 +15 
to 111 +32] _ 
» 12} 8 15 p.m.|Lodi; Moncalieri,/ Very large and bril- Reddishe: then) sess <ovecseress From 111 + 7 | 
(local time).| Piedmont. liant. bright blue. to 105 + 2° 
», 14/11 39 p.m.|TheObservatory,|= 2} ....+seeeeeereree WWHHIte: seesscasclecees stevens .eee-| From 98 +70 
(local time).| Naples. to 15 +39 
», 22/10 37 30 |Moncalieri, irae inchs dunseapis==|nsphentss'sm dees |¢esolresac iesasinnae From 233 +23 
.m. Piedmont. to 18+88 
(local time). (Polaris) 
{From 212 +20. 
to 87 +445] 


6. Meteors of the largest class, as described in the foregoing list of such 


occurrences, were more than ordinarily frequent during the months of March 
and April last, appearing principally on the nights of the 17th—18th and 
23rd-24th of March, and on those of the 11th and 12th of April last. On 
the first of these dates two fireballs were observed in France and Italy, the 
former of which was also seen in the south of England, at Chichester. A 
large meteor was seen in Kent and Essex, on the second date, a few minutes 
after sunset; and two detonating meteors were observed at Urbino, and were 
generally visible in Italy on the same night. The third detonating meteor 
of which accounts haye reached the Committee, made its appearance in Pied- 
mont on the evening of the 12th of April last. Professor Serpieri and Mr. 
Denza, at the Observatories of Urbino and Moncalieri, near Turin, are collect- 
ing sufficient details of these large meteors to calculate their real course. 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 


37 


Appearance ; Train or 
Sparks. 


of stars. Left an im- 
mensely broad and 
bright streak, which re- 
mained visible for 10" 
or 15", 

ucleus followed by a 
train of red sparks. Ex- 
ploded, projecting many 
luminous fragments. 


eftafew bright red sparks 
and a very persistent 
ruddy streak on its whoie 
_ course. 


ucleus very brilliant. At 
az Bootis it paused for 
an instant, and advanced 
with irregular motion 
towards its termination. 
Left a briliiant streak. 


eft a reddish streak for! 
20 seconds. 

ucleus followed by a 
bright streak, which re- 
mained visible for 33 
minutes, 


Length of Path and 
Direction. 


ucleus an elongated mass Horizontal, from W.N.W. 


to E.S.E. 


15°; descending towards 
the east, at an inclina- 
tion of about 45°. 


see eeene PO dee eee w were eee ee estes 


ee ee ee rere re ree erry 


Remarks. 


The meteor was also seen at Ley- 

ton, Essex, a few minutes after 

sunset, appearing in the E.N.E., 

and taking a southerly direction. 

(J. F. Duthie, ‘ Nature,’ Mar. 

30th, 1871.) 

|Burst with a violent detonation; 
heard about 4 a minute after 
its disappearance. [Seen and 
heard at Urbino, where it was 
preceded at 22 a.m. by a per- 
fectly similar detonating meteor 
equally brilliant, and leaving a 
persistent streak.—A, Serpt- 
ERI. | 

[The last two apparent positions 
are those at Alessandria, and 


Observer and 
References &c. 


Letter in Turin 
newspaper (by 
F. Denza) of 
Mar. 31st. 


Communicated 
by Jas. Chap- 


man, 


Letter in Turin 
newspaper of 
March  3lst, 
1871, by F. 
Denza. 


Communicated 
by F. Denza. 


Volpeglino, where the meteor 
was also observed. ] 


Burst with a detonation, which 
was heard in houses with closed 
doors. 


Fee eta ne weesernes ewe eeeeeese ee eeenee eee 


(The last apparent position is that! 
observed at Volpeglino (Tor- 
tona), where the meteor was 
also seen, and its bright streak 
remained visible for one minute. | 


1804, November 24 .. 
1864, June 26 
1865, February or March 
1866, October 5 
1867, January 19..... 
1868, May 22 
1868, November 
1868, December .. 
Date unknown 


III. A&éRoxrres. 


Date 


4. <)/e a, 6.0) 6, a 
se eee eee 


. San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 


Volynia, Russia. 
Gorruckpore, India. 
Ahmednuggur, Bombay. 
Khetrie, Rajpootana, India 
Slavetic Croatia. 

Danville, Alabama, U.S. 
Frankfort, Alabama, U.S. 
Goalpara, Assam. 


The following dates of aérolitic falls appear to have escaped notice in the 
Catalogue (Report for 1860) and in subsequent Reports :— 


38 REPORT—1871. 


The analysis of the last of these meteorites by Mr. Tschermak (Jahrbuch 
fiir Mineralogie, for 1871, p. 412) shows approximately the following com- 
position :— 

Tron. Hydrocarbon. Olivine. Enstatite. | Magnetic Pyrites. 
8-49 +0:85 +61:72 +30-01 +(traces) =101:07. 

The occurrence of carbonaceous matter in the meteorites of Hessle, Upsala 
(Ist January, 1869), was recently also recognized by Nordenskjold, who 
found in them a black flocculent substance, containing 71 per cent. of 
carbon. (The ‘Academy,’ August 15th, 1871.) 


TY. Merrortc SHowers. 

1. Meteor-showers in January and February 1837.—From the tracks of 
meteors recorded in the last annual Catalogue of the British Association, and 
in the ‘ Bulletin of the Moncalieri Observatory’ for November 1869, observed 
during the months of January and February of that year, Mr. Greg has 
established the existence of the following old, and of one new radiant-point, 
which made their appearance in those months :— 


Position of radiant- Report for 1868, p. 401. 
; : point. Number of 
Duration of meteoric meteors 
shower in 1869. mapped. Position. 
cb j Duration. 
a. | 6. | By the stars. a. | 6. | By the stars. 


Jan. 9-19, and Jan. < 8 «ont “| 20,2 a) & i 
ay Goeh6 72|+ 2\s, z, Orionis... |14 (Italian)..| (AG, |Dec. 20 to Feb.6.| 63 /+20\a Tauri)? 


: 

4 
Symbols, durations, and positions of the same 
meteor-showers in the British Association 

P 

‘ 

. 

i 

e 


Jan. 29 to Feb. 6 ...... 223 |+54\/In Quadrans...|7 (Italian)...| Kg |Jan. 2-3........... 232 |+49 ¢ Quadrantis. 
Feb. 11-20 (chiefly) ...| 194 |+15\e Virginis ...... 8 (English)..| Sq |March 5-17 ...... 190|+ ly Virginis. 
Feb. 11-16 (chiefly) ...| 103 |—25/6 Canis Majo-|10 (English) P, |January............ 105 |—27 6 Canis Majoris. 


ris. and Italian).| 113 [February ......... 105 |—45|Puppis, Argo. 


A succession of radiant-points near the apex of the earth’s way following 
the appearance of the November shower, of which the general meteor-shower 
LH (Report for 1868, p. 403) from the head of Hydra, lasting until the 
12th of December, presents a parallel instance, is remarkably described in the 
following MS. note, recorded by the late Sir J. Herschel during his residence 
at the Cape:—“ Cape of Good Hope, 1837, January 2nd, 1" 30™ M. T. [2. e. 
from midnight]. A meteor=second-magnitude star crossed the zenith, leav-- 
ing a train. Course right from the apex in the east, whence they have all 
come since November 12th. N.B. This has been extremely remarkable and 
well-sustained; really very few exceptions. 

«February 1-5.—The meteors now chiefly go from 8.W. to N.E.” 

The tendency of radiant-points to group themselves in families so as to 
make newly observed centres difficult to distinguish from older ones appear- 
ing nearly on the same date, is well seen by the examples of the new radiant- 
point in Orion, and of the extensions (apparently) of old radiant-points, pointed 
out by Mr. Greg. Some attempts to explain this singular peculiarity and 
the striking instances of groups of radiant-points in the months of January 
and February have recently been published by Professor Schiaparelli, a fur- 
ther account of whose speculations on their probable history will be found at 
the close of this Report. 


= 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 89 


2. The Meteor-shower of November 1868, which was seen in its greatest 
brilliancy in the United States of America, and which was also partially 
recorded at Glasgow, by Professor Grant, between 5 and 6 o’clock on the 
morning of the 14th of November, was observed at the same hours in the 
north of Scotland, and described in the ‘Journal of the Scottish Meteorolo- 
gical Society’ (for December 1868) :—‘‘ Meteors and Falling-stars.—The star- 
shower of the 13th and 14th of November was observed at many of the 
stations. In the north it was very fine. Mr. Clark, the observer at North 
Unst, writes :—‘On the morning of the 14th there was a great falling of 
shooting-stars from all directions of the sky ; it was something like a shower 
of stars.’ And the Rev. Dr. Hamilton observes that at Bressay ‘ There 
was an extraordinary meteoric shower, which continued from 3" 30™ a.m. of 
the 13th [? 14th] till the sun rose, and the number of stars or meteors falling 
was innumerable.’” The following descriptions of its appearance in Swit- 
zerland are given by Dr. Rudolf Wolf in his ‘Astronomical Contributions’ :— 
©1868, November 13th: from 12" 5™ to 127 15™ 1 saw four, from 122 15™ 
to 12" 30™ nine, and from 12” 30™ to 12" 40™ two brilliant meteors radia- 
ting from the constellation Leo. The sky (up to the latter time quite clear) 
then clouded over from the east, and all further view of the meteors at 
Ziirich was prevented. Mr. Rieder, at Klosters, reports:—‘As an unusual 
phenomenon I have to state that at 4° 15™ on the morning of the 14th of 
November, 1868, an extraordinary number of shooting-stars were visible in 
the western sky; from five until six o’clock a real rain of shooting-stars took 
place, diffusing such great brightness that one might easily have read by 
their light. Several of the meteors left streaks of bright light in the sky, 
which remained visible for two or three seconds.’ At Engelberg ‘from five 
until after six o’clock a.m. on the morning of the 14th of November, repeated 
flashes of lightning were perceived, and shortly before five o’clock a swiftly 
passing flash, like a ball of light, was observed, whilst the sky was com- 
pletely overcast.’” An admirably compiled history of the November pheno- 
menon in the year 1868, comprising the exact details of observations at all 
the places where it was well observed, and notices of its general description 
at piaces in all parts of Europe, the United States of America, and the 
Atlantic, where it was witnessed, is published in his Memoirs V. and VI., on 
‘Shooting-stars of November 1868 and August 1869,’ by Sig. F. Denza. The 
same volume contains (in the sixth memoir) an equally full collection of obser- 
vations and theoretical deductions of great value regarding the appearance of 
the August meteor-shower in the year 1869. Among the latter may be cited 
the suggestion of Professor Newton*, borne out by the observations of the 
shower made in America, and by those of Professor Serpieri at Urbino in 
that yeart, that the radiant- region of the Perseids is in reality a narrow, 
elongated space extending from near the cluster at y Persei to the star B 
(B. A. C. 1058) Camelopardi. The radiant-region of the Leonids in the pre- 
vious year was similarly observed by Professor Newton to be better repre- 
sented by a short line extending between the stars e, y Leonis, from about the 
star «, in the centre of the Sickle (B. A. C. 3423), to the latter star, than by a 
single point. The direction of elongation of the radiant-region i is towards the 
sun’s apparent place, a conclusion which is regarded by Prof. Newton as throw- 
ing light of some importance upon the theory of the November meteor-stream. 


* Bulletins of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Belgium, ser. 2. vol. xxvi. 1868, 
p. 450, 451. 

+ Letter from Prof. Serpieri to Prof. Schiaparelli, January 5th, 1870; communicated 
to the Royal Institute of Sciences of Lombardy. 


40 REPORT—1871. 


3. The August Shower in 1870.—In the ‘ Meteorological Bulletin’ of the 
Moncalieri Observatory for October 1870, the first results of observations in 
Piedmont on the star-shower of the 10th and 11th of August last are com- 
municated. As already observed in the last Report, the frequency of the 
meteors did not exceed the ordinary average of the shower, and they were 
somewhat more frequent on the night of the 10th than on that of the 11th 
of August. They appeared to proceed from several radiant-points, besides 
the principal one of the shower, in Perseus. Among the contemporaneous 
radiant-points, T,, F, (the former occurring in August in Pegasus, and the 
latter usually appearing in Auriga in the latter part of September) were 
observed to be conspicuous. 

4, The November Shower in 1870.—The preparations made for recording 
the return of the November meteors in 1870 were in a great measure disap- 
pointed by the cloudy state of the sky at several of the English stations. 

The following letter from Mr. Backhouse announced a more favourable 
condition of the sky at Sunderland on the morning of the 14th of November 
than that which prevailed at Manchester, Birmingham, York, and London, 
where no meteors of the shower could be observed :— 

“ Between 2” 20™ and 3? 42™ a.m., on the 14th, I watched for meteors; I 
only saw seven in fifty-six minutes, watching in a cloudless sky. Of these 
only four belonged to the shower. I enclose the particulars. I did not 
watch much on the morning of the 15th. It was mostly cloudy, and I saw 
no meteors.’—Of the conformable meteors two left trains, one was station- 
ary close to, and the others radiating very nearly from, the small star x 
Leonis. The unconformable meteors appeared with short courses in and near 
the constellation Taurus, and of these one was as bright as Sirius. It was 
of a yellow colour, describing a path of 3°, near e Arietis, from the direction 
of the Pleiades, and it left no streak. 

Five meteors, from undetermined radiant-points, were seen through breaks 
in the clouds by Mr. J. E. Clark, at York, on the morning of the 14th, and 
two Leonids of some brightness, in a watch of one hour (interrupted by the 
clouds), on the morning of the 15th of November. 

On the morning of the 14th of November the sky was clear at Glasgow 
from 2" 10™ until 5° 15™ a.m., and twenty-six meteors were recorded by 
Mr. A. S. Herschel, of which twenty-one were conformable. Of the latter 
the paths of eleven, prolonged backwards, crossed, and of five passed close to 
the curve of Leo’s sickle. Seven meteors left persistent streaks, which were 
faintly visible in the full moonlight. The proportion of magnitudes of the 
conformable meteors was :— 

Of meteors equal to or brighter than a 1st-mag. x; oo do.; 3rd do.; 4th do. 
Number of meteors seen ....00...ceeeeeees 3 7 5 
Meteors of smaller magnitudes were rendered net by the moon’s light ; 
and the most striking conformable meteor of the shower, recorded at 
4 25™ a.M., was as bright as Sirius. It described a course of 25°, directed 
nearly from p Leonis, in three-quarters of a second, and left a broad streak 
on its whole path for two seconds. The following numbers of conformable 
and unconformable meteors were recorded in the half-hours ending at 
hm hm hm hm hm hm 


1870, November 14th, A.M.........00. 240 310 340 410 440 510 
Conformable meteors ...........s0000+- I 4 6 2 5 3 
Unconformable meteors ............... I ° ° 4 ° ° 


In the first and last half-hours the sky was partially concealed by clouds ; 
at 3" 38™ a.m. a group of three first-, second-, and third-magnitude meteors, 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 4) 


leaving streaks directed from Leo, appeared almost together. In the next 
half-hour two meteors, directed apparently from Cor Caroli, appeared to be 
unconformable to the Leo radiant. The remaining unconformable meteors 
all proceeded from the direction of a radiant-point in Taurus. At 5" 15™ a.m. 
the sky became completely overcast ; but a shooting-star from the direction 
of Leo, of first magnitude, was observed by Mr. R. Maclure, at 6" 20™ a.m., 
through an opening of the clouds. On the morning of the 15th the sky at 
Glasgow was again completely overcast. 

On the evening of the 13th a bright meteor (described in the above List) 
was seen at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and three vivid flashes of 
light, between 12" 15™ and 12° 30™ a.m., on the 14th, which must have pro- 
ceeded from large meteors, at an altitude of about 20°, due 8. were seen 
through the clouds, which from this time overspread the sky during the 
remainder of the night. On the morning of the 15th a clear sky enabled 
Mr. Glaisher’s staff of observers to make continuous observations of the 
meteors visible in the bright moonlight, from midnight until 5° 33™ a.n., 
when the sky was again quite obscured by clouds. Fifty-three meteors were 
recorded, in this interval by the five observers, the apparent paths of forty- 
five of which were traced upon a map. Of the meteors so recorded, twenty- 
eight proceeded from the usual radiant-point in Leo, eight from a radiant- 
point situated apparently not far from Cor Caroli, seven from a radiant-point 
between Taurus and Musca, and two meteors from uncertain radiant-points. 

The following were the numbers of the meteors observed in the successive 
half-hours ending at 

hm hhm hbhmhthmhbhbmshdhm 

1870, November 15th, A.M.... 1230 I 130 2 230 3 330 4 430 5 530 Total 
Number of meteors seen...... Del 2A) Getizenr as Ab Mee iG. FSi ks 53 
A very beautiful meteor of bluish-white colour, and of the apparent size and 
brightness of Jupiter, proceeding apparently from the direction of the radiant- 
point in Musca, descended towards the east, at 4° 45™ 25° a.m., through an 
are of more than 25°, in about three seconds, leaving a streak of light upon 
its course. Most of the conformable meteors left a persistent train, but none 
of those observed rivalled this fine meteor in brightness or in length of 
course. The proportion of apparent magnitudes of the remaining meteors, 
seen during the watch is shown in the following list :— 

Brighter than first-magnitude stars; =1stdo.; =2nddo.; =3rddo. Total 
Number of meteors seen...... 6 24. 17 5 52 
From these descriptions of the meteor-shower it appears that, on both the 
mornings of the 14th and 15th of November, the number of the conformable 
meteors considerably exceeded that of the unconformable meteors which 
appeared during the hours of the continued watch; but that the scale of the 
shower, as it was observed in England, was very far inferior to the brightness 

with which it was recorded in the preceding year. 

At Tooting, near London, Mr. H. W. Jackson observed on the mornings of 
the 14th, 15th, and 16th of November, and noted one shooting-star on the 
night of the 13th, but failed, on account of haze and clouds, followed by rain 
during the morning of the 14th, in securing another observation. Between 
midnight and 1" 55™ a.m., on the morning of the 15th, eight meteors were 
carefully observed and mapped, and four or five smaller meteors were seen, 
all but two of which (of short course, near the radiant-point in Taurus) were 
conformable to the Leo radiant-point. Of these, the brightest, at 1" 5™ a.m., 
which left a long streak, was simultaneously observed at Greenwich. Of the 
two unconformable meteors, that which appeared at 12” 7™ a.m. was white 


42 REPORT—1871. 


and nearly as bright as Jupiter, moving for two seconds in a slightly curved 
course from 7 to ~ Orionis, and leaving a short streak upon its track. 
Flashes of faint reddish lightning were perceived at 12" 28™ and 12" 53™ a.m. 
Between 12" 30™ and 1° 30™ a.m. on the morning of the 16th some meteors 
were observed, but did not appear to present features worthy of special note. 

At Newhaven, in the United States, three observers noted, in three hours, 
thirty-one meteors, of which only six were conformable to the radiant-point 
in Leo. On the following morning (the 14th) Professor Newton, with five 
other observers, obtained the following enumeration of the meteors visible in 
the half-hours ending at 1870, November 14th, a.m. :— 

hm h hm hhmhhm h hm hm 

(1870, November 13th, P.M.... 1130 12) 1230 I 130 2 230 3 330 345* Totals 


Conformable meteors ......... ° I 5 PITOnvT2 sigh iS wSawie aeem 79 
Unconformable meteors ...... 6 8 4 Fie BEEO « iy The oa i7 eig ey 2 74. 


After 3" 45™ the sky was so nearly overcast that regular counting was 
abandoned, while in open spaces of the sky it was still apparent that up to 
six o’clock no marked increase in the number of the meteors had taken place. 
After half-past five, however, the clouds already began more nearly to cover 
the sky. (American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. i., January 1871.) 

5. Meteor-shower of December 12th, 1870.—The state of the sky was not 
generally favourable for observations, Mr. H. W. Jackson reporting from 
Louth that on the nights of the 12th and 13th the sky was overcast, with 
frequent rain from 8" 30™ p.m. on the night of the 12th. At Glasgow, York, 
and Manchester it was equally obscured. At Birmingham Mr. W. H. Wood 
was more fortunate in securing a short view of the sky on one of the periodic 
nights, and the following is his description of the shower :— 

“The overcast state of the skies from the 10th to the 13th permitted only 
of a partial view of the character of the shower, which occurred during a 
temporary clearance of the sky for one hour only, from 11" 30™ p.m. on the 
12th to 12" 30™ a.m. on the 13th. Five meteors were recorded in three- 
quarters of an hour, radiating accurately from radiant G (@ Geminorum). 
Meteors white or blue, and trainless (one observer).” A list of the recorded 
paths, and a description of the meteors seen, accompanies Mr. Wood’s report. 
The position of the radiant-point from which the meteors approximately 
diverged was near the stars « and 6, in Gemini. 

No observations were recorded, owing to a cloudy state of the sky, on the 
shower-meteor nights of the 1st and 2nd of January, 1871. 

6. Meteor-shower of April 20th, 1871.—The last well-marked appearance 
of the April meteor-shower, to the annual occurrence of which attention 
was first drawn by Herrick, in the United States, took place on the morning 
of the 21st of April, 1863+, when, for a few hours, meteors were observed 
by Mr. Wood, at Weston-super-Mare, to be as frequent as in a moderately 
bright August star-shower. Two Julian intervals of four years each haying 
elapsed since that occurrence, the astronomical conditions of its reappearance 
suggested special preparations and a simultaneous watch, which were ac- 
cordingly made for its return. Besides the staff of observers at the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, Mr. Glaisher’s son, Mr. James Glaisher, volunteered 
to take part in the observations at Cambridge, where Professor Adams also 
offered his aid, to join in recording the shooting-stars which might be visible at 
the Observatory. The other observers who awaited the display were those 
who have most frequently assisted the Committee by their recorded observa- 
tions at Glasgow, York, Manchester, Birmingham, and London. Such, how- 


* In a quarter of an hour. t, Report for 1863, p. 325. 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 43 


ever, was the unfavourable state of the sky which prevailed during the 
forty-eight hours intended to have been devoted to the watch (and which 
continued to prevent further observations during the last remaining nights 
of the months of April), that with the exception of a few meteors of the 
shower observed by Mr. Wood at Birmingham, and of the corresponding 
group of meteors recorded by Mr. Herschel at Bury St. Edmunds, no un- 
broken series of observations were received. The sky first became quite clear 
at the latter place at 9" 30™ p.m., and the following numbers of meteors were 
seen in the half-hours ending at— 

hem bee hime hh, himy shy hom 
1871, April 20.........p.M.930 10 1030 11 1130 12 (12 304M. April 21). Total. 
Number of meteors seen ... 3 I 3 I II 6 25 
All but eight of their apparent paths, projected upon a map, when prolonged 
backwards, pass across a circular area about 15° in width, of which the 
centre is at a point in R. A. 267°, N. Decl. 35°. Nine of these conformable 
meteors left bright trains. Of the eight unconformable meteors, four are 
widely erratic meteors of the same shower, and the remaining four moving 
in the opposite direction were directed from an unknown radiant-point in the 
south. The path of one of the latter was remarkably serpentine in the latter 
portion of the meteor’s course. The following are the numbers of meteors of 
the different magnitudes observed :— 

As bright as Jupiter or Sirius. As Ist mag. star. 2nd. 3rd. 4th. Sth. Total. 

3 4 5 5 4 4 25 
The last meteor was observed at 12" 35™ a.m. on the 21st. The sky then 
rapidly clouding over did not permit the progress of the shower, at Bury St. 
Edmunds, to be further watched. On the previous and on the following 
night the sky was also cloudy. 

At Birmingham Mr. W. H. Wood recorded the appearance of nine 
shooting-stars between the hours of 10" 20™ and 11"30™ p.m. on the night of 
the 20th of April, five of which were noted in the first, and four in the latter 
half of the watch ; five meteors diverged from the constellation Lyra, three 
from that of Corona, and the remaining meteor moved transversely to the 
former ones from the neighbourhood of Polaris. The numbers of meteors 
seen of different magnitudes were, 1=Sirius, 2=I1st mag.x, 1=38rd do., 
5=4th do.: total 9 meteors. The brightest meteor of the shower moved with a 
nucleus of brilliant blue, flickering light, about the brightness of Sirius, from the 
direction of Corona. Soon after half-past 11 o’clock the sky became over- 
cast, and remained so at 1° and 25 a.m. on the morning of the 21st, when 
regular watching was abandoned. The maximum, as far as could be ascer- 
tained from these observations, occurred after midnight on the morning of 
the 21st; the rate of apparition for one observer, while the sky was clear, 
being seven or eight per hour between ten and eleven o’clock, and twelve or 
fifteen per hour during the half-hour immediately before and that imme- 
diately after midnight. Between 11° 15™ and 11" 45™ p.m. on the night of 
the 21st, Mr. Wood observed no meteors at Birmingham, although one-third 
of the sky was visible, quite clear, through the broken clouds. The appear- 
ance of the April shower in this year appears, therefore, to have taken place 
on the date and at about the hour expected for its return, from the time 
of its last conspicuous appearance. 

7. Meteor-shower of July 1871.—At sea, between Norway and England, 
Mr. A. 8. Herschel watched for the periodical meteors (first pointed out by 
_ Capocci, at Naples) on the night of the 16th of July. The sky was perfectly 
clear from 11" p.m. until 2" a.m. on the morning of the 17th of July, and 


44, REPORT—1871. 


seventeen meteors were observed, six in the first, six in the second, and 
five in the third hour of the watch. On the night of the 17th the sky was 
again clear; but three meteors only were observed in three-quarters of an 
hour, between 105 55™ and 11° 40™ p.m. The meteors observed on both 
nights were small, and appeared generally with short courses near a radiant- 
region around 7 Herculis, from which they appeared to diverge. The num- 
ber of meteors seen of the different magnitudes were, 2=1st mag.x, 4=2nd, 
4=drd, 6=4th, 4=5th: total 20 meteors seen in 3? hours by one observer, 
in a clear sky, with no moon. 


Y. Papers RELATING TO MerEoric ASTRONOMY. 


1. Under the title ‘ Aleuni Resultati Preliminari tratti dalle osservazioni 
di Stelle Cadenti publicate nelle Effemeride degli anni 1868, 1869, 1870;’ 
Professor Schiaparelli communicates, in connexion with the three Catalogues 
of Shooting-Stars observed in Italy, published in the Ephemeris of the Milan 
Observatory for the years 1868, 1869, and 1870, a first report on the radiant- 
points obtained by mapping the meteor-tracks contained in them from Janu- 
ary to June. For a convenient nomenclature of the radiant-points, the year 
is divided into seventy-two pentads, of five days each, of which six are con- 
tained in every month. While the first five pentads in every month are 
complete, the sixth, and last, consists of three, four, five, or six days, ac- 
cording to the length of the month to which it belongs. Since, however, the 
observations for a single night of the year only (collected from all the years) 
are combined together to detect the radiant-points, of which several may 
occur in each pentad, the letters of the alphabet added to the Roman num- 
ber of a pentad (thus, XIX.) designate the radiant-points in those pentads in 
the order in which they were successively discovered by Professor Schia- 
parelli. Besides a strict separation of meteors observed on one from those 
observed on the next following or on the next preceding night, to avoid the 
risk of confusing together meteors belonging to different radiant-points under 
a false assemblage of two radiant-points into a single meteoric-shower, Pro- 
fessor Schiaparelli distinguishes as different meteor-currents those whose 
radiant-points, as shown by laying down the recorded paths, are more than 
10° apart. The precision with which the radiant-points must be determined 
(from the shooting-star observations of a single night) is necessarily very 
great, in order that this rule may be rigorously applied. Even omitting the 
errors of observation (which are frequently considerable), it is found that 
different meteoric showers present different characters of radiation. In some 
the radiant-region is small, and the meteor-tracks prolonged backwards meet 
nearly in a point, when it is called “ exact”; in others it is larger, the meteor- 
tracks prolonged backwards crossing each other in a confused manner over a 
considerable apparent space, in which case it is called “ diffuse.’ The 
shooting-stars which make their appearance within the radiant-region (when 
this is rather large) may appear to be moving in every variety of opposite direc- 
tions, and their paths are usually noticed to be extremely foreshortened by 
perspective in this position. Lastly, if they diverge from two or more points 
the character of the radiation is said to be double or multiple; and it ap- 
pears probable, on certain theoretical grounds, which will be shortly stated, 
that a diffuse radiant-region in general arises from the close assemblage of 
many radiant-points together into a multiple group. The November meteor- 
shower is an example of exact, and the August star-shower an instance 
either of multiple or of diffuse radiation, according to the various descriptions 
of the observers who have examined the direction of its radiant-point most 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 45 


attentively. Meteoric showers composed principally of very small shooting- 
stars are confined to the parts of the heavens immediately surrounding the 
radiant-point; while those consisting of large meteors spread far from the 
centre of divergence, the meteors (apparently from their brightness) being as 
plainly visible when they are seen by transverse as when they are seen fore- 
shortened by very oblique vision. Meteor-showers of the former kind are 
called “contracted” ; and of the latter kind “extended” (stretta; larga). The 
foregoing are the principal terms employed by Professor Schiaparelli in de- 
scribing the meteor-showers of which the positions of the radiant-points have 
now been published. The explanation of the phenomena of “ diffuse ” and 
“multiple ” radiant-points is ingeniously supplied by Professor Schiaparelli 
in the following manner. A very small nebular mass of meteoroids or of 
cometoids haying been deflected from its original parabolic (or very excen- 
tric) into an orbit of moderate period round the sun by the attraction of some 
powerful planet in its path, the foremost and swiftest particles of the stream 
produced by this disturbance gradually gaining, and the slowest losing 
ground on the central particles of the mass, an elongated form of the mass is 
gradually assumed directed along the line of the meteoric orbit. The dif- 
ference of velocity, or of periodic time, between the foremost and hindmost 
particles of the row is sufficient to ensure the gradual lengthening of the line, 
until the foremost particle joins with the last in forming a continuous ring or 
wreath of meteoric substance closing the orbit of the original meteoric cloud. 
Should the two ends, before meeting each other (as must usually be the case), 
have undergone different perturbations from the action of the planets, in- 
stead of exactly overtaking the retreating end, the foremost end of the wreath 
will overlap it, and the meteor-stream will begin to assume the form of a 
spiral curve of a single coil. When the foremost end has gained two revolu- 
tions upon the retreating one, a spiral of two coils will be produced; and 
continuing this process during many revolutions gained by one end of the 
coil upon the other, the wreath of meteoroids, without losing its continuity, 
will at last form an endless hoop, or belt, of many strands overlying and 
interlacing with each other in as many conyolutions as the fastest particles 
haye gained revolutions in their course upon the slower ones. The direction 
and velocity of the particles in one of the strands will also differ as widely as 
their positions from those of particles in a neighbouring strand, and the whole 
wreath, without ever losing its perfect continuity from end to end, will cross 
and recross itself in constantly going and returning waves. In these stages 
of transformation a meteoric stream would successively exhibit the characters 
of double and multiple radiant-points. Supposing the same process to con- 
tinue, and new’ perturbations of the stream to be constantly deflecting par- 
ticles from the front or rear into different courses, these particles overtaking 
each other at the point where the earth passes through the stream would 
produce the mixed assemblage of radiant-points and of directions of the 
meteors of the August shower, which give it the character of multiple or of 
diffuse radiation. In the following list of radiant-points those marked with 
an asterisk (*) were described in the last Report (1870, p. 98) ; those at the 
end of the list are not included by Prof. Schiaparelli in his present list, which 
only represents the most important radiant-points observed, at present, in the 
first half of the year. In the cases where their identity with radiant-points 
in Heis’s list, or in that of the British Association, is suggested by Pro- 
fessor Schiaparelli, the position and duration of those radiant-points are 
_ added for comparison in the same columns of the Table. 

t Report for 1868, p. 401 e¢ seg. 


46 


REPORT—1871. 


List of the Principal Meteorie showers occurring in the first half of the year whose radian 
points are derived from observations of shooting-stars in Italy, published in the Ephemerid 


of the Milan Observatory, for the years 1868, 1869, and 1870. 


Sign or 
Symbol. 


Via. 
VI 2. 
Vic. 


VIg*. 
[AG,. 
Vid. 


Vie. 


VI f*. 
[M,, » 
Vila. 
X a*, 


[As; 4 


By G. V. Schiaparelli. | 


betes oe Character of Characters of the Meteors, 
: radiation. General Remarks, &c. 
shower, 
a é 
eee [act. 
Jan. 6 ...... 199/+58 |Contracted and ex-|Observed in 1868 and 1869 ......... 
Jan. 6 ...... E75 | 7-48 )|ccovscccsscteotsvevslecs eae etter) FF mconasadco 
184)/+28 ..(Jan. 11, 1 
Jan. 11-12 ve Et D/O banive dacengee paper enasisters Jan. 12, 1869 Beiep ator ot 
Jan. 1-25... fe ise ROVE eer seebe bien ae Maximum Jan. 24......secssecseeees 
Jan. 12 ...) 197/+59 |Contracted and ex-|Jan. 12, 1869 (traces on Jan. 11, 
act. 1869), possibly a continuation of 
Ila. 
Jan. 18 232/+36 |Most certain and\A splendidly well-defined meteor- 
exact. shower. Jan. 18 (traces on Jan. 
19), 1869. 
Jan. 19 198|+28 .../Jan. 1g (traces on the 18th), 1869. 
Jan. 19 DZO}\- A ONP|secteasarcweasececenc ses Many small meteors Jan. 19 (no 
trace on the 18th), 1869. 
Jan. 19 200/+58 |Contracted and ex-|Jan. 19 (no traces on 18th), 1869; 
act. apparently independent of IL a, 
IIl4, and V%é from absence of 
intermediate meteors. 
Jan. 21 BOGE AOU | ott baaetsiags Basle dee Jan. 21 (no trace on 19th and 20th), 
1869. Independent of the ra- 
diants IV d, VI a. 
Jan. 24 200/+56 |Uncertain to 5° ;/)Jan.24, 1868, many meteors. ?Con- 
diffuse, perhaps} nected with VI a, VI 2%: see 
multiple. the following Table (p. 48). 
Jan. 25-27| 205/+47 |Uncertain to 5°...\Chiefly Jan. 27, 1868. (Perhaps 
identical with the last ?) 
Jan. 29 198|+54 |Extended; diffuse,|Jan. 29, 1868. No traces of this 
perhaps multiple.) shower on Jan. 28. 
Jan. 28 236\125 |Extended; confus-|Jan. 28, 1868. ? If connected with 
ed, but distinct. Vid Jan. 30; no intermediate 
meteors. 
Jan, 28 67\+25 |Diffuse............... Jan. 28, 1868. [Probably identical 
with the next.] 
Dec.20-Feb.| 68)/+20 |Elongated and dif-/Maximum Dec. 24.....s000...00e+0000- 
6. fuse. 
Jan. 30 225|+34 |Extended, uncer-|Jan. 30, 1868. ?Connected with 
tain to 10°. Vic, Vle; but no intermediate 
meteors with IV a. 
Jan. 31 221\+28 |Contracted; well-|Jan. 31, 1868. ?Connected in one 
defined. group with IV a, IV c, VIc and| 
VId: see following Table (p. 48). 
Jan. 31 134/+40 |Few meteors ...... Jan. 31, 1868. ‘Traces on preced- 
ing evenings. 
Jan. 2—Feb.| 128/40  |...........escuseoeees Maximum Jan. 25-31 .........00- nee 
9: 
Bebe iesaas 153|+21 |Contracted and ex-/Feb. 3, 1869; a few traces on pre- 
act. ceding nights. 
Feb. 16 74\+48 |Apparently double|Feb. 16, 1868. Traces on the 15th. 
(71/+41) | and exact. A few meteors only from the se- 
cond radiant-point. Identical 
with the next. 
Feb..9-17 .| (73-0, |Well-detined ‘and|‘s.......-...sssne:ctes ce tee eee 
-| limited. 


Authority. 


” 


” 


R. P. Greg 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 


47 


Date and 
2¢ Aand duration of 
* | shower. 
fA,  |Feb. 15-28 
Vl a*, |Mar. 20 ... 
‘M,. |Mar. 16-31 
IX a. |Mar. 31- 
Apr. 2. 
[X 2%, Apr. 2-3... 
@. —\Apr. 9 ««. 
BADE. Qreccs.s 
c*, |Apr. 10 
a*, |Apr. 11 
§,. Apr. 1-15. 
Fe Apr. 20 ... 
Hse a|Apr: 20. ... 
6¥, jApr. 14 ... 
Ta*. |Apr.25 . 
Va*. |Apr. 30- 
May 1. 
Q.. —‘|Apr. 23- 
June 4 
May 1-31 


Apparent 
Position. 


142 


237 


237 
235 


232 
280 


Character of 
radiation. 


Characters of the Meteors, 
General Remarks, &e. 


seen een aw meee west eeeenee 


Centre of an elon- 
gated radiant-re- 
gion. 


Penne eee ee ee rereeeeeees 


Well - determined 
and exact. 


Well-defined ...... 


May 1, 1868 


Mar. 20, 1868. From #=130° 
6=+46° to a= 162°d=+60°; 
evidently identical with the next. 

Mar. 31, 868 ) Endures threedays. 

April 2, 1868 + Perhaps connected 


and 1869... ) as a twin-radiant 
with the next. 
Apr. 2, 1868) Distinct from but 
and 1869 {may belong to the 
Apr. 3, 1868 { same familyas Greg’s 
Apr. 9, 1869 J} QH, with centre near 
a Herculis. 
Apr. 9,1869. Twin-radiant with 
the last. 


Apr. 10, 1869. Traces on Apr. 9. 
?Ifconnected with XXI 0; no in- 
termediate meteors. 

Apr. 11, 1869; no traces on adja- 
cent nights: belongs to the same 
family as the two next. 


......Apparently belonging to the same 


family as XX ¢ and XXI 8, 

Apr. 14, 1868 and 1869. Connect- 
ed by no meteors with XX ¢, 
among many observed on inter- 
mediate nights. 

Apr. 25,1868. Appears to have no 
connection with any other me- 
teoric shower. 

Apr. 30, 1867 | Apparently —_con- 
and 1868... } nected or identical 

with the two next. 

June 13, 1869. On this and pre- 

vious evening some meteors from 

direction of Vega (Zezioli). 


June 14, 1869. Perhaps identical 
or of the same system with the 


Authority. 


Heis. | 
Schiaparelli. 


Heis.] 
Schiaparelli. 


Heis. 
Heis.] 


Schiaparelli. 


R. P. Greg.] 


Heis. ] 
Schiaparelli. 


BoP OCRO TCG At iitdacg Coere Ug minlcna aly doin paciptlelp nia eters aie tas ata Schiaparelli. 


many of the foregoing radiant-points, although separated from each other in position, or 
ghts in which no intermediate meteors were observed, nevertheless possess in common 
features of very close resemblance, they are regarded by Professor Schiaparelli 


48 REPoRT—1871. 


as forming, in some cases, distinct meteor-systems or families of radiant- 
points, of which the principal, occurring in the first half of the year, may be 
grouped as follows :— 


Families or groups of Radiant-points. 


Sym- Position.) General |S ¢ lieeene Position.| General | Refer- 
bol. Date. centre. = a bol. Dale; centre. | ence. 
a.| 0. a.| 6. 
° ° ° ie] 
vee Jan. 6.../199/+58 _ | XIX a Bere 31-|261/+48 ed iy 
-| 2» 12 ++/197/459! Between | | ir 22 | |Schiapa- 
We)» r9~nee.t sg anad || ERA AR 23 eset gE | Poll 
vied Ee see line Urs 2Xx5 ae : Bake, Ar 
» Hoc aa | : SQveey 
Via. | ,, 25-27/205|+47 a. ce [QH,.|Mar. 15-|268)+25)/In Cerbe-|R. P. 
VIO. | ,, 29.../198/+54 Apr. 23 rus. Greg. | 
IV a. |Jan. 18.../232/+36| porvoe \ | XXT a.JApr. 11 .|193/4+-11| Between |Schiapa. 
IVe.|,, 19--.|220)+40 Gece. S|| (Sy. |Apr.1—15/185| +22] 6 and e |Heis. | 
Vic. |,, 28.../236|-+25|7 aa &. [S,. |Apr. 20 .|199|+14) Virginis |Heis. | 
Vid. |.,, 30...|225|+34 Se os ese Se > S 
Vie i 31...|221/ +28 § Boots. I) 3 XX ¢.|Apr. 10 .|163/-+-47]....0000 Schiapa- 
XXTI b)Apr. 14 .|167/+47].....000 relli 
[M,. |Apr. 20 .|/160)+49]............ Heis.] 


Should the effect of planetary perturbations, which retarded the return of 
Halley’s comet in the year 1859 nearly one month from the time of its perihelion 
passage, as calculated by D’Alembert and Clairault, also explain the wide differ- 
ence between the separate coils of spiral meteoric streams apparently encoun- 
tered by the earth in the meteor-systems of which the above groups or families 
of radiant-points appear to present unmistakable examples, a new field of 
investigation in meteoric astronomy, and of future observation and research, 
is beginning to unfold itself in these new and interesting discoveries. _ 

2. On Comets and Meteors, by Professor Kirkwood, Indiana University, 
U.S. (read before the American Philosophical Society, November 19, 1869). 
In an able treatise on ‘‘ Meteoric Astronomy,” already noticed in these 
Reports (for 1868, p. 418), a short Appendix (B) at the end of the volume 
on “Comets and Meteors” expresses the views on their connexion which 
Professor Kirkwood communicated, so long ago as July 1861, to the ‘ Danville 
Quarterly Review’ for December in that year. ‘‘ Different views are enter- 
tained by astronomers in regard to the origin of comets, some believing them 
to enter the solar system ab extra, others supposing them to have originated 
within its limits. The former is the hypothesis of Laplace, and is regarded 
with fayour by many eminent astronomers. ....... Now, according to 
Laplace’s hypothesis, patches of nebulous matter haye been left nearly in 
equilibrium in the interstellar spaces. As the sun in his progress ap- 
proaches such clusters, they must, by virtue of his attraction, move towards 
the centre of our system, the nearer portions with greater velocity than the 
more remote. The nebulous fragments thus drawn into our system would 
constitute comets; those of the same cluster would enter the solar domain at 
periods not very distant from each other. ... If we adopt Laplace’s hy- 
pothesis of the origin of comets, we may suppose an almost continuous fall of 
primitive nebular matter toward the centre of our system—the drops of 
which, penetrating the earth’s atmosphere, produce sporadic meteors, the 
larger aggregations forming comets. The disturbing influence of the planets 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 49 


may have transformed the original orbits of many of the former as well as of 
the latter into ellipses. It is an interesting fact that the motions of some 
luminous meteors (or cometoids, as, perhaps, they might be called) have been 
decidedly indicative of an origin beyond the limits of the planetary system. 
But how are the phenomena of periodic meteors to be accounted for in ac- 
cordance with this theory ? 

“The division of Biela’s comet into two distinct parts suggests several 
interesting questions in cometary physics. The nature of the separating 
force remains to be discovered; ‘but it is impossible to doubt that it arose 
from the divellent action of the sun, whatever may have been the mode of 
operation. A signal manifestation of the influence of the sun is sometimes 
afforded by the breaking up of a comet into two or more separate parts, on 
the occasion of its approach to the perihelion’*. No less than six such in- 
stances are found distinctly recorded in the Annals of Astronomy, viz.:—1. 
Ancient bipartition of a comet.—Seneca. 2. Separation of a comet into a 
number of fragments, 11 B.c.—Dion Cassius. 3. Three comets seen simul- 
taneously pursuing the same orbit, 4.p. 896.—Ohinese Records. 4. Probable 
separation of a comet into parts, A.v. 1618.—Hevelius. 5. Indications of 
separation, 1661.—AHevelius. 6. Bipartition of Biela’s Comet, 1845-46. 

«In view of these facts it seems highly probable, if not absolutely certain, 
that the process of division has taken place in several instances besides that 
of Biela’s Comet. May not the force, whatever it is, that has produced one 
separation again divide the parts? And may not this action continue until 
the fragments become invisible? According to the theory now generally 
received, the periodic phenomena of shooting-stars are produced by the inter- 
section of the orbits of such nebulous bodies with the earth’s annual path. 
Now there is reason to believe that these meteoric rings are very elliptical, 
and in this respect wholly dissimilar to the rings of primitive vapour which, 
according to the nebular hypothesis, were successively abandoned at the solar 
equator; in other words, that the matter of which they are composed moves 
in cometary rather than in planetary orbits. May not our periodic meteors 
be the débris of ancient but now disintegrated comets, whose matter has be- 
come distributed round their orbits?” 

These views, announced in the year 1861, were afterwards completely 
established by the calculations of Professor Newton and Professor Schia- 
parelli regarding the real orbital velocities of shooting-stars, proving them 
to move, generally, in parabolic, or cometic, rather than in planetary orbits ; 
and by the astonishing discovery in the year 1866, by Professor Schiaparelli, 
of the almost absolute identity of the orbit of Tuttle’s Comet (III. 1862) with 
that of the August, and of the orbit of Temple’s Comet (I. 1866) with that 
of the November meteor-stream, supposing (as the researches of Professor 
Newton and Professor Adams amply prove) that the latter, and presumably 
also the former of those meteor-clouds revolve in elliptic orbits of such 
considerable length, as not to differ much from the comets in their times 

of revolution. In his communication to the American Philosophical Society, 
Professor Kirkwood retraces the recent researches of Hoek, Leverrier, and 
Schiaparelli respecting the probable circumstances of the introduction of 
comets and periodical shooting-stars ab ewtra into the limits of the planetary 
system. The disturbing force by which their cosmical orbits were converted 
‘into elliptic ones of short periods (it is found in harmony with the preceding 
theory) was probably the overpowering attraction of one of the larger planets 
near to which the cosmical bodies first entered the limits of the solar system. 


* Grant's ‘ History of Physical Astronomy,’ p. 302. 
£371. z 


50. REPORT—1871. 


In the following Table Professor Kirkwood compares together the aphelion 
distances of the several known comets of short periods with the mean dis- 
tances of the several larger planets from the sun :— 


x =| a2 a = 
ae ions so Bore 
‘Z| Comets. ‘s E ae Comets. 8 
cn | D a= w 
6g a3 Oo”, ad 
paeaes et oe ramers 2 | ae Eee 
1, |Encke’s ...| 4°09 1. Peter’s (1846, VI.)....... 9°45  Saturns’s mean 
2. 1819, IV..-.| 4°81} 2. |Tuttle’s (1858, I.) ......| 10°42} distance 9°54. 
3. |De Vico’s...| 5°02 & S vr Dias «1G ae ail _———— 
4, |Pigott’s 4 Sa « 11867, Lis. serceccceseseerees| 19°28 3 
G ey oo rin | 2. November Meteors...... 19°65 ee pt 
5, |1867, 11. ...| 5:29) 25 || 3. 1866, Leessersesceresererees 19°92 12283 
6. |1743, I..... 532] 8S | —— See Ter a — 
7. |1766, I. ...) 547) s3 | 1. |Westphal’s (1852, 1V.).| 31°97 
8. |1819, TIT...) 5°55) 2 g 2. |Pons' (1812) ...sececeeee 33°41 
9. |Brorsen’s | 5°64) = 9 3. Olbers’ (1815).....0+--++- | 34°05 | Neptune’s mean 
10. ‘D’Arrest’s.| 5°75} 33 4. |De Vico’s (1846, IV.)...| 34°35 | distance 30°04. 
11. |Faye’s ......| 5°93] & 5. |Brorsen’s (1847, V-) -+-| 35°07 
12. Biela’s ...... 6'19| G6. |Halley’s ...cccsecsresseees | 35°37 


It is also evident that the passage of the solar system through a region of 
space comparatively destitute of cometic clusters would be indicated by a 
corresponding paucity of comets. Such variations of frequency are, indeed, 
found not only in the records of comets, but also of meteoric showers which 
have been accidentally recorded, the greater number of the latter having 
been observed during the five centuries between 700 4.p. and 1200 a.p., and 
again in those following a.p. 1700, suggesting that during the former and, 
perhaps, again during the present period the solar system is passing through 
a cosmical or meteoric cloud of very great extent,—not less, indeed, on the 
received speed of the sun’s proper motion, than fourteen times the width of 
Neptune’s orbit. Professor Kirkwood adds, in particular reference to the 
August meteor-system, “The fact that the August meteors, which have been 
so often subsequently observed, were first noticed in 811 {see M. Quetelet’s 
Catalogue of Star-showers] renders it probable that the cluster was intro- 
duced into the planetary system not long previously to the year 800. It may 
be also worthy of remark that the elements of the comet of 770 4.p. are not 
very different from those of the August meteors and of the third comet of 
1682”*. With regard to the sun’s passage through 
a meteoric cloud of the above-considered dimen- 
sions and constitution it is noticed that the num- 
ber of cometary perihelia found in the two qua- 
drants of longitude towards and from which the sun 
is moving is 159, or 62 per cent., and that of peri- 
helia in the two other quadrants is 98, or 38 per 
cent., showing their tendency to crowd together 
about the direction of the sun’s proper motion in space. The large excess of 


* The interval between the perihelion passage of 770 and that of 1862 is equal to 9 
periods of 121°36 years. Oppolzer’s determination of the period of 1862, III., is 121-5 
years. Hind remarks that the elements of the Comet of 770 are “rather uncertain,” but 
says “that the general character of the orbit is decided.” It may be worthy of remark 
oN a great meteoric shower, the exact date of which has not been preserved, occurred ir 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, 51 


the number of the cometary perihelia closest to the sun in the forward qua- 
lrants, relatively to the direction of his proper motion in space, is also re- 
garded as indicating the direction of the sun’s motion through the meteor- 
loud in a manner which the facts of observation evidently corroborate. 

3. On the Periods of certain Meteoric rings. By Professor Kirkwood (read 
0 the American Philosophical Society, March 4, 1870).—According to the 
»omputed elements of the Comet I. 1861 (by Oppolzer), first shown by Dr. 
Edmund Weiss (Astron. Nachr. no. 1632) to agree very closely with those of 
hhe April meteor-stream, its periodic time of revolution is 415:4 years. On 
he other hand, Professor Kirkwood points out that, without accepting a shorter 
yeriodic time of revolution, the former April displays recorded in ancient 
imes do not agree with the time of revolution of the comet. Adopting a 
veriod of about 281 years for the cycle of returns of the April shower, the 
vhole of the dates of its appearance selected by Professor Newton as agreeing 
vell with those of its most recent appearance in the present century are re- 
resented with perfect accuracy by the following scheme :— 


Dates of former appearances. Interval in years. 
Pera 02687 tO. 8.6. 1520.2. odicensacacbences 672*000=24 periods of 28-000 years each. 
B.C. 15 £O A.D. 582 ...ccccesee seeneee 597;000=21 9 28-429 % 
D. 582 to AD. 1093°71 tween 
3 ; 1093 and soe) pd © opas Saison } ce ba a ze 28429 2 
BeDeLOOS7 0A tO 1222 TAZ sesvasscecrecs 28'429= 1 ¥ 28°429 PA 
AWD. 1222°143 tO 1803......sssseeceseereee 680°857=24 Fp 28-369 * 


The periodical time of 28} years corresponds to an ellipse whose major 
xis is 18:59, and whose aphelion distance is very nearly equal to the mean 
listance of the planet Uranus. A remark of Mr. Du Chaillu is here believed 

to be rightly recalled, that he observed the April meteors in the equatorial 
parts of Africa almost as brilliant, and leaving streaks more enduring than 
those of the great November meteor-shower (of which he was also an ob- 
server in England, in the year 1866). If the date of Mr. Du Chaillu’s obser- 
vation was about the year 1860, a corroboration of Professor Kirkwood’s 
cycle of 283 years repeated twice since the great display of those meteors in 
the year 1803 would be thence derived. The April meteor-shower was also 
sufficiently bright in the year 1863 to make its approach to an epoch of 
maximum brilliancy in about that year a somewhat probable conjecture. 

Among the formerly recorded star-showers which appear to have certainly 

been connected with the December meteor-system, Professor Kirkwood points 
out a notice of such an occurrence in the year a.p, 901. Others are found 
to have taken place in the years 930, 1571, 1830, 1833, and 1836, with an 
apparent maximum in the year 1833, when as many as ten meteors were 
seen simultaneously. Finally, pretty abundant displays of the shower were 
observed in the years 1861, 1862, and 1863, with a probable maximum in 
the year 1862. These dates indicate a period of about 293 years, thus— 


GOL ito’ ‘930....... teseeese I period of 29'000 years, 
930 to 1571.... 22 93 29°136- (5 
1571 to 1833.... 9 “ SOLUTE: | 159 
1633 to "¥862.......... I RS 29°000_—l—=», 


A third meteoric shower, that of the 15th-21st of October, presents, again, 

a similar period of revolution. The recorded dates of apparitions which cor- 

respond in the times of their appearance with the present meteor-showers of 

the 15th-21st of October are the years a.p. 288, 1436 and 1439, 1743, and 

1798, on each of which occasions a great number of shooting-stars were 
E2 


52 REPORT—1871. 


seen. The periodic time of 273 years is well indicated by these dates, 
thus :— 


A.D. 288 tO 1439...+.00- Sree pc 42 periods of 27°405 years each. 
1439 tO 1743.-.ceceereeerereeeees II 9 27°636 i 
1743 tO 1798....0eeeeeeeeereeees 2 99 27°500 +3 


«Tf these periods are correct, it is a remarkable coincidence that the 
aphelion distances of the meteoric rings of April 18th—20th, October 15th- 
21st, November 14th, and December 11th—13th, as well as those of the 
comets 1866 I., and 1867 I. are all nearly equal to the mean distance of 
Uranus.” 

4. Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Sternschnuppen, von Dr. Edmund Weiss 
(Sitzungsberichte of the Imperial Academy of Vienna for January 16, 1868) 
presents a short summary of the mathematical problems required to be 
solved in the determination of the parabolic orbit, and the actual relative 
speed of the meteors’ course in the atmosphere, from the known position of 
the radiant-point ; and shows how approximate calculations of the velocities 
of shooting-stars have led to discoveries, in proving certain periodical meteor- 
currents to be intimately connected with comets of which the orbits have 
recently been determined*. 

5. The Fuel of the Sun, by W. Mattieu Williams, F.C.S. (8vo, 222 pp. 
Simpkin and Marshall).—An attempt to explain convulsions of the sun’s sur- 
face by planetary disturbances of a universal atmosphere collected in greatest 
density about the larger bodies of the solar system, and agitated by tides 
arising from their several attractions, is the theory for the establishment of 
which a collection of the greatest interest of recent observations of solar 
physics has been brought into a small compass by the author of the work, 
and is well directed to explain the chief phenomena of solar physics. The 
corona is regarded (Chapter XIII.) as originating in solar projectiles driven 
from its surface with eruptive violence. In the following chapter the source 
of meteorites is conjectured to be the solar projectiles which thus pass beyond 
the boundaries of the zodiacal light ; some of which being confined to revolve 
in two principal orbits outside of that luminary, and in several intermediate 
zones of irregularly and more thinly scattered projectiles, may be regarded 
as giving rise to the August and November, as well as to other minor and 
more or less regular meteoric displays. Somewhat more important specu- 
lations and descriptions of the meteorology of the moon and planets, as well 
as of the distribution of the nebulw, suggesting the stellar origin of some of 
those bodies, occupy the greater portion of the remainder of the work. 


* The velocity of the April meteors, or Lyraids, of the 20th of April meteoric shower, — 
relatively to the earth, is given in Dr. Weiss’s list of radiant-points and relative velocities of 
cometary orbits, in the above paper, as 1-585, that of the earth in its orbit being unity. 
Adopting the value of 18°6 miles per second for the earth’s mean orbital velocity, this gives 
the relative velocity of the Lyraids, or April shower-meteors, 29-5 miles per second ; very 
nearly that observed (30 miles per second) in the case of the only shooting-star of the shower 
doubly observed, as described in this Report, on the night of the 20th of April last. 


ON FOSSIL CRUSTACEA. 53 


Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Henry Woovwarp, F.G.S., 
F.Z.8S., Dr. Duncan, F.R.S., and R. Eraeripner, F.R.S., on the 
Structure and Classification of the Fossil Crustacea, drawn up by 
Henry Woopwarp, F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Suyce I had last the honour to present a Report on the Structure and Clas- 

sification of the Fossil Crustacea, I have published figures and descriptions of 

the following species, namely :— 
Drcaropa BracuyuRa. 
1. Rhachiosoma bispinosa, H. Woodw. Lower Eocene, Portsmouth. 
2. echinata, H. W. Lower Eocene, Portsmouth. 
3. Paleocorystes glabra, H. W. Lower Eocene, Portsmouth. All figured 
and described in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvii. p, 90, pl. 4. 
Drcaropa Macrura. 
4. Scyllaridia Belli, H.W. London Clay, Sheppey. Geol. Mag. 1870, 

vol, vii. p. 493, pl. 22. fig. 1. 


AMPHIPODA. 

5. Necrogammarus Salweyi, H. W. Lower Ludlow, Leintwardine. Figured 

and described Trans. Woolhope Club, 1870, p. 271, pl. 11. 
Isopopa. 

6. Palega Carteri, H. W. Lower Chalk, Dover, &c. Geol. Mag. 1870, 
vol. vii. p. 493, pl. 22. fig. 1. 

7. Prearcturus gigas, H. W. Old Red Sandstone, Rowlestone, Hereford- 
shire. Trans. Woolhope Club, 1870, p. 266. 

Merostomata. 

8. Hurypterus Brodie, H. W. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1871, August. 

Trans. Woolhope Club, 1870, p. 276. 
PHYLLOPODA. 

*9. Dithyrocaris tenuistriatus, M°Coy. Carboniferous Limestone, Settle, 
Yorkshire. 

10. Dithyrocaris Belli, H. W. Devonian, Gaspé, Canada. 

11. Ceratiocaris Ludensis, H. W. Lower Ludlow, Leintwardine. 

12. Ceratiocaris Oretonensis, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Oreton, 
Worcestershire. 

13. Ceratiocaris truncatus, H.W. Carboniferous Limestone, Oreton, Worces- 
tershire. 

Figured and described in the Geol. Mag. 1871, vol. viii. p. 104, pl. 3. 

14, Cyclus bilobatus, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Settle, Yorkshire. 

15. torosus, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Little Island, Cork. 

16. —— Wrightii, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Little Island, Cork. 

17. Harknesst, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Little Island, Cork. 
ais. radialis, Phillips. Carboniferous Limestone, Settle, Yorkshire, 
Visé, Belgium. 

*19. Cyclus Rankini, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Carluke, Lanarkshire. 
[*20. “ Brongniartianus,’ De Kon. Carboniferous Limestone, York- 
shire, Belgium. | 

21. Cyclus Jonesianus, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Little Island, 
Cork. (These latter figured and described in the Geol. Mag. 1870, vol. vii. 
pl. 23. figs. 1-9.) 

{Those marked with an asterisk have been already figured, but have been 

redrawn and redescribed in order to add to or correct previous deseriptions. 


54 REPORT—1871. 


Thus, for example, “ Cyclus Brongniartianus” proves upon careful examina- 
tion to be only the hypostome of a Trilobite belonging to the genus Phillipsia. 
Dithyrocaris tenuistratus is identical with Avicula paradowides of De Koninck, 
&e. 

ae noticing the occurrence of an Isopod, Pulega Carteri, from the 
Kentish, Cambridge, and Bedford Chalk, Dr. Ferd. Roemer, of Breslau, has 
forwarded me the cast of a specimen of the same crustacean from the Chalk 
of Upper Silesia. This, together with the example from the Miocene of 
Turin, gives a very wide geographical as well as chronological range to this 

enus. 
A still more remarkable extension of the Isopoda in time is caused by the 
discovery of the form which I have named Prearcturus in the Devonian of 
Herefordshire, apparently the remains of a gigantic Isopod resembling the 
modern Arcturus Baffinsii. 

I have also described from the Lower Ludlow a form which I have referred 
with some doubts to the Amphipoda, under the generic name of Necrogam- 
marus. 

Representatives both of the Isopoda and Amphipoda will doubtless be 
found in numbers in our Paleozoic rocks, seeing that Macruran Decapods 
are found as far back as the Coal-measures*, and Brachyurous forms in the 
Oolites +. 

Indeed the suggestion made by Mr. Billings as to the Trilobita being fur- 
nished with legs (see Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxyi. pl. 31. fig. 1), if 
established upon further evidence, so as to be applied to the whole class, 
would carry the Isopodous type back in time to our earliest Cambrian rocks. 

I propose to carry out an investigation of this group for the purpose of 
confirming Mr. Billings’s and my own observations, by the examination of a 
longer series of specimens than have hitherto been dealt with. In the mean 
time the authenticity of the conclusions arrived at by Mr. Billings having 
been called in question by Drs. Dana, Verrill, and Smith (see the American 
Journ. of Science for May last, p. 320; Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist. for May, 
p- 366), I have carefully considered their objections, and have replied to 
the same in the Geological Magazine for July last, p. 289, pl. 8; and I may 
be permitted here to briefly state the arguments pro and con, seeing they are 
of the greatest importance in settling the systematic position of the Trilo- 
pita among the Crustacea. 

Until the discovery of the remains of ambulatory appendages by Mr. Bil- 
lings in an Asaphus from the Trenton Limestone (in 1870), the only appen- 
dage heretofore deteeted associated with any Trilobite was the hypostome or 
lip-plate. 

From its close agreement with the lip-plate in the recent Apus, and also 
from the fact of the number of body-rings exceeding that attained in any 
other group save in the Entomostraca, nearly all naturalists who have paid 
attention to the Trilobita in the past thirty years have concluded that they 
possessed only soft membranaceous gill-feet, similar to those of Branchipus, 
Apus, and other Phyllopods. 

The large compound sessile eyes, and the hard, shelly, many-segmented 
body, with its compound caudal and head-shield, differ from any known 
Phyllopod, but offer many points of analogy with the modern Isopodst ; and 


* Anthrapalemon Grossartii, Salter, Coal-measures, Glasgow. 

t Paleinachus longipes, H. Woodw., Forest Marble, Wilts. 

$ It should always, however, be borne in mind that as the Trilobita offer, as a group, no 
fixed number of body-rings and frequently possess more than twenty-one segments, they 


a ae 


» piteemeees 


ON FOSSIL CRUSTACEA. 55 


one would be led to presuppose the Trilobites possessed of organs of loco- 
motion of a stronger texture than mere branchial frills. 

The objection raised by Drs. Dana and Verrill to the special case of ap- 
pendages in the Asaphus assumed by Mr. Billings to possess ambulatory legs, 

- is that the said appendages were merely the semicalcified arches in the inte- 
gument of the sternum to which the true appendages were attached. 

A comparison, which these gentlemen have themselves suggested, between 
the abdomen of a Macruran Decapod and the Trilobite in question is the 
best refutation of their own argument. 

The sternal arches in question are firmly united to each tergal piece at the 
margin, not along the median ventral line. If, then, the supposed legs of the 
Trilobite correspond to these semicalcified arches in the Macruran Decapod, 
they might be expected to lie irregularly along the median line, but to unite 
with the tergal pieces at the lateral border of each somite. In the fossil we 
find just the contrary is the case ; for the organs in question occupy a definite 
position on either side of a median line along the ventral surface, but diverge 
widely from their corresponding tergal pieces at each lateral border, being 
directed forward and outwards in a very similar position to that in which we 
should expect legs (not sternal arches) to lie beneath the body-rings of a fos- 
sil crustacean. The presence, however, of semicalcified sternal arches pre- 
supposes the possession of stronger organs than mere foliaceous gill-feet ; 
whilst the broad shield-shaped caudal plate suggests most strongly the posi- 
tion of the branchiz. In the case of the Trenton Asaphus I shall be satis- 
fied if it appears, from the arguments I have put forward, that they are most 
probably legs—feeling assured that. more evidence ought to be demanded be- 
fore deciding on the systematic position of so large a group as the Trilobita 
from only two specimens*. 

With regard to the embryology and development of the modern King- 
Crab (Limulus polyphemus), we must await the conclusions of Dr. Anton 
Dohrn before deciding as to the affinities presented by its larval stages to 
certain of the Trilobita, such relations being only in general external form. 
Dr. Packard (Reports of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, August 1870) remarks, ‘The whole embryo bears a very near resem- 
blance to certain genera of Trilobites, as Trinucleus, Asaphus, and others ;” 
and he adds, “ Previous to hatching it strikingly resembles Trinucleus and 
other Trilobites, suggesting that the two groups, should, on embryonic and 
structural grounds, be included in the same order, especially now that Mr. E. 
Billings has demonstrated that Asaphus possessed eight pairs of 5-jointed 
legs of uniform size.” 

Such statements are apt to mislead unless we carefully compare the cha- 
racters of each group. And first let me express a caution against the too 
hasty construction of a classification based upon larval characters alone. 

Larval characters are useful guide-posts in defining great groups, and also in 
indicating affinities between great groups; but the more we become acquainted 
with larval forms the greater will be our tendency (if we attempt to base our 
classification on their study) to merge groups together which we had before 
held as distinct. 


have, as a matter of course, been considered as belonging to a much lower group than the 
Tsopoda, in which the normal number of somites is seven. Whilst admilting the justice of 
this conclusion, we do not think it affords any good ground for rejecting the proposition 
that the Isopoda may be the direct lineal descendants of the Trilobita. 

* One in Canada and one in the British Museum, both of the same species. 


56. REPORT-—1871. 


To take a familiar instance: if we/compare the larval stages of the Com- 
mon Shore-Crab (Carcinus menasy with Pterygotus, we should be obliged 
(according to the arguments of Dr. Packard) to place them near to or in the 
same group. 

The eyes in both are sessile, the functions of locomotion, prehension, and 
mastication are all performed by one set of appendages, which are attached 
to the mouth; the abdominal segments are natatory, but destitute of any 
appendages. 

Such characters, however, are common to the larve of many crustaceans 
widely separated when adult, the fact being that in the larval stage we find 
in this group what has been so often observed by naturalists in other groups 
of the animal kingdom, namely, a shadowing forth in the larval stages of 
the road along which its ancestors travelled ere they arrived from the remote 
past at the living present. 

If we place the characters of Limulus and Pterygotus side by side, and 
also those of Trilobita and Isopoda, we shall find they may be, in the present 
state of our knowledge, so retained in classification. 


1; 
Pterygotus (Fossil, extinct). Limulus (Fossil, and living). 

1. Eyes sessile, compound. 1. Eyes sessile, compound. 

2. Ocelli distinctly seen. 2. Two ocelli distinctly seen. 

3. All the limbs serving as mouth- | 3. All the limbs serving as mouth- 
organs. organs. 

4, Anterior thoracic segments bear- | 4. All the thoracic segments bear- 
ing branchiz or reproductive ing branchie or reproductive 
organs. organs. 

5, Other segments destitute of any | 5. Other segments destitute of any 
appendages. appendages. 

6. Thoracic segments wnanchylosed. | 6, Thoracic segments anchylosed. 

7, Abdominal segments freeand well | 7, Abdominal segments anchylosed 
developed. and rudimentary. 

8, Metastoma large. 8. Metastoma rudimentary. 

LE, 
Trilobita (Fossil, extinct). Isopoda (Fossil, and living). 

1. Eyes sessile, compound. 1. Eyes sessile, compound. 

2. No ocelli visible. 2. No ocelli visible. 

3. Appendages partly oral, partly | 3. Appendages partly oral, partly 
ambulatory, arranged in pairs. |- ambulatory, arranged in pairs. 

4, Thoracic segments variable in| 4, Thoracic segments usually seven, 
number, from 8 even to 28, free free and movable (animal 
and movable (animal semetimes sometimes rolling into a ball). 
rolling into a ball). 

5, Abdominal series coalesced to | 5. Abdominal somites coalesced, and 
form a broad caudal shield, forming a broad caudal shield, 
bearing the branchize beneath. bearing the branchiz beneath. 

6. Lip-plate well developed. 6. Lip-plate small. 


Should our further researches confirm Mr. Billings’s discovery fully, we may 
propose for the second pair of these groups a common designation, meantime 
we give the above as representing the present state of our knowledge. 


ON THE CENSUS. 57 


Report of the Committee appointed at the Meeting of the British 
Association at Liverpool, 1870, consisting of Prof. Jrvons, R. 
Dupiry Baxter, J. T. Danson, James Hrywoop, F.R.S., Dr. 
W. B. Hopeson, and Prof. Waney, with EymMunD Mtoe, as 
their Secretary, “for the purpose of urging upon Her Majesty’s 
‘Government the expediency of arranging and tabulating the results 
of the approaching Census in the three several parts of the United 
Kingdom in such a manner as to admit of ready and effective 
comparison.” 


Your Committee after their appointment held meetings in London, and 
agreed upon the following Memorial :— 


“ Untrormity of Pian for the Census of the Unitrep Kinepom. 


“To the Right Honourable Henry Austin Bruce, M.P., &c. &c., Her Ma- 
jesty’s Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department. 


“Memorial of the Committee of the British Association, appointed in Liver- 
pool, September 1870, for the purpose of urging upon Her Majesty’s 
Government the expediency of arranging and tabulating the results 
of the approaching Census in the three several parts of the United 
Kingdom in such a manner as to admit of ready and effectual com- 
parison. 


“Your memorialists beg respectfully to represent that the value of statistical 
information depends mainly upon the accuracy and expedition with which 
comparisons can be made between facts relating to different districts. 

«They also consider that the ease and rapidity with which researches in the 
census tables can be made is one principal object to be held in view in de- 
termining the form of their publication. They therefore desire that not 
only should the enumeration of the people be conducted in all places in an 
exactly uniform manner, so far as is compatible with the terms of the 
several Census Acts, but that there should be no divergence in the modes of 
tabulating and printing the results. They wish that the tables for England, 
Scotland, and Ireland should form as nearly as possible one uniform and 
consistent whole. 

“Your memorialists could specify a great many points in which there was 
divergence between the tables for 1861, but they will mention only a few 
of the more important cases. 

«1, The detailed population tables of England, Scotland, and Ireland differ 
as regards the periods of age specified.“ The Scotch report gives twenty-one 
intervals of age, the Irish report generally twenty-two, and the English 
only thirteen. Either one-third of the printed matter in the Scotch and 
Trish tables is superfluous, or that in the English tables deficient. 

«2. The classification of occupations is apparently identical in the three 
reports, but there is much real discrepancy between the Irish and English 
reports, rendering exact comparison difficult. 

«*3. In the Irish report there is no comparison and classification of occupa- 
tions according to age, classification according to religions being substituted, 
although such a classification could not be made in England or Scotland. 

‘4, In the appendix to the English report appears a table (No. 56), giving 


58 . REPORT—1871. 


most important information as regards the numbers of the population at 
each year of age. Inconvenience has been felt from the want of similar in- 
formation concerning the populations of Scotland and Ireland. 

“<5, In the appendix to the Irish report they find some interesting Tables 
(I1., III., and IV.), to which there is nothing exactly corresponding in the 
other reports, so far as they have been able to discover. 

«6. The tables, even when containing the same information, are often 
stated in different forms and arrangements, seriously increasing the labour 
of research. 


«Your memorialists therefore beg to suggest :— 

«J, That the principal body of tables relating to the numbers, age, sex, 
birthplace, civil condition, and occupation of the people should be 
drawn up and printed in an exactly identical form for the three 
parts of the United Kingdom. 

“TI. That while the Commissioners may with great advantage continue 
to exercise their free discretion in drawing up such minor tables 
as appear to have special interest for distinct localities, they should 
agree to prepare in a uniform manner such minor or summary 
tables as may be of importance as regards all the parts of the 
United Kingdom. 

“ TIT. That a general Index of Subjects should be prepared for the whole 
of the reports, appendices, and tables, so that an inquirer can readily 
ascertain where the corresponding information for different parts 
of the United Kingdom is to be found, without making, as hitherto, 
three independent searches through a mass of complex and 
almost unindexed information. 

“Tt would appear that the officers engaged in superintending the Census of 
1861 acted to a certain extent in concert and agreement. 

“Your memorialists beg respectfully to request that those officers be in- 
structed, on the present occasion, to confer with each other prior to drawing 
up the tables for 1871, with a view of preserving perfect uniformity in their 
operations, and avoiding all such divergencies in the three reports as are not 
required by the Census Acts or the essential differences of the three 
Kingdoms. 

‘«<Sioned on behalf of the Committee, 8th December, 1870. 


«OW. Srantey Jevons, F.S.S., 
President of the Statistical Section of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, Liverpool, 1870. 
« James Heywoop, M.A., F.R.S., 
Vice-President of the Statistical Society. 
« Jacop Watey, F.S.S., > 
One of the Secretaries of the Statistical Society. 
«¢Epmp. Macrory, M.A., 
Secretary of the Committee of the British Association for a Uni- 
formity of Plan in the Census Tables of the United 
Kingdom.” 


The above memorial was immediately presented to the Right Hon. H. A. 
Bruce, M.P., Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for the Home De- 
partment, and has been by him referred to the Registrars General for their 
report thereon. 


ON ABSTRACTS OF CHEMICAL PAPERS. 59 


The returns of the Census having only recently been collected, too little 
time has as yet elapsed for the perfect arrangements of the tables to be 
completed, but your Committee have reason to believe that the recommenda- 
tions contained in the above memorial will ultimately be, to a considerable 
extent, adopted by Her Majesty’s Government. 


Postscript.—Since the above Report was drawn up, the Committee have 
received a formal reply from the Home Office (dated 26th September, 1871), 
informing them that the Home Secretary ‘has desired the Registrar General 
for Scotland, and has requested the Lord Lieutenant to desire the Census 
Commissioners in Ireland, to frame their tables in conformity with those 
submitted by the Registrar General for England and Wales, and approved 
by Mr. Bruce, as far as circumstances will admit; and that with this view 
he has instructed the above-mentioned officers to place themselves in com- 
munication with the Registrar General for England and Wales.” 


Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of Superintending 
the Publication of Abstracts of Chemical Papers. The Committee 
consists of Prof. A. W. Wiu.tamson, F-.R.S., Prof. H. E. Roscor, 
F.R.S., Prof. E. Franxuanp, F.R.S. 


Tuer Committee are glad to be able to announce that regular monthly re- 
ports of the progress of Chemistry have been published since April Ist, 1871, 
by the Chemical Society. These Reports have been rendered, as far as pos- 
sible, complete by abstracts, more or less full, of all papers of scientific in- 
terest, and of the more important papers relating to applied chemistry. The 
abstracts have been made by chemists, most of whom are members of the 
Society, whose zeal for the science has induced them to undertake the work 
for the small honorarium which the Council has been able to offer. A 
numerous Committee of Publication has been formed, whose Members gra- 
tuitously undertake the revision of the proofs and a comparison of the ab- 
stracts with the original papers. 

The Reports are edited by Mr. Watts, each monthly part being bound up 
with the corresponding number of the Chemical Society’s Journal. Each 
volume will be furnished with a full index, and will give a complete view of 
the progress of Chemistry during the year. 

The Committee feel that their thanks are due to all those gentlemen en- 
gaged in the work for having already so far succeeded in accomplishing a 
task of such difficulty and importance, and they confidently hope that their 
continued exertions will still further perfect the details of the scheme so as 
gradually to increase the usefulness of the Reports. 

It is right to state that the funds of the Chemical Society available for 
the purpose of the Reports, although so opportunely aided by a grant of 
_ £100 from the British Association, were insufficient to defray the necessary 
expenses, and that voluntary contributions to the amount of upwards of 


60 . REPORT—1871. 


£200 have been received towards the cost of publication for the first year, 
up to April 1872. 

There is good reason to believe that the expectations entertained of the 
usefulness of these Reports will be fully realized by their continuance on the 
present system, and that they will be found largely to conduce to the pro- 
gress of the science wherever the English language is spoken. 


Report of the Committee for discussing Observations of Lunar Objects 
suspected of Change. The Committee consists of the Rev. T, W. 
Wess and Evwarp Crosstey, Secretary. 


Tar Committee have much pleasure in presenting their first Report on the 
above subject. Though much attention has been given of late years to a 
large number of lunar objects, your Committee felt that they could not 
accomplish their purpose better than by confining their Report to the discus- 
sion of a limited and well-observed portion of the lunar surface. No person 
seeking to discover evidence of geologic change would be constantly travel- 
ling over the whole surface of our globe, but would of necessity confine his 
attention to a small area for a considerable period of time. This has been 
the course adopted on the moon. Plato, a vast crater, containing 2700 
square miles, in 51° N. lat. and 10° E. long., has presented a most interest- 
ing and important variety of features, which we have endeavoured to photo- 
graph, so to speak, with pen and pencil, with a view, if not at once to obtain 
our ultimate object, at least to lay out the groundwork for future observers. 

The Report has been carefully drawn up by Mr. W. R. Birt on behalf of 
the Committee. Time has only permitted the discussion of the observations 
of the bright spots and craterlets seen on the floor of Plato; whereas your 
Committee consider that it is equally important that the observations of the 
numerous streaks, with the faults and other peculiar features noticed on the 
floor and walls of this fine formation, should be likewise discussed, in order 
that something like a complete description of this object as observed at the 
present time may be presented to the Association for the use of future sele- 
nographers. 

Your Committee would therefore request that a further grant of £20 may 
be placed at their disposal for this purpose during the ensuing year. 


Report on the Discussion of Observations of Spots on the Surface of the 
Innar Crater Plato. By W. R. Brrr. 


Tn executing the task confided to me of discussing certain observations of 
the spots on the lunar crater Plato, one of the first points which I deemed 
it important to ascertain was the effect which the intensity of the sun’s 
light as a function of his altitude might produce on the visibility of the spots. 
The number of spots actually observed between April 1869 and April 1871 
inclusive, amounted to 37, the greater portion (21) having been discovered in 
this interval. In order to become acquainted with phenomena possibly con- 
nected with an increase of light on the floor of the crater, the observations 
have been arranged under intervals of twelve hours, from sunrise to sunset 
on Plato, and a ledger formed for each interval, the number of which 
is 31. From these ledgers the results in Table II. have been deduced, 
viz. the mean number of spots visible during each interval, and the actual 
number of spots observed during each interval. For illustrating the results 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 61 


the curves in fig. 1 have been projected. The first curve is that of solar 
altitudes at the moon, epoch the equinoxes, locality 50° north or south lati- 
tude. The second curve is that of the mean number of spots visible during 
each interval. 


Fig. 1. 
OK) Ui gle tors. 17 
| 
| 


30° 30° 


20° 20° 
10° 10° 


0° No. 1 


Ene 7 9) PLie eis pip My erior © QUNt 2a yb a7 use SL 
Curve No. 1. Solar altitudes. Latitude 50° at equinoxes, 
Curve No. 2. Curve of mean number of spots visible each interval. 


Taste I. Solar Altitudes at Moon. 


Latitude 50°. Latitude 55°. 

peer Winter. Equinoxes. | Summer. Winter. Equinoxes. Summer. | a 
Val. | Val. 
h om k ° i Ws ° end es tou ° ee ht) a “ h 
Re Wlesaves: <>< +555 si Peturtceee 1 10 35 | sseeeeceseeceee | cescerevaeeeees 1 15 28 0 
12 A444 4 3 54 50 5 5 35 2 15 52 3 29 32 445 6 12 
24 6 36 48 TAS Ge eS aoe v7 & 41 19 6 57 29 8 13 24 | 34 
36 | 10 26 0 | 11 88 10 | 12 & 6 9 6 19 | 10 22 6 | 11 38 48 | 36 
48 14 10 0O 15 23 20 16 36 30 12 24 10 13 42 0O 14 59 30 48 
60 17 46 50 19° 2; 0 | 20 16 20 15 35 40 16 55 «600 18 13 40 60 
72 21 14 40 22 31 20 | 23 47 30 18 38 40 19 59 0 21 19 20 72 
84 24 31 O 20 49 30 | 27 7 50 21 30 30 22 52 30 24 14 20 84 
96 27 33 30 28 54 20 | 30 14 60 23 4 50 25 33 +O | 26 56 40 | 96 
108 | 30 19 30 sl 42 40 > 58 30 | 26 32 40 27 58 20 29 23 40 | 108 
120 | 32 46 0 34 11 30 30 386 40 | 28 38 30 30. 65 «640 ) 120 
132 34 50 0 | 36 17 30 37 «450—CO0 | 30 24 0 5L 53 0 33 21 50 | 152 
144 36 28 20 Bie Dt 50. 39: 27 20" | 31 47. 10 33 17 40 34 47 50 | 144 
156 | 37 38 30 9 9 10 | 40 40 40 | 32 46 30 | 34 17 50 | 35 49 20 | 156 
168 38 18 30 39 50 30 | 41 22 20 33 20 0 34 52 .0 | 36 24 0O | 168 
Mer.| 38 27 51 | 40 0 O 41 32 9 33 27 51 356000 36 32 «9 | Mer. 

| 


62 REPORT—187]. 


TasreE II. Ordinates of Curve of Spot frequency. 


No. Interval. Altitude. Mean. | Number. One 
h h ° ° 
1 0 to 12 == % 6 1-0 1 1 
2 (NE EE pete ae ag ae 15 7 
3 24 5, 36 35 9 59 14 6 
4, 36 ,, 48 i » 18 59 14 8 
ay 48 , 60 cE es |i 6-4 15 9 
6. 60 , 72 15. ,, 21 71 13 7 
if 72. Bt 18 ,, 24 12-0 27 6 
8 84 ,, 96 22 ,, 28 101 oT if 
96 ,, 108 Bb, OL 116 27 9 
10 108 ,, 120 28 ,, 34 10:7 21 6 
11 120. ,,. 182 Bl ,, 36 75 13 4 
12 132 ,, 144 33 ,, 38 12°4 33 8 
13 144 ,, 156 35 ,, 40 7-4 17 5 
14 156 ,, 168 a: gg Det 9-2 19 6 
15 168 ,, Mer. 38 ,, AZ 85 19 8 
16 Mer. ,, 168 42 ,, 38 5:0 9 4 
17 168 ,, 156 Al BY 9:3 21 9 
18 156 ,, 144 40 ,, 35 12-2 93 5 
19 144 ,, 182 38 ,, 33 9-1 25 8 
20 132 5, 120 36 ., 81 63 9 3 
21 120; ;, 108 34. ,, 28 6:0 8 3 
22 108 ,, 96 31 |, 25 9:0 20 6 
23 SY eoea tem i eae 52 12 5 
24. BA. 72 24 5 18 | 130 23 3 
25 72, 6 | 21,715 | 110 21 4 
26 60 , 48 ee wl. 10:0 15 2 
27 48 ,, 36 ee onid SAC 6:3 11 3 
28, 36 ,, 24 Shae mic 58 13 6 
29 24 12 BP 8-0 13 2 
30 1D xs Ae Bj, = 5:0 if 2 
31 — ,° 12 3:0 3 i 


We may regard the various maxima of the spot-curve as indicative :— First, 
of a greater number of observations during the intervals which furnish the 
maxima. It is true the column of observations may countenance this view ; 
but it does not hold in all cases, neither are the greater number of obserya-~ 
tions so pronounced as the maxima of the curve. Second, of a clearer state 
of the earth’s atmosphere than usual, enabling us to see more spots than 
when it is ordinarily translucent. This may to some extent explain the 
occurrence of maxima separated by several intervals, and probably those in- 
stances where we haye a larger number of spots with a smaller number of 
observations. Third, of an actual increase of visibility of the spots them- 
selves at different and widely separated epochs, the observations of such 
increased visibility falling at those intervals at which the maxima were re- 
corded. The following are the epochs at which the greatest number of spots 
were observed corresponding with the maxima of the curve :— 

First maximum. Interval 2. 1870, Jan. 10, 12 spots, 15 for the whole 
interval, from 7 opservations. 


Tnterval. 


Altitude 


| 0* | 1° 


1 the commencement of these observations.) 


[he spots marked « were discovered previous t 


34 | 35) 36 


Sums. Means. 


Sums 
Visibility 


6o to 72 
72 84 
84 ,, 96 
96 108 


108, 120 | 


Sums 


Visibilit, 


Sums 
Visibility 


Sums before) Meridian 


1 


} 1 
03] *03)....- 


pees 


bese 


OS OH 


we pan 


Mer. to 163 


168 ,, 156 
156 4 144 
144. 132 


132 4, 120 


Sums 


Visibility... 


120 to 108 
1o8 ,, 96 
96 » 84 
Fs 

84 4 72 
7z 60 


Sums . 
Visibility... 


60 to 48 
48, 36 
36 5 24 
24 4 12 


Sums . 
Visibility. 


| Sums after (Meridian 


40» 37 
49 5 35 
38 33 
36 zy 
34 1 28 
31 25 
28 4, 22 
24, 18 
a1 15 
7 40 
13 7 
94 3 
Under 5 


Second m 
whole inters 
Third ma: 
interval, fro; 
Third ma: 
interval, fro 
Fourth m: 
whole intery 
Fifth max 
interval, fro; 
Sixth mas 
interval, fro1 
en we 
is comparat 
visible at a) 
evening. T 
spots depen 
mination, ot 
ever, trace 
the maxima 
above, that 1 
the appearar 
of spots hay 
ever, derived 
the appearar 
By dividir 
groups, and 
data for cor 
spot for each 
60 to 120 hi 
tudes 31° to 
60 hours, alt 
From the re 
have a bird’: 
rally the visi 
spot No. 1, t 
tive of solar 
bility. Dur 
visibility, wh 
hours of the 
allow us to « 
fluenced in 
their first de 
which these 
Nos. 5, 14, 
from 60 ho 
frequently s 
peculiarities 
bility of cert 
of intensity 
connected w 
series of ob: 
the variatior 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 63 


Second maximum. Interval 7. 1870, March 13, 17 spots, 27 for the 
whole interval, from 7 observations. 

Third maximum. Interval 12, 1870, May 13, 27 spots, 33 for the whole 
interval, from 8 observations. 

Third maximum. Interval12. 1870, Jan. 15, 22 spots, 33 for the whole 
interval, from 8 observations, 

Fourth maximum. Interval 19. 1869, Dee. 20, 19 spots, 25 for the 
whole interval, from 8 observations, 

Fifth maximum. Interval 22. 1870, Nov. 11, 13 spots, 20 for the whole 
interval, from 6 observations. 

Sixth maximum. Interval 24. 1870, Sept. 14, 16 spots, 23 for the whole 
interval, from 3 observations. 

When we take the mean numbers of spots seen at each interval, the curve 
is comparatively flat, rising but little above the mean line of 7-9 spots 
visible at any interval, and this is about the mean number visible on any 
evening. The flatness of the curve is not accordant with an increase of 
spots dependent on an increase of solar altitude or greater angle of illu- 
mination, otherwise the apex would be much more decided. We may, how- 
ever, trace from the number of spots actually seen and contributing to 
the maxima of the spot-curve, as well as from the observations adduced 
above, that the change of illuminating angle does exercise an influence on 
the appearance of spots, inasmuch as on a few occasions the largest number 
of spots have been seen with higher illuminations, The actual curve, how- 


frequently seen from 120 to 60 hours before sunset. These, as well as the 
peculiarities of the other curves, strongly suggest that the variations of visi- 
bility of certain spots are not to any great extent dependent upon an increase 
of intensity of solar light, but rather upon some agency more particularly 
connected with the spots themselves. It is important to remark that another 
series of observations may furnish totally different diurnal curves, should 
the variations in visibility depend upon local lunar action. 


64 REPORT—1871. 


In nearly every case the spots seen during the first 60 hours of the luni- 
solar day have increased during the day in visibility, 7. e. they were seen less 
frequently during this group of 
intervals than during the succeed- 
ing sixty hours. This increase, 
however, has not been regular, 
which it would have been from 
changes of illuminating angle 
alone, some spots haying been 
seen, as before stated, more fre- 
quently during the second group 
of intervals, while others have de- 
clined in visibility and not at- 
tained their maxima until the 
period 120 to 60 hours before sun- 
set. The diurnal curves of spots 
Nos. 14, 5, and 16 in the first 
category, and those of Nos. 9 and 
11 in the second, have already 
been referred to; that of spot No. 
22 (fig. 3) differs from the others 
by its showing an increase of visi- 
bility from sunrise to 120 hours 
before sunset. The visibilities of 
many spots are lower during the 
last 60 hours of the luni-solar 
day. 

The curves of visibility during 
the luni-solar day are essentially 
different from the curves of visi- 
bility as deduced from the obser- 
vations of twenty-four lunations, 
although both lead to the same 
Bebe wa result; and from both a very im- 
Diurnal Curves of Visibility. Spots on portant conclusion rel be drawn, 

Plato. viz. that upon assuming other agen- 


| 
eer a it 


cies to be in operation than changes — 


of illuminating angle, such as present activity, the epochs at which such 
activity was manifested varied to such an extent, and were so far separated 
from each other in time, as to coincide, in the case of spots Nos. 14, 5, and 16, 
with the period in the luni-solar day of 60 to 120 hours after sunrise, while 
the activity manifested by spots Nos. 9, 11, and 22 occurred at a later period 
of the luni-solar day, 120 to 60 hours before sunset. So far-as the varia- 
tions of visibility of spots Nos. 14, 5, 16, 9, 11, and 22 are concerned, 
they do not appear to depend exclusively on changes of illuminating angle, 
even if a certain intensity of solar light contributes generally to render the 
spots visible. 

While the four craterlets Nos. 1, 3, 30, and 17 are visible during the whole 
of the luni-solar day, the spots on their sites are seldom seen until the sun 
attains an altitude of about 30°, and then they appear as “ bright round 
disks ;” and this characteristic attaches as well to the craterlets as to other 
spots when the sun attains this altitude. With altitudes between 30° and 
40° a different class of phenomena is manifested ; the sharp and distinct cha- 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 65 


TABLE VY. 
Visibility. 
No ie hi h h h h h h by ek 
*! 0 to 60 | 60 to 120 | 120 to Mer. | Mer. to 120 | 120 to 60 | 60 to 0 
0. 04 14 ‘06 ‘07 14 
1.| 1:00 1-00 1:00 1:00 1-00 1:00 
2. 14 ‘06 O4 05 06 
ay eed 1:00 84 ‘96 81 87 
4, 93 1:00 ‘O07 ‘93 86 44 
5. 43 83 S72 7D 57 37 
6. 11 47 29, By 24 25 
TB O7 11 28 14 19 19 
8. 03 03 Ay 
9. 29 36 7.5) so, 52 BM 
10. 04 11 ‘16 04 05 
11. 21 23 19 14 43 12 
12 06 ‘07 05 06 
13 O4 25 “25 Dil 29 25 
14 36 75 66 64 43 25 
15 06 aA 09 06 
16 07 56 63 61 33 19 
17 79 1:00 ‘91 96 81 94. 
18 19 06 14 24. 19 
19 07 22 22 18 12 
20 04 14 09 04 
21 ‘14 03 : 
22 04 22 28 36 43 12 
23. 07 03 ‘12 18 05 
24 =i “12 suteT 05 
25. 07 22 37 me) 09 
26 ae ¥e ee ‘04 06 
27 04 3 end 06 
28, a eye ‘04 06 
29. 04 ile 03 a 
30 29 47 34 29 38 31 
31 04. a 1) oi la | 09 12 
32. 07 25 22 alt 14 
33 2 ase 03 07 05 
34, 04 mot 03 ae 
35. a, 03 “a 
36. Rr 03 


racter of the craterlets is no longer observed. Some put on a hazy appearance, 
and they all assume the same aspect as those spots which have not been 
observed as craterlets. This state of things continues until the declining 
latitudes approach the limit at which the crater form was lost in the advan- 
cing day, then it once more appears accompanied by a disappearance of most 
of those spots which came into visibility as the sun rose higher. We have 
an analogous phenomenon to this in the well-known crater Aristarchus. 
Shortly after sunrise its outline is sharp and distinct, while its interior is 
partly covered with a well-marked shadow and partly glowing in strong 
sunlight. As the sun rises above its horizon these characteristics are lost ; 
the ridge extending from it to Herodotus becomes brighter, and to some eyes, 
and with some instruments, it is confounded with the interior, the whole ap- 
ane as a very vivid brush of light. The exact solar altitude at which the 
1871. F 


66 REPORT—1871. 


change takes place is as yet undetermined; but there can be no question 
that it is of the same nature as that of the appearance of the spots on Plato 
greatly intensified. 

The result of the discussion may be briefly stated as being very strongly 
suggestive of the existence of present lunar activity, the exact nature of 
which requires further and more extensive observations to determine. In- 
timately connected with the spot-changes are the variations of appearance 
and intensity of reflective power of the streaks and markings on the floor of 
Plato. In the observers’ and other notes which form the Appendix to this 
Report will be found allusions to the connexion between the spots and streaks ; 
but it manifestly requires a similar discussion of the streaks and markings to 
arrive at a definite conclusion on the subject. Most of the observers have 
furnished observations of these interesting phenomena, so that a discussion 
of them could at once be proceeded with if it should be the pleasure of the 
Association to carry on the inquiry. The principal results of the discussion 
of the spot-observations relative to visibility, irrespective of solar altitudes, 
and treated in pairs of lunations from April 1869 to November 1870, based 
on 1594 observations during 20 lunations, are contained in Lunar Map Cir- 
cular VIII.; and some further remarks occur in a paper on the subject, 
published in the Philosophical Magazine, March 1871. This discussion, on 
an entirely different principle to that employed in the preparation of the 
present Report, and leading to a similar result, tends to confer on both a 
character in which confidence may be placed, for either without the other is 
incomplete ; together they point to present lunar action as the originating 
agency producing the phenomena. 


Fie. 4. 


Although measurements for position of such delicate objects as the spots 
on Plato are difficult to execute, Mr. Gledhill has succeeded in obtaining 
three sets of micrometrical measures, on September 13 and December 9, 
1870, and on May 1, 1871, a combination of which has enabled me to draw 
the outline of the crater, and to insert from these measurements four streaks 
and the sector as seen generally by Mr. Gledhill. The streaks are Z, e, a, 
and 3, The streaks £ and e are rather westward of their places as given on 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 67 


the tinted plate in the ‘Student’ of April 1870, p. 161. The spots whose 
positions have been determined by measures are Nos. 1, 4,3, and 17. The 
effect of the measures is to bring them closer together and more towards the 
centre of the crater than in the printed plans. On each occasion that the 
measures were made, a diameter of the crater passing through spots Nos. 1 
and 4, from A to B, was measured, also one at right angles to this from C 
to D, passing through No. 1. All the remaining measures of spots and 
streaks were referred to these diameters, spot No. 1 being the origin of 
the coordinates, and the longest diameter being considered as unity. The 
ratios of the means of the measures were determined to be as follows :— 


Parallel Parallel 
Spot or Streak. Og a: Sle Pa Gi 


Longest diameter A toB = 1:000 No. 38................00008 060 126 
Aw Ih peel teehee Ul Sh 179 130 
Spot No. 1. Sector east end......... “409 168 
To east border B ...... = ‘519 sone WEStONGs.saseee 181 ‘247 
», west border A...... = ‘481 Both on border. 

» South border€ ... = ‘309 Streak Z...............00 055 
» north border D... = °309 S52} Gtecavtueteneccete 317 158 

», spot No. 4 ......... = ‘182 3», base)on Als \sceee. 123 
Streak « W. end ...... “412 158 
fu) greets, Cri. aaeeae “119 306 

» fonborder ... ‘337 


In order to plot the spots that have been laid down by alignment and 
estimation, it is necessary to align with the measured spots, and particularly 
with objects on the border, a process that will be adopted in the preparation 
or a monogram of Plato. 


APPENDIX. 


Oxsservers’ Notes. 


These are arranged in each interval of 12 hours according to season, so as 
to give increasing altitudes of the sun from © — 4 =270°. Winter in the 
northern hemisphere. 

Interval 0 to 12 hours. 


1869, Oct. 13, 7° (O— 93 =76° 24'-8, Oct. 124 21").—Ten hours after the 
epoch of sunrise at the equator in E. long. 4° 0'-6, the first streak of sun- 
light was seen by Mr. Gledhill to fall on the floor of Plato through the gap 
in the west wall between B. & M.’s peaks 6 and e, the W. extremity lying 
on or near the fault from N.W. to 8.E., and bringing into visibility the cra- 
terlet No. 3, which is seen earliest of all the spots. Mr. Gledhill gives the 
sun’s azimuth equal to 87° 31’, the altitude being equal to the angle formed 
by the height of the depression in the wall between the peaks above the 
point of the floor on which the sun’s rays first impinge. 


Interval 12 to 24 hours. 


1870, July 6, 8".—Twelve hours and a half after epoch of sunrise at the 
equator, EH. long. 4° 11'5, O— 9, July 5, 19, 30=354° 54-4, Mr. Gledhill 
again witnessed the first streak of sunlight fall on the floor of Plato, and 
observed spot No. 3 just within it, and remarked that the streak lay parallel 
with the longest diameter, and did not incline from No. 3 as it did in January. 
{On the 13th of October, 1869, at 7", Mr. Gledhill remarked that the streak 
was a little inclined to the N., and not quite parallel with the rim.] At 9" 
of July 6, 1870, Mr. Gledhill remarked that a line through the two gaps or 

F2 


68 REPORT—187]. 


breaks in the 8. and N. borders passed through the western ends of the 
earliest streaks of light thrown on the floor. This line appears to be coinci- 
dent with the great fault crossing Plato. With reference to this I have the 
following note :—‘ This phenomenon, the western extremities of the streaks 
falling in a line with the breaks in the N. and 8. borders, was well observed 
in January 1870. An elevation of the ground in the direction of this fault 
has been seen. It would, however, appear that differences in the lengths of 
the streaks would depend not on any unevenness of the ground, but on the 
relative depths of the gaps in the W. border.’ 

1870, January 10, 2" to 8"\—From ten to sixteen hours after epoch of sun- 
rise at the equator, E. long. 4° 61, @ — Q, Jan. 9, 164, equal to 170° 27':8. 
This was by far the finest observation of sunrise on Plato by no less than 
seven observers, viz. Messrs. Gledhill, Pratt, Elger, Neison, Birmingham, 
Joynson, and Birt. Mr. Gledhill’s record is so full and so interesting that 
a reproduction of it will convey a vivid impression of the progress‘of illu- 
mination of a lunar formation as the sun rises upon it. 

Jan, 10, 2". Cloudless. Terminator just on the E. border of Plato; can 
just see the outline of the crater, which now lics in deep shadow. On the 
E. side the lofty steep wall just N. of a triangular formation marked II Ev? 
glowed intensely in the solar rays. 

3", The E. wall from the great breaks in the S. and N. borders appeared 
as a bright narrow band. The curved outline of the N.E. border was bright, 
sharp, and narrow, but the lower slope within could not be seen. I could 
fancy that the W. part of the floor is, if possible, deeper in shadow than the 
E. half. {This phenomenon has often been witnessed, and has been attri- 
buted to the reflection of the strong light of the eastern interior from the 
dark floor. Upon attentively contemplating this degradation of shadow near 
its eastern boundary, it will often be seen that it is not simply a reflection 
from the floor, but apparently the illumination of a something above the 
floor.—W. R. B.] 

3° 45". A bright narrow broken line was seen between the two breaks on 
the E. and N.E. The outline of II E¥? is not yet visible. 

4" 18™. At this moment (12 hours 18 minutes after epoch) the first streak 
of light fell upon the floor. Within it and near its western extremity was 
seen No. 3 as two elevated objects, very near each other, but quite distinct. 
I could not detect shadow between them after hard gazing, although it was 
easily seen to the N.E. of the lower object. The streak was three times the 
breadth of the two objects together where it enclosed them, and it became 
broader near the N.E. border of Plato; it was brightest about and to the 
west of No. 3, and inclined a little downwards at the E. end. * *« * The 
two components of No. 3 are of the same size apparently, are equally but 
not very bright; they lie nearly E. and W. of each other, but the E. com- 
ponent is a very little to the N. of the other. 

4° 30™. The streak widens. I could not detect motion in it. I now care- 
fully placed the wire on the great gap in the west border ; the line passed 
along the axis of the streak. The west angle of the streak is not sharp, but 
rounded, and lies a little beyond No. 3. The lower of the cones of No. 3 
touches the lower edge of the streak. It now assumed a fan shape, being 
broadest at the E. end, which is now more than halfway to the E. border. 

4°40". The streak is now much wider. I think I see a minute elevation 
a little to the E. of No. 3 and in the streak. The two components of No. 3 


are now bright and sharp, with shadow on the east. Another streak has — 


been barely visible or suspected for a few minutes; it lies to the 8. of the 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 69 


former and near the 8, border. It runs parallel with the northern streak, 
is about half its length, and has its western extremity over a point a little 
HK. of No. 3. It is narrow, and extremely faint and difficult. A minute or 
two later it was seen better, also a still fainter and narrower line to the 
north of it, which is parallel with it and the northern streak. The most 
southern streak produced to the E. would graze the southern edge of II Ey2, 

4" 50™. Now the shadows from the W. wall take shape. The south sha- 
dow, which extends up to the 8. border, goes directly into the gap at the 8. 
edge of IJ EY, The next pointed shadow to the N. of this goes direct to 
the middle of II E¥; it is extremely pointed at its E. end for more than 
half its length, and is suddenly wider at the W. end. [This appears to indi- 
cate that the peak which throws the shadow is very needle-like.] I cannot 
be quite sure that this shadow for the next 10™ or 15™ really extended up 
to the E. border. It became so faint and narrow and line-like that it could 
not be well seen near the border. Then, again, the floor for some distance 
(say a distance equal to the width of II E¥?) lay in rather dark shadow. 
The floor between the shadows was not bright up to the E. border of Plato; 
all along the foot of the E. slope a dark shadow lay, and this interfered with 
an exact determination of extremities of shorter shadows from the W. wall. 
The next shadow to the north was a broad parallel-sided belt, which pro- 
ceeded to the E. border as such. Its upper or S. edge extended to the N. 
end of II E¥?, and its lower or N. edge cut the border of Plato just below, or 
to the north of IT E¥?. A line through No. 3 to the gap in the 8.E. border 
cuts the W. angles of the two southern bright spaces between the shadows. 

5". No. 3 lies on the lower edge of the lowest bright space or upper edge 
of the lowest shadow. The shadow still clings to or is in contact with No. 3, 
and either extends to the E. of it, or No. 3 throws a shadow to the E. The 
floor along the E, border is still dusky ; it is brightest at that part in line 
with No. 3, 

55", A very fine narrow shadow is now seen to stand off from the sha- 
dow below and in contact with No. 3; it is this which touches No. 3. 

5°15™, The upper shadow is now clearly pointed, and falls short of the 
border. [This is probably the shadow of the peak between B. & M.’s y and 
6.] I still see a minute elevation just to the N.E. of No. 3. It is now just 
on the tip of the lowest pointed shadow, and about halfway from 3 to the 
N.E. border. [This spot is No. 32; it was discovered in streak B by Mr. 
Elger on December 15, 1869.—W. R. B.] 

5» 45™, Floor at the foot of the E. border is still dark, except at the ex- 
treme N. The long broad shadow is now retiring from the E. border, and is 
seen faintly bifurcated ; the lowest or northern fork is the longer, but this 
broad shadow still seems to have its N. and §. edges parallel. 

6". Now the dark shadow on the S. border breaks up, and a fine pointed 
shadow separates from its northern side, which if produced goes quite into 
the gap at the southern edge of II E¥?. The bright W. angle above this 
shadow goes back towards the W. until under the great gap in the S. border. 
The great central shadow is now easily seen bifurcated ; the lower peak is 
the longest, and reaches nearly up to the east border. The tip of the shorter 
shadow to the N, reaches just to No. 3; the next to the N. is rather longer. 

6" 20. The object to the N.E. of 3 (32) is easy, elevated, and bright. Now 
4 is seen, also a large elevated object (7) about halfway from it to the N. 
extremity of II E¥2, and on this line. 

_ 6°30". The great 8. band of shadow goes straight into the gap at the 8. 
end of II E¥?. The E. portion of the floor for some distance from the foot 


70 REPORT—1871. 


of the slope is still dusky. The shadow of the N.E. component of No. 3 is 
easy, and les to the N.E. A line from the lower edge of the shadow in the 
great gap of the west border along the lower edge of the central shadow 
goes into the gap at the N. end of II E¥?. This shadow is now finely bifur- 
cated ; the lower or northern peak is the longer. 

8. Spot No. 1 is now seen as a large striking object. It seems to be in 
the path of the upper fork of the central shadow, and looks like the shadow 
of one of Jupiter’s satellites on the disk. [In Mr. Birmingham’s sketch of 
May 19, 1869, O— 8 =286° 37':3, the upper or southern fork of the central 
shadow is longest, while in the present series of observations the northern is 
the longest. This is not a solitary instance of variation in the shadow of this 
peak. Mr. Birmingham is in agreement with Mr. Gledhill in referring spot 
No. 1 to the upper or southern fork. In my paper on the spots and shadows 
of Plato (Transactions of Sections, p. 17, ‘ Report of British Association for 
the Advancement of Science,’ 1869), I remark that Rosse and Birmingham 
have drawn No. 1 with the shadow of 6 just receding from it. Challis’s 
shadow of 6 terminates by a straight line; neither fork was visible, for he 
carefully measured the two angular points. Rosse drew the termination of 
the shadow as from two pinnacles upon the summit, with No. 1 between 
them. These variations are doubtless azimuthal; nevertheless they are of 
great importance, as we hope presently to show. | 

8 5™. Spot No. 1 is a large, lofty, very prominent cone. Close to the N.E. 
component of No. 3, and to the N.E. of it, is seen a black shadow curved to 
the N.E., with a bright elevated object close to the curve. I see the two 
components of No. 3 as bright distinct objects; then, close to the N.E. foot 
of the N.E. component, comes a large circular shadow quite black, embracing 
a bright object to the N.E. 

8° 15™. Spot No 4 is already getting rather difficult and hazy, although it 
lies far away in the bright eastern floor. Spot No. 17 is now seen just on 
the lower edge of the uppermost pointed shadow. No. 1 is bright and large, 
free from the long shadow. Shadow still lies on the eastern floor at the foot 
of the slope. Mr. Pratt, the same evening, Jan. 10, noticed a peculiar feature 
of the eastern part of the floor corroborative of Mr. Gledhill’s observation of 
the dip to the foot of the east border. He says, “A peculiar feature of the 
eastern part of the floor in sunlight observed. Between what was probably 
the eastern margin of the sector 6 and the foot of the interior slope of the 
E. rim was a decidedly darker tint, as if that part of the floor was lower 
than the rest, and perhaps falling towards the border; the western margin 
followed very closely the form it would have if the whole space between the 
sector 6 and the border were depressed.” In my own record, Jan. 10, 4" 48™, 
the Crossley equatorial 7-3-in. aperture, eye-piece No. 4, power 122, with 
slot, I say :—‘‘ The 8. spire of sunlight apparent; it is directed towards the 
middle of II E¥*. Neither of the spires of light reach the border, indicating 
the floor to dip near the border.” 

Mr. Gledhill summarizes his observations, under the head of “ points de- 
termined,” as follows :— 

First. The position, size, alignment, and order of development of the 
streaks [of sunlight, as distinguished from those that make their appear- 
ance afterwards] which first fall on the floor. They are evidently the solar 
rays passing through the gaps on the border. 

Second. The floor on the E. at the foot of the inner slope lies in shadow 
more or less deep until the giant shadows from the W. border have retreated 
westward beyond the centre of the erater. 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 71 


Third. That spots Nos. 1, 3,17, the object halfway between No. 4 and 
the K. border (7), the object halfway + between No. 3 and the E. border 
(32), the object (if any) just to the E. of No. 3 (81), and the object S.W. of 
No. 1 at a considerable distance away are all elevated objects. 

[Some time subsequently to these observations I received from Mr. Gled- 
hill a drawing of nine crater cones seen on Jan. 10, 1870. They were Nos. 
1, 3, 30, 4, 7, 9, 11, 17, and 32. I have not received any confirmation of 
the object a considerable distance 8.W. of No. 1.—W. R. B.] 

Fourth. The order in time of the appearance of the shadows. 

Fifth. The time to a minute when light first falls on the floor. 

[The discussion of the observations by intervals shows that the sun’s light 
first falls upon the floor of Plato from ten to thirteen hours after the sun has 
risen at 4° 61 of E. long. on the equator according to season: a simple 
computation of the epoch of sunrise at this longitude and ©— Q will be a 
guide to ascertain the illumination of Plato within twenty-four hours of the 
epoch.—W. R. B.] 

Siwth. The interval between the appearance of light on the floor and the 
distinct perception of the shadows from the W. border is about twenty-five 
or thirty minutes. 

Seventh. The great northern streak of sunlight is seen some fifteen minutes 
before the southern streaks are detected. This may be caused either by dif- 
ference in elevation of the gaps in the W. border, or difference in level of the 
floor, or both may unite to produce the effect. 

Whatcan cause the duskiness of the eastern floor except depression of the floor? 
_ 1870, Jan. 10,9"0™. Mr. Elger saw spot No. 1 close to the shadow of the 
peak situated on the 8. of the great gorge or opening in the W. wall. At 
9°10™ the N. peak of this shadow was about clearing it; at the same time 
spot No. 4 could just be seen. Mr. Elger remarked that the shading round 
spot No. 1 was much darker than the central portion of the floor, and that 
this dark shading could be traced in an easterly direction to about one fourth 
of the distance between the spots 1 and 4: “this,” says Mr. Elger, “ would 
appear to indicate a fall in the surface of the floor from No. 1 towards 
the E. in section” (fig. 5). Schroter, if I re- Fig: 5. 
member rightly, alludes to some observations indi- 

‘cating similar irregularities in the floor. From 

Mr. Elger’s observation, combined with one of Mr. W pa ebaees E 
Gledhill’s to be noticed under Feb. 9, 1870, it would 

appear that spot No. 1 is situated on the ridge marking the great fault. (See 
interval 24" to 36".) 

1870, May 8, 8" to 10". Close of first interval of twelve hours. Epoch 
7* 21" 20". Mr. Elger writes, ‘‘ On the evening of the 8th, between 8" and 
10", I had a fine view of sunrise; the air was remarkably steady ; shadows 
and minute details seen to perfection.” 

1870, May 18. Mr. Elger writes :—“ Re your statement as to the dip of 
the floor. Is there reliable evidence that the N.E. and S.E. areas of the 
floor are lower near their respective borders than towards the spotless central 
area? In January last I saw spot No. 1 in contiguity with the shadow of 
No..2 peak (western wall); the surface of the floor east of No, 1 was then, 
of course, seen under very oblique light. Judging from the shading and 
-general aspect of the surface in the neighbourhood of No. 1, there appeared 
to be a very rapid fall from spot No. 1 to spot No. 4; if this be so, the 
stem of the ‘ trident’ would be a depression in the surface.” 

1870, April 9. Twenty-three hours after epoch of sunrise at 4° 4:7 on 


72 REPORT—187 1. 


equator, E. long., Mr. Elger records spots Nos. 1 and 17 in contiguity with 
shadows of high peaks on west wall [y and é]: Nos. 1, 3, 4 very plain [seen 
also by Mr. Pratt], 17 faint, 25 only glimpsed, 7 suspected; no markings 
seen. Mr. Pratt records on same day shadows of y, ¢, and e on floor nearly 
similar to 1869, Noy. 12, excepting that 6 showed a second point south of 
chief one, and that of e did not exhibit a cleft. 

The importance of such careful observations as those which have furnished 
the data for this interval cannot admit of question. The determination of 
the epoch at which the floor first becomes illuminated, as compared with the 
epoch of an easily computed phenomenon (sunrise at a given longitude on 
the equator), places at once within our reach the means of ascertaining when 
the appearances witnessed during the interval 10 to 24 hours after sunrise, 
at 4° EK. long. on the equator, will be repeated*, This is, however, a small 
result compared with the forms and progressions of the shadows ; for by their 
aid, especially if well sketched, and their lengths carefully measured, or even 
estimated in parts of those of the three measured peaks y, 6, and e, the dis- 
tance of the west wall from the terminator being at the same time ascer- 
tained, the irregularities of the west wall at sunrise, and by a similar process 
those of the east wall at sunset, may be obtained with tolerable precision by 
B. & M.’s method described in ‘ Der Mond,’ § 65, p. 98, and in the Report 
of the Lunar Committee of the British Association, ‘ Report,’ 1867, p. 15. 
We have thus the power, by multiplying such observations, of becoming inti- 
mately acquainted with the breaks and gaps, the elevations and towering 
pinnacles of the wall, and are in a position for handing down to our suc- 
cessors details that may enable them to detect changes, if such should occur, 
of sufficient magnitude to become perceptible. The shadows which I enu- 
merated on Jan. 10, 1870, were six,—the longest y, one between y and ¢, 
6 with its two peaks or saddle form, one south of e, and e. Mr. Joynson, of 
Liverpool, gives in his drawing of the same date two peaks to 6. The irre- 
gularities both of the floor and border have come out by these observations 
with marked distinctness, and tend greatly to settle for the present epoch 
the main features. If, however, changes are in progress, they may be, as on 
the earth, extremely slow. 

The appearances recorded on January 10, 1870, being so different to that 


witnessed by Bianchini, August 16, 1725, the following translation, by my 


friend Mr. Knott, from Bianchini’s work ‘ Hesperi et Phosphori Nova Phe- 
nomena’ (Rome, 1728), will doubtless be read with interest :— 

** Under the auspices of the Cardinal de Polignac, two large telescopes, 94 
and 150 Roman palms long, by Campini, were prepared and erected, and on 
the 16th of August, 1725, the following observations of Plato were made. 

** Although on that night we were only able to turn the telescope 150 
palms long, on the moon we detected, in the lunar spot named Plato, a 
phenomenon not previously observed. The moon was at the time a little 
past its first quadrature with the sun, which it had attained on the previous 
day, and the spot Plato fell on the periphery of solar illumination, where is 
the boundary of light and darkness in the lunar hemisphere exposed to the 
sun. ‘The whole of the very elevated margin, which on all sides surrounds 
the spot like a deep pit, appeared bathed in the white rays of the sun. The 
bettom of the spot, on the other hand, was still in darkness, the solar light 
not yet reaching it; but a track of ruddy light, like a beam, crossed the 

* The longitudes of the terminator at 60° N. latitude on the equator, and at 60° S. lati- 


tude, Greenwich, midnight, during the lunation, are given monthly in the ‘ Astronomical 
Register.’ 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 73 


middle of the obscure area, stretching straight across it from one extremity 
to the other, with much the same appearance as in winter in a closed cham- 
ber the sun’s rays admitted through a window are wont to present, or as 
they are seen in the distance when cast through openings in the clouds, or 
like comets’ tails at night in a clear sky stretched cut at length in space, as 
we remember to have seen in the one which in the years 1680 and 1681 was 
so conspicuous to all Europe. This appearance, never before seen by me in 
this or any other lunar spot, is represented in the figure which I give below. 


Fig. 6. 


©], 2. The lunar spot named Plato, and the ruddy ray of the sun thrown 
across its dark floor from the margin of the spot 1, white and turned towards 
the sun. It was thus observed at Rome on the Palatine Mount, Aug. 16, 
1725, at 13 hour after sunset, with the 150-palm telescope of J. Campini. 

“It is proposed to astronomers and physicists, for their consideration and 
judgment, whether this is to be taken as an indication of an aperture piercing 
the border of the spot which is turned towards the sun, through which opening 
the rays are cast and appear as through a window; or whether it is rather to be 
thought that they are refracted rays, which are bent from the top of the border 
towards the bottom, and appear of a ruddy tint as they are wont to do in our 
own atmosphere at sunrise and sunset, and so give reason for admitting the ex- 
istence of some denser fluid like an atmosphere surrounding the lunar globe.” 

I have the following remarks on the above, dated June 4, 1867 :— 

«‘ Bianchini appears to have been one of the earliest observers who noticed 
‘detail’ more particularly. Hevel, Riccioli, Cassini, and others aimed more 
at delineating the entire surface, which of course included much detail that 
is becoming more and more valuable every day ; still such observations as 
Bianchini’s, recorded in his ‘ Hesperi et Phosphori,’ are of great value, espe- 
cially as the appearances described and delineated could not find place in a 
more general work.” 

Schroéter, in his ‘ Selenotopographische Fragmente,’ vol. 1. p. 334, §§ 256, 
257, refers to the observation of Bianchini, and also to one of Short’s in 1751, 
April 22, It would appear that Bianchini’s suggestion of an aperture or hole 
in the W. rim of Plato was not verified by Short, who seems to have observed 


7%: REPORT—187]. 


the shadows of the three peaks y, é, and e of B. & M., which are represented 
by Schréter in t. xxi. The,shadows of these and other peaks on the W. wall 
have been very frequently observed of late years. 

T am not aware that Bianchini’s observation has been verified. The pecu- 
liar appearance which he has delineated depends not only on libration, but 
also on the angle which the terminator makes with the meridian; for it is 
clear that the direction of the terminator must form a tangent to a line pass- 
ing equally through the depression in the wall to produce the appearance 
seen by Bianchini; and it is highly probable that it is of very rare occur- 
rence, as seen from the earth, the variation in. the angle of terminator with 
meridian being as much as 3°. 

While transcribing the above (April 22, 1871) I have considered the Bian- 
chini phenomenon more closely. During the year 1870 the opportunities 
for observing sunrise on Plato were comparatively numerous, and certainly 
not the slightest appearance of Bianchini’s streak was detected ; on the other 
hand, the positions of the earliest rays of sunlight on the floor have been 
determined, with some degree of precision, for the portion of the luni-solar 
year during the period of the observations. If the configuration of the W. 
wall is different now from what it was in Bianchini’s time, the phenomenon 
may be explained by the supposition that the gap or pass N. of the peak 6 
was lower than at present, and has been raised by “ landslips” on one or 
both sides, which are of extensive occurrence on the moon as recognized by 
Nasmyth; the absence of further observations by Bianchini on the same 
evening, however, leaves the matter in doubt. 

Short records, in the Phil. Trans. for 1751, p. 175, that on April 22, 
1751, he saw a streak projected along the flat bottom of Plato. Soon after 
he saw another streak parallel to the first, but somewhat lower [or northerly ], 
which in a very short time divided into two. He found a gap in the wall 
opposite the first streak, and also one in the direction of the lower one. 

Not only is Bianchini’s observation at variance with modern observations, 
but Short’s also. The order of appearance of the streaks of sunlight on the 
floor on Jan. 10, 1870, is, first, the broad streak through the wide gap ; 
second, the southern streak north of the peak y. The appearances of Short’s 
streaks were in the reverse order. 

The following record of observations by Schréter on July 30, 1789, at 
9" 48", kindly translated by Mr. Gledhill, will illustrate Mr. Elger’s obser- 
vation on January 10, 1870 :— 

‘ Selenotopographische Fragmente,’ § 250, vol. i. p. 329. “A different, 
more beautiful, and more magnificent view of Plato is obtained when, with 
the rising sun, the first traces of an extremely faint twilight are seen on the 
grey floor of the crater, and when the first beams of light are thrown over 
the mountains into the plain below. This view of Plato, which lasts only 
for a few minutes during the slow monthly rotation, and for which one may 
wait for a year and yet not see it, I saw on the 30th of July, 1789, 9 48”. 
As in the 8th figure of t. xxi., the terminator had advanced from W. to E. as 
far asa, 3. To the W. of this the greatest part of the border lay in the 
light of day [or on the day side], and only the small portion to the E. of «, 
( was illuminated on the night side. The whole inner grey surface, on the 
contrary, was still hidden by the shadows of the lofty mountains on the 
border, and on the §. border there was also a low spot filled with shadow. 
While I was observing the shadows of the inner surface with power 161, I 
became aware of something to the E. of the middle of the floor, as if the dark 
surface were in a kind of fermentation, A few seconds later I saw here in 


Se eS ee CU ee 


a 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 75 


two places an extremely distinct unveiling or brightening which closely re- 
sembled a very faint twilight. Both places appeared dark, blackish, and con- 
trasted so slightly with the other night-shadows, that at first | was uncertain 
whether or not I perceived a real difference in the obscurity. Meanwhile, 
after a few seconds both the light-spots became somewhat brighter, changed 
their form continually, until they soon became larger and notably brighter, 
and assumed the appearance given in fig. 8 ; and as no very marked change 
occurred while the observation was being made, I was by this time able to 
sketch them in their present clearer colour and increased size ; but even yet 
they appeared a dark grey, so that, according to my arbitrary scale and a 
yery approximate estimation, they were placed at only 3°, or at most 3°. 

“ Doubtless these present but always very dark colours were half-shadows, 
and were found there because in these two places only a part of the rising 
sun was visible over the irregular elevations on the western border; and 
these half-shadows I have often seen in the course of my observations when 
the terminator passes across grey surfaces. Soon after, the surface threw off 
the mask of night, and in a few minutes I could distinguish the line-like 
shadows lying across the whole floor thrown by the peaks on the western 
wall. If one, however, compares the shape of these two somewhat bright 
spots on the map with the position and shadows of the west border, and re- 
flects that these bright spots, as I saw them, were surrounded by the shadows 
of night on the east, there can no longer be any doubt (if a different reflec- 
tion of the light has no share in the matter) that the floor is not perfectly 
flat, but that these two places are somewhat more elevated; and with this 
supposition the observations given before quite agree.” 

The following notes have been kindly furnished by Mr. Pratt, relative to 
the foregoing description of sunrise :— 

« Jan. 10, 3". On 1870, March 10,1 have notes of the same phenomenon, 
which I believe I forwarded at the time, recording the inability I experienced 
to rid myself of the idea that I was witnessing a true twilight. My observa- 
tion of it extended over twenty-five minutes, at the end of which time I 
perceived the faintest trace of the formation of the spires.” 

“Jan. 10, 4" 18", spot No. 3. Query. Is the brightest spot of the streak, 
here mentioned as seen inclined to the north of No. 3, and I presume in close 
proximity to it, my spot No. 30? As far as I can understand the localities 
are identical.” 

“Jan. 10, 4" 50™, shadow of peak y. On a similar occasion I have ob- 
served the thin thread of the shadow lying across II E¥?, and have watched 
it slowly shortening and travelling down the interior slope of the rim, and had 
a good view of it lying on the floor just in contact with the foot of the slope.” 

“Jan. 10, 8", shadow of peak §. I do not remember to have ever seen 
the shadow of 6 otherwise than with the northern fork the longest.” 

On Bianchini’s light-streak Mr. Pratt remarks :—‘“ Bianchini’s ruddy spire 
of light, which he observed at Rome, 1725, Aug. 16, and thought to be sun- 
light shining through an aperture in the west wall, would the want of 
achromaticity in his 150-palm telescope account for the colour? Still his 
unique view may prove valuable some day; and it is stimulating to perse- 
verance on our part to multiply observations with our comparatively luxu- 
rious instruments to find such unwieldy telescopes capable of so much in the 
hands of a careful observer. I wonder if the crater G on the west exterior 
slope was recorded so long since, as its clean-cut form, as I have sometimes 
seen it, is suggestive of recent formation, and its locality such as to easily 
account for the filling-up of the aperture Bianchini supposed.” 


76 REPORT—1871. 


[The crater G is not seen in Bianchini’s drawing of 1725, August 16, nor 
in that illustrating his observations of 1727, August 23 and September 22.— 
W. R. B. 

Mr. ae: remarks, that in Short’s observation of 1751, April 22, the first 
streak of sunlight was on the upper part of the floor, followed soon after by 
a parallel streak somewhat lower. “It is important,” says Mr. Pratt, “to 
learn what kind of telescope Short used during the observation; for as he 
was chiefly a maker of the Gregorian form, and as that construction does not 
invert the image, it may be possible his term lower may mean southerly in- 
stead of northerly, thus being in accord with modern observations.” 

‘The very interesting translation of Schréter’s notes of 1789, July 30, and 
his discovery of something on the eastern half of floor, as if a kind of fer- 
mentation was going on, and his discovery a few seconds later of an unveil- 
ing or brightening, closely resembling twilight, remind me,” says Mr. Pratt, 
‘very forcibly of my own observations before mentioned. The half-shadows 
of Schroter also remind me of what I have very often seen, as he describes ; 
but I cannot understand his explanation of them. As far as I can see, half- 
shadows presuppose an atmosphere; and a well-authenticated course of ob- 
servations of them would be good proof of the latter’s presence.” 

[If by the term “ half-shadow” be meant the penumbral fringe of every 
true shadow, the rays of light emerging from opposite limbs of the sun, 
crossing beyond the object casting the shadow and then diverging, will fully 
explain such a fringe. In the case of the sun rising above the mountains, 
the reverse phenomenon occurs, viz. a gradual darkening fringe skirting the 
illuminated surface arising from less and less light arriving from the sun’s 
disk ; a true twilight is occasioned by the particles of an atmospheric medium 
being illuminated by the sun’s rays while the luminary is below the horizon, 
and such I believe I have on several occasions witnessed.—W. R. B.] 


Interval 24 to 36 hours. 


1870, May 9. Mr. Gledhill describes spot No. 1 as easy; a fine sharp 
crater, with raised walls, much black shadow within, the east inner slope 
bright: he also records 3 and 17 as presenting the same appearance as 
No.1. On October 3, at about 12" earlier illumination, Mr. Gledhill did not 
observe the crater character of these objects, but describes them as elevated 
objects.. This is remarkable, as on Oct.3 the moon’s latitude was 1° to 2°S., 
while on May 9 it was 3° N., libration carrying Plato further from the eye, 
yet the crater character was more distinct. Mr. Elger records No. 17 as seen 
by glimpses. 

As regards spots 13 and 19, the following remarks of Mr. Elger are inter- 
esting :—‘* The northern portion of the floor, including streak a, was noted 
as equally light ; the streak could not be traced.” Mr. Gledhill writes, a not 
to be distinguished from the bright floor all along the north border. Mr. 
Elger found the same locality “ all ight on the 10th.” 

1870, February 9. Mr. Gledhill first saw spot No. 4, its bright W. wall 
only. He says, “‘ This object seems to have lower walls than 1, 17, or 3.” 
Mr. Gledhill writes: “ For a few minutes I saw what appeared to be a very 
low ridge running from N. to 8. across the floor of Plato. It runs from the 
N. border to spot 3, then curves to No. 1, and again bends back to the E. 
and reaches No. 17, and thence goes on to the S. border.” [The low ridge 
mentioned by Mr. Gledhill is, so far as I know, new. It is not coincident 
with the great fault from N.W. to S.E. From a drawing subsequently sent 
to me by Mr. Gledhill, it would indicate a fracture, having its origin at spot 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. ‘ ee 


No. 1, diverging N.E. and §.E. to spots Nos. 3 and 17, and extending from 
them in opposite directions to the N. and 8. borders.] At 5.30 Mr. Gledhill 
recorded that spot No. 4 is already indistinct ; there is a dull yellow patch 
about it. No. 3 at this early stage of illumination Mr. Gledhill found to be 
single; he looked in vain for the other two adjacent spots, Nos. 30 and 31. 

1870, Oct. 3. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, 17, and 30 as elevated ob- 
jects. Mr. Elger found no trace of 3. 

1870, March 11. Mr. Gledhill describes spots Nos. 1 and 3 as bright, cir- 
cular. 

Interval 36 to 48 hours. 


1870, April 10. Mr. Gledhill records spot No. 1 as a large, sharp, cir- 
cular crater, with internal shadow on W. side; also Nos. 3 and 17 as circular 
eraters. Mr. Elger records Nos. 16 and 25 as frequently glimpsed. 

1870, July 7. Mr. Whitley observed Nos. 1, 3, and 17 as craterlets, 4 a 
white spot, and glimpsed No. 11 very faint. On the same evening Mr. Neison 
recorded the floor as very dark, the spots indistinct, not visible continuously ; 
and Mr. Elger could just trace the “ sector.” 

1870, Jan. 11, 7.20. Mr. Gledhill describes spot No. 1 as a large round 
erater, larger than Linné, quite bright and circular, a very fine easy object. 
At 7.30 the same evening, he says “ Linné also is now seen as a crater, with 
some shadow within on the west.” At 7.45 Mr. Gledhill writes: “ Now the 
N.E. inner slopes of craters Nos. 1 and 3 glow in the bright sun, while the 
S.W. znner slopes are in shadow. It is the N.E. inner slope which so often, 
in bad definition, comes out as a bright disk or semidisk.” 

1869, August 16. Mr. Pratt thus writes:—‘“ Of these difficult objects 
[the spots], seven were seen many times during the hour; No. 1 often well 
defined as a crater, Nos. 3 and 4 as well-defined craters as No. 1, but accom- 
panied with a nebulous light, perhaps caused by the companion spots to each, 
which, however, were never clearly defined owing to the minuteness of the 
objects and the short periods of definition clear enough. They both had a 
similar appearance.” 

1870, September 4. Mr. Neison records No. 4 as just observable, and 14 
very faint. 

Interval 48 to 60 hours. 


1870, May 10. Mr. Gledhill records spots Nos. 1, 3, and 17 as elevated 
craters with little internal shadows. Mr. Elger records No. 5 as seen only 
by glimpses much fainter than 17; 16 and 14 easy. 

1871, March 1. Mr. Gledhill records spot No. 1 as a crater brightest on 
the inner E. wall. 

1870, August 6. Mr. Elger noticed the west portion of the floor of an 
even light colour. It is on this portion that the spots Nos. 13, 19, and 22, 
which have decreased of late in visibility, are situated. On the 24th of 
March, 1870, Mr. Gledhill observed the reverse, viz. the west part of the 
floor exhibited the darkest tint. It was, however, less in extent than the 
light portion given by Mr. Elger, and was seen under the opposite illumina- 
tion. See intervals 108" to 96", and 12" to 0" *, 

1870, October 4. Mr. Gledhill records No. 1 as an elevated object. Mr. 
Elger found No. 14 more easy than 5 and 17; it was not seen by Gledhill, 
Nos. 3, 30, and 17 were seen as bright disks by Gledhill. 


* These reversed tints are quite in accordance with the surface of the floor dipping on 
each side from the line of “ fault” crossing Plato from N.W. to 8.H, 


78 REPoRT—1871. 


Interval 60 to 72 hours.- 
1870, July 8. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1 and 17 as bright spots badly seen. 
Mr. Elger records No. 5 as seen only by glimpses, but brighter than No. 1. 
1869, August 17. Mr. Pratt inserted the positions of the spots observed 
hy him “ by independent estimation,” also “ their relative positions with re- 
spect to light streaks” were very carefully determined as follows :— 
No. 
1. On the dark surface near the junction of two streaks. 
3. In the middle of a light streak. 
4. In the middle of a light streak (sector) *. 
17. On the dark surface close to a light streak (W. edge of sector). 
13 and 19. In the middle of a light streak. 
14. Near the margin of a light streak. 


Interval 72 to 84 hours. 

1870, April 11. Mr. Elger records No. 5 nearly as bright as 17, which 
he regarded as fainter than at last lunation; 14 and 16 were easy, 24 and 
25 seen by glimpses. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, 30, and 17 as bright 
circular disks. Mr. Pratt detected the six spots which he observed with 
difficulty. 

1870, March 13. Mr. Gledhill writes : “ Unless I am very much mistaken 
indeed, 34 was an easy object, 7. e. No. 1 came out easily ‘ double ;’ also, as 
the E end of the floor slopes to the east, spots Nos. 6 and 7 may be seldom 
seen on this account (?).” To this I add: “This may be the case while the moon 
is passing from perigee to apogee.” Mr. Gledhill says further: “ No 3 (and 
30) very easy, wide, double; 3 is the larger, both equally bright : 30 is not 
seen nearly so often as 3; when only one is seen it is 3.” 

1870, June 9. Mr. Elger recorded 5 as brighter than 17. 

1870, February 11, 6.30. Mr. Gledhill found spots Nos. 1 and 17 as very 
sharp bright disks, but could not detect interior shadows ; he describes Nos. 
1,17, and 3 as sparkling. Of No. 1, he says, it often comes out double ; 
last year I often saw it thus. I am now almost sure I see a minute object 
close to the west of it (34). 


Interval 84 to 96 hours. 

1870, December 4. Mr. Elger writes:—‘‘ The marking connecting the 
middle and east arm of trident, which was, I believe, first seen by Mr. 
Pratt last spring, I found a very easy object, fully as bright as the brightest 
portions of the < trident ;’ it follows the curvature of the south border, and 
crossing the last arm of the trident, terminates about halfway between the 
latter and the west limit of the ‘sector’ During the May and June luna- 
tions, I had faint glimpses of it; but it was then a very much more difficult 
object than it is now.” 

The apparition of this streak appears in some way to be connected with 
spot No. 5, the variations in visibility of which are considerable. As, from 
the discussion of visibility, the connexion of these variations with illumi- 
nating, visual or atmospheric (terrestrial), changes appears to be untenable, 
it may be suggested that, if the first maximum, Aug.—Sept. 1869, resulted 
from increased activity, ejecta may have been thrown out and produced the 
faint streak which was seen on the west of No. 5 by fwo observers. At or 
about the second epoch of increased activity, a larger quantity of ejecta 
* * Mr. Gledhill has frequently observed spot No. 4 at the angle formed by the con- 


verging sides of the “sector.” 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 79 


may have been thrown out, producing a brighter streak, extending eastward 
as well as westward. The most interesting circumstance connected with 
this streak is its conformity in direction to that of the south border, as if 
some peculiarity of the surface existed in the neighbourhood of No. 5, of a 
depressed character, which received the outflow or outthrow of the ejecta. 
Another noteworthy circumstance is, that this streak was not recorded 
earlier than May 18, 1870. 

1870, September 6. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, 17, and 30 as bright 
disks, also that definition was good, and that the streaks and spots seemed to 
stand out in relief. 2 

1869, November 15. Mr. Gledhill writes :—“The spots Nos. 1, 17, and 3 do 
not appear as a mere white spot on the floor of Plato would do. There is a 
sharpness and clearness of contour and a brightness (uniform) of surface 
which could only belong to a crater or peak. TI have often been struck with 
this. This remark applies to them whenever they are well seen. I can 
only liken them to the small round disks of bright stars seen in the transit- 
instrument. Spot No. 4 never looks like Nos. 1,17, or 3.” To this I append 
the following query :—Do the clearness and sharpness of the contour of spots 
_ Nos. 1, 17, and 3 result from seeing the shadowless interiors of the craterlets? 
Tf so, on what agency does the appearance of the mere white spots depend ? 
Do Nos. 1, 17, and 3 vary in this respect with good states of our atmosphere ? 
Mr. Pratt records a spot new to him on the N.W. of 3, about half as far from 
3 as is 4 on the opposite side, and aligning with 3 and 4; he speaks of it as 
exceedingly small. I have numbered it 29. He-also observed spot No. 8, 
which he describes as fainter than 29, and situated about one third the dis- 
’ tance from 3 towards 4. On this evening Mr. Pratt very carefully scru- 
tinized No. 3 and its immediate neighbourhood ; the following are his notes 
transmitted to me :—“ First. The second spot, which I have always ob- 
served with 3 (and which I learn from Mr. Birt I have always placed in the 
same relative position as has Mr. Dawes, who discovered it, and of whose 
alignment I was before quite unaware), is exceedingly close to 3 on the 
N.E. TI estimate the distance at 2”, and its position with respect to 1 was 
very carefully judged to be 145° to 150°, reckoning from S. round by E., 
which I afterwards found by comparison to be about the angle represented 
in my former sketches. Second. A third spot, 8.E. of 3, and twice as far 
from it as Mr. Dawes’s, was observed. Its relative size was judged to be 
one fourth, while that of the second spot was one third of 3. The direction 
was from 3 towards 4.” [This spot I take to be 8—W. R. B.]. ‘Another 
peculiarity in 3 was, that it was just included by the light streak, but still 
quite on its edge, as was also its smallest companion. I now determined 
very carefully the colour of the immediate localities of all spots visible. After 
independently noting it for each spot, I found on summing up that the 
whole were upon the light streaks, with the exception of No. 1, around and 
towards which the light streak was softly shaded off.” 

1870, July 9. Mr. Whitley glimpsed spot No. 17 with difficulty. 


Interval 96 to 108 hours. 
1870, April 12. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, and 30 as bright circular 
disks, 17 as a bright disk, also 6, but seen only once or twice. Mr. Pratt records 
No. 1 as very dense and bright, 3 and 4 as hazy, and 16 and 22 difficult. 
1870, May 12. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, and 17 as fine bright disks, 
No. 4 a spot, but seldom seen. Marking a, Mr. Gledhill records as the 
brightest, and Mr. Elger mentions the part east of No. 16 as very bright 


80 eeean ar. 


and well defined ; this, as well as the remarks of Mr. Elger on May 9, may 
tend to throw some light on the decreased visibility of Nos. 13 and 19 (see 
Interval 24 to 36 hours). On this evening Mr. Whitley observed and described 
the markings, giving a sketch of the same. Mr. Elger’s sketch of the north 
part of Plato and Mr. Whitley’s are not in accordance. The time at which Mr. 
Whitley made his observations is not mentioned; Mr. Elger’s 8.45 to 11. 

1870, March 14. Mr. Elger writes: ‘‘ The markings were not well seen ; 
the eastern arm of the ‘ trident’ was the brightest, and could be traced from 
the south rim to No. 1, passing to the west of No. 5: the marking y was 
very plain, the rest of the markings were faint and difficult to make out.” In 
contrast with this indistinctness on Plato, Mr. Elger says, “ [In spite of the hazi- 
ness of the sky, the markings and minute details of the Mare Imbrium were seen 
with unusual distinctness]. In the ‘English Mechanic,’ No. 312, March 17, 
1871, p. 602, article ‘“ Mars,” by F.R.A.S., the author speaks of the indi- 
stinctness and partial dimming on the surface of the planet, accompanied by 
the presence of dark lines in its spectrum, coincident with those referable 
by Father Secchi to the vapour of water. The indistinctness and dimming 
of detail are alike distinguishable on Mars and the Moon; and in addition we 
have on the Moon a number of spots becoming vividly bright with a high 
sun. From Dr. Huggins’s observations, the spectral lines of the vapour of 
water are absent in the lunar spectrum. 

1870, June 10. Mr. Elger recorded No. 17 decidedly brighter than No. 5 and 
equal to No. 3; 14 only glimpsed once or twice; 16 and 25 frequently seen. 

1869, December 15. This evening Mr. Elger discovered spot No. 32. He 
described it as N.E. of spot No. 3, nearly aligning with 17 and 4, and situ- 
ated on a brush of light (Gledhill’s streak 3), extending from No. 3 to the 
N.E. rim of Plato. 

1871, March 3. Mr. Pratt observed 16 spots, viz. 1, 3, 4; 5, 14, 17, 21, 
20, 23, 29, 0, 18, 18, 19, 7, 6, arranged according to relative brightness. 
Of these Mr. Pratt speaks of Nos. 20 and 21 as being far above their usual 
brightness. Situated as they are near the north border, the Moon going 
north in latitude, they were not in the most favourable position for observa- 
tion ; their great brightness is therefore remarkable, and connected with this 
is an increase of brightness in the streak a. The new streak between Nos. 5 
and 17 Mr. Pratt saw with ease, joining the east arm of the “ trident” with 
the “ sector” from closely south of 17 to opposite 5. 

1870, October 6. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 17, and 30 as fine bright 
disks; Nos. 5and6 equal. Mr. Elger observed Nos. 14 and 16, not seen by 
Mr. Gledhill ; 14 was equal to 5. 


Interval 108 to 120 hours. 

1870, September 7. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1 and 3 as fine sparkling 
disks, and 4 as a hazy spot. Mr. Neison records Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 5 pretty 
distinctly visible; 17 brilliant but not well defined; 14 and 16 faint and 
very faint respectively. 

1869, November 16. Mr. Gledhill says, “I never saw the floor so bright. 
The spots 1, 17, 9, 3, and 30 appeared just like small stars in the transit- 
instrument on a windy night.” At 10, 11, and 12 hours Mr. Gledhill 
remarked that spots Nos. 3, 1, 9, and 17 formed a sparkling curve, and were 
fine easy objects, seen at a glance at any moment; he says they were very 
striking. On the contrary, he speaks of spots 23, 16, 19, 13, and 14 as very 
difficult objects ; none were ever easy objects. Of 9 and 11 he says, “I 
never saw them so easily and well as to-night.” The following notes are 


* 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 81 


important :—“ Nos. 1, 3, and especially 17 (which surpasses all in sharpness, 
and perhaps in brightness sometimes) are fine easy objects, with moderate 
altitudes. Now Linné never appears like these except when near the even- 
ing terminator. As to y Posidonius I never see it sharp and crater-like 
(white and bright) when the sun is up. I could not see it at all the other 
day when the morning terminator was a degree or two from it.” Of white 
spots Mr. Gledhill remarks: “I called some spots mere white spots, because I 
have never seen them otherwise ; by-and-by I may catch them near the 
terminator, and have reason to change the term. I fancy that when the 
terminator is a morning one the effect on objects differs from that given by 
the evening terminator.” 
Interval 120 to 132 hours. 


1871, March 4. Mr. Neison saw spot No. 14 very indistinct, and barely 
brighter than a longitudinal steak running in a direction from No. 13 to past 
No. 14, which was then situated upon it. It appeared to have its origin at 
the point of convergence of Gledhill’s @ and 6. On the same evening, Mr. 
Gledhill recorded 6 but not 6. On March 4, Mr. Neison saw No. 16 (once 
only) as a peculiar light-marked spot on a patch of broken light trending 
westward. Mr. Neison also recorded parts of the N.W. and 8.E. portions 
of the floor indistinct from broken light and light streaks. 

1870, June 11. Mr. Elger recorded spots Nos. 5 and 16 as seen only by 
glimpses. 

Interval 132 to 144 hours. 

1870, April 14. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, 4,17, 9, 11, and 30 as 
bright round disks. Mr. Elger writes, under date of April 26, 1870, relative 
to his observations of April 14, as follows :—‘“ That the visibility of the spots 
is connected with the position and brightness of the markings (as you sug- 
gest) is, I think, most probable: it is clear that the spots at present known are 
mainly confined to the districts occupied by the markings, and that the floor 
of Plato is divided by the latter 
into three nearly equal areas, A, 
B,C,ason sketch. Areas A and C 
are covered with markings, but 
area B is devoid of them. If 
we compare the number of spots 
in area B with the number of 
spots in areas A and C, we shall 
find that there are only two spots 
(23 and 11) in area B, while in 
area A there are ten, and in area 
C no less than twenty-three. It 
is true that small portions of the 
areas A and C are without 
markings; but the spots within those areas are, without an exception, situ- 
ated either upon the light streaks or close to their borders. These facts 
seem to me very suggestive, and point to an intimate relation between the’ 
spots and markings. As observations accumulate, your present belief in a 
connexion between the phenomena will, I think, be placed beyond doubt.” 
In connexion with the above, the following quotation from a letter by Mr. 
Pratt, dated 1870, April 22, is interesting :—« Very curious the difficulty 
there is in observing such delicate detail; possibly instruments and eyes will 
ly, independently of the mental bias and accumulation of pre- 

1871. @ 


82 REPORT—1871. 


vious impressions; and I rather fear that telescopes much larger than my 
own cannot help us out of the difficulty.” 

The difficulty to which Mr. Pratt alludes is particularly felt with regard 
to that indispensable method of determining positions “‘ measurement.” Mr. 
Gledhill has executed some measures of the positions of the principal spots 
and the extremities of the light markings, and Mr. Pratt has aligned several 
of the spots with objects on the border ; but so exceedingly delicate are the 
details, and so seldom is the state of the atmosphere sufficiently translucent 
and free from agitation, that to obtain an approximate plan of the spots and 
markings from measurement is necessarily a work of time. Pending this, 
in the above sketch both spots and markings have been inserted, partly on 
alignment and partly by estimation. The two light regions are well sprink- 
led with spots, as pointed out by Mr. Elger; and it is not a little interesting 
to notice that the nearly spotless area coincides with the region between 
the “trident” and the “sector,” with its prolongation to “ Webb’s Elbow” 
near the N.W. border. In the absence of more accurate detail, which is likely 
to be obtained from Mr. Gledhill’s measurements, the sketch (fig. 7) will serve 
as a guide for ascertaining if the spots and markings preserve their relative 
positions ; and in this connexion the remarkable change of locality, if it be so, 
of spot No. 5 may be mentioned, Mr. Elger having seen and recorded on three 
oceasions (1870, March 14, May 13, and October 10) its position on the eastern 
edge of the eastern arm of the “trident.” It is possible there may be two. 
neighbouring spots in this locality which have not yet been seen together. The 
importance of recording with every observation of spot No. 5 its position with 
regard to the eastern arm of the “trident” is obvious. The light streak 
supposed to be connected with No. 5 is too far south, or the spot is too far north, 
on the sketch. 

1870, May 13. Vide “ Indications of intermittent visibility” (p. 88). 

1870, January 15. Mr. Gledhill observed as many as 22 spots, the second 
greater number seen on any one occasion. Vide “ Indications of inter- 
mittent visibility.” Spots Nos. 1,3, and 17 are described as very easy, large, 
bright, sharp objects; No. 4 as jumping into view and not steadily seen. 
No. 34 was discovered this evening; it has not been observed since 
March 13, 1870, when it was recorded as an easy object. 

1869, August 20, 21, and 23. Mr. Gledhill gives three spots close to the 
N.W. border, which he has marked 13, 19, and 16. No. 16 being too far 
east for that spot, I have regarded itas 20; if, however, Mr. Gledhill really 
saw 16, its degree of visibility would be slightly increased. On August 23 
Mr. Pratt gives 16 in its proper position, and he observed the same number of 
spots as Mr. Gledhill; but Mr. Gledhill saw No. 12 and 31, which Mr. Pratt 
did not see, Mr. Pratt recording Nos. 7 and 30, not seen by Mr. Gledhill. 

1870, September 8. Mr. Neison records spot No. 4 as a flat indistinct 
spot; 17 sharp but bright, darkening on one side, and showing traces of a 
crater-formation. 

Interval 144 to 156 hours. 

1870, August 10. Mr. Neison records spot No. 3 as apparently oval ; tho 
longer axis of the ellipse is in the direction of No. 31. 

1870, October 8. Mr. Elger mentions No. 14 as very easy, 16 easy, and 
17 seen only occasionally. 

Interval 156 to 168 hours. ; 

1870, May 14. Mr. Elger recorded No. 16 easy; 5, 14, and 17 faint; 25 
and 32 seen by glimpses. Mr. Gledhill records 1, 17, 3, and 6 as bright 3 
disks, 4 not well seen, and 5 as a bright spot. ; 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 83 


- 1870, September 9. Mr. Elger recorded No, 5 faint, 17 especially faint, 
14 and 22 glimpsed, and 14 difficult. ; 


Interval 168 hours to Meridian Passage. ‘A 

1870, June 18. Mr. Gledhill has this remark: ‘‘ For some time I have 

thought that when power 115 was used, spot No. 4 was almost at any time 

to be seen, or at any rate a condensation of the ‘sector’ at its apex was 

seen. On applying 240, however, the appearance vanishes, and no con-- 
densation or spot is seen, or perhaps only sometimes and at intervals.” 


Interval Meridian Passage to 168 hours. 


1870, July 13. Mr. Gledhill records No. 1 as very bright. aid 


1870, September 10. Mr. Elger records Nos: 25 and 16 as easy, No. 14 

as seen by glimpses. f 
Interval 168 to 156 hours. 

1870, August 12. Mr. Neison records “a spot seen on the border of No, 
3, very small and hardly visible except at intervals, but pretty bright on 
edge only of the light marking.” Mr. Neison suspected it to be No. 31, 
which it undoubtedly is according to the position which he has accorded to 
it on the diagram. Mr. Neison was the only observer who detected No. 81 
during this lunation, on the 10th and 11th of August, as an elongation of 
No.3. Mr. Elger, Mr. Gledhill, and Mr. Pratt appear to have missed it. Query, 
was the group Nos. 3, 30, and 31 in greater activity about this time? 
Mr. Neison has this note, “3. Faint indications of its being a crater very 
distinct.’’ Mr. Pratt records: “During the long period since I last saw 
the light streaks I have had little opportunity to study former sketches, and so 
was free in a measure of the bias of them. Yet on sketching those seen, 
the forms, positions, and directions coincide with former drawings, notably 
the trident a, 6, n, 1.” Mr. Pratt also notices a remarkable increase in. 
brightness of spot No. 22, so as to attract especial attention. Neither, 
Messrs. Elger, Neison, Ormesher, nor Gledhill noticed this spot, although 
they were observing on the same evening as Mr. Pratt, who further re- 
marks “that in moments of best definition the area comprised between 
Nos. 19, 1, and 4 was not nearly so well displayed as the rest of the floor, 
giving a strong impression of an obscuring medium located there.” [This 
observation of the streak 7, the existence of which has been questioned, is 
perfectly independent of any suspicion of its non-existence, as it occurred 
some months before the question was raised. | 

1870, October 10. Mr. Elger found spot No. 5 on the E. edge of the KE, 
arm of the “trident ;” its position, as given by Mr. Pratt, is on the W. 
edge of the E. arm. He also found that Nos. 5 and 14 were far inferior 
to 17. Spot No. 25 was easy. Mr. Elger did not see spots Nos. 9, 11, 18, 
23, nor 30 recorded by Mr. Gledhill, nor did Mr. Gledhillsee No. 14. Fora 
special note on the position of spot No. 5, which Mr. Elger also saw on the 
E. edge of the “trident” on May 13, 1870, see Interval 132 to 144 hours. — 

1870. On the 12th of August, and on September 7, 11, and 12, Mr, 
Neison made a series of observations with apertures yarying from 4 to 53 
inches, with differences of 3 of an inch. 

Pnches 2. cviiees fn 4 4 4 5 5 
pois i. .eeaiwess 4 rs Fs 3 6 2 

The spots seen were Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 17 with 4 and 42 inch apertures, the 
Same and No. 5 with 43 and 43; with 5 inches aperture spot No. 14 was 
detected and marked as faint, and with 53 inches No, 16 was discerned: 

G2 


84 , REPORT—1871. 


the last two, Nos. 14 and 16, were in all cases marked as “ faint,” some- 
times extremely so. 

These seven spots are precisely those which have the highest degrees of 
visibility for 18 lunations, as under :— sige 

RUE sows s 1 3 4 i ae 5 14° 6 
Visibility .. 1:000 897 ‘887 :830 -510 -433 -294 

From these observations, it appears that spots Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 17 may 
be detected with instruments between 4 and 41 inches of aperture, that spot 
No. 5 requires an extra half inch, or 43 to 5, and that 5 and 5} will bring 
out spots No. 14 (5 inches) and 16 (5 inches), 

Aperture, of course, is an important element of visibility; and as these 
spots are seen with apertures under six inches, as the observations increase, 
and the normal degrees of visibility become well determined, variations in 
the visibility of these spots may be detected with instruments of 6 inches 
aperture, provided the observations extend over a sufficiently long period. 


Elements of Visibility. 
Iunar.—Brightness and size of spots. 
Terrestrial.—Clearness and steadiness of atmosphere. 
Instrumental.—Goodness of figure of object-glass or mirror, and extent 
of aperture. 
Physiological.—Keenness of eyesight. 


Interval 156 to 144 hours. 

1870, July 14. Mr. Gledhill records No. 1 as a fine, large, bright spot, 
No. 17 as a small bright spot, Nos. 3 and 30 as bright spots, and No. 5a 
bright spot, seen now and then. Mr. Ingall records No. 1 as very plain 
and sharp, No. 4 as steadily seen, and Nos. 3, 31, 30 a misty spot, probably 
consisting of these three. 

1869, August 23. Mr. Pratt records that ‘‘spots Nos. 1, 3, 4, 17, 6, and 14 
were very bright compared with their usual appearance, and all easily seen. 
No. 4 was not well defined; there was a persistent oval light round it (N.W. 
and §.E), and I several times believed it to be double, but could not be positive 
it was so. So remarkably clear was the vision that several times as many as 
four or five spots were held in view at once, without looking directly for 
them, and two or three times as many as six were so seen, viz. Nos. 1, 3, 
4,17, 5, and 14; again, Nos. 1, 3, 4, 17,6, and 5. Nos. 4, 7, 6, 17 were 
@ group seen together, and Nos. 5, 14, 22, and 1 were a similar one ; yet 
still so exceedingly delicate are the fainter spots and the fainter traces of 
light on the floor that it needs a most concentrated attention to see either. 
In looking for the faint spots the faint traces of light will escape notice ; 
again, when looking for the latter, the former are most likely not to be 
seen. This exceeding delicacy too interposes a serious difficulty im aligning 
them with objects on or near the border: the eye cannot hold so wide a 
view and at the same time retain a sufficiently correct impression of objects 
at once so faint and small. These remarks do not apply to the easier spots 
and light streaks. Once, for a few minutes, a narrow, dark, straight line, 
like a pencil-mark, was visible from m towards Ztambleta (i.e. from N.W. 
to §.E.], probably the crack Mr. Birt has discovered. . It was not seen 
again this evening.” 

1870, September 11. Mr. Neison records No. 1 as very distinct, No. 3 as 
distinct and brilliant, Nos. 5 and 14 as faint, 5 as rather so, 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 85 


Interval 144 to 132 hours. 

1871, March 8. Mr. Ormesher records a spot near the S.W. border, 
which he queries “14, a long way off” from its position. Is it a spot not 
before recorded ? 

1870, August 13, Mr. Gledhill records spots Nos. 3 and 17 as fine bright 
disks, No. 1 as a fine, large, bright disk, and No. 4 as a nebulous object. 
Mr. Pratt remarks that “on this evening, as well as in 1870, August 12, 
the tint of the dark portions of the floor was much intensified close to the 
rim. It was the case all round, but especially so between 6 and Z, between 
e and ¢, and between and 7.” 

1869, December 20. Mr. Pratt places a spot nearly due north of No. 1 
on the diagram of this evening, which he queries as 23. I query it as un- 
certain. Spots Nos. 1, 0, 23, and 16 very nearly align. ‘The line passing 
through Nos. 1, 0, and 23 passes slightly west of No. 16. Mr. Pratt’s spot 
is very decidedly east of this line. [1871, March 31. The spot registered 
by Mr. Pratt on Dec. 20, 1869, not having been reobserved, it is probable 
that it may have been, as Mr. Pratt queried, No. 28. I have now entered 
it as such.—W. R. B.] 


Interval 132 to 120 hours. 
1870, September 12. Mr. Neison records of No. 22, “a spot very faint, 
and difficult to make out in the midst of a patch of light.” 


Interval 108 to 96 hours. 1 

1870, July 16. Mr. Gledhill records spot No. 1 as “a fine, large, bright disk; 
looks like an elevation ;” also Nos. 3 and 17 as bright disks. I have made 
the following note on the Form :—“9 and 0. These do not appear in their 
precise localities, especially 0. It may be that the spot thus marked by 
Mr. Gledhill is a new one.” 

1870, December 12. Mr. Pratt writes: “A faint crepuscular kind of 
shade has crept over the western part of the floor, and is deepest near the 
western border ; but the gradation is very delicate, 12 hours to 12 hours 40 
minutes.” [1870, March 24. Mr. Gledhill noticed a darker tint at the west 
part of the floor, and furnished a tinted sketch: see remarks under this 
date (p. 87); also Mr. Elger’s observations of the same portion of the floor 
being light, under date 1870, August 6, interval 48 to 60 hours. | 

1870, November 11. Mr. Gledhill records spots Nos. 1, 3, 30, and 17 as 
bright spots. On the 13 of September (same interval) he recorded them as 
“bright or fine craters ;” with the exception of Mr. Neison’s record on 
August 12 of No. 3 as a suspected crater (interval 168 to 156 hours), this in- 
terval (108 to 96 hours) is the earliest in the declining day that the four have 
been seen as craters. The terminator is recorded as west of Fracastorius. 

1870, September 13. Mr. Gledhill records spots Nos. 1, 17, and 30 as 
bright or fine craters, and says of 17, “fine crater as 1 and 8;” but of 3 
he says, “fine disk.” I have marked 3 as a crater. 


Interval 96 to 84 hours. 

1870, August 15. Mr. Pratt records that the darker margins of the 
“shaded parts of the floor are still visible as on the 12th and 13th August, 
but not in such striking contrast. 

1870, October 13. Mr. Pratt records spot No. 1 as brilliant, the others 
‘dimmer than usual. 
Interval 84 to 72 hours. 

1869, August 26, Mr. Pratt remarked a decided difference in definition 


86 r REPORT—1871. 


in different parts of the floor, even in so contracted an area, the whole 
northern half being less well defined, the south-east part the best so by 
far. ‘Traces of the line from m to Rambleta were caught, and the floor 
appeared wnlevel, the central and south parts appearing highest, and the 
south-west part next so. This, Mr. Pratt says, requires confirmation. 

_ 1870, September 14. Mr. Gledhill records No. 3 as a fine wide double spot 
(i.e. 3 and 30). Mr. Neison (same day) remarks as follows of Nos. 1, 
3, and 17, seen by Mr. Gledhill as craters: No. 1 not very distinct; No. 3 
sharp and shaded, not very bright; No. 17 very distinct. 


Interval 72 to 60 hours. 


1870, August 16. Mr. Pratt observed 3 spots only this evening. On 
October 14 (same interval) 16 were observed, 9 by Mr. Gledhill and 7 by 
Mr. Pratt, in addition. They both record the definition of the border as 
“good;” Mr. Pratt says, “ with interruptions.” On August 16, Mr. Pratt 
records the definition of the border as ‘‘bad.’”’ The following remark of Mr. 
Pratt is interesting in connexion with this paucity of spots :—* The darker 
parts or shaded portions of the floor were just perceptible with attention. 
‘ Tint of floor’ medium, much paler than on the 13th inst.” 


Interval 48 to 36 hours. 


1870, August 17. Mr. Gledhill records No, 1 as a fine, large, open crater, 
3 and 30 as craters, 17 as a small crater, and 4 as a bright but not de- 
finite spot. 
Interval 36 to 24 hours. 


1870, March 23. Mr. Gledhill writes: ‘“‘ The shadow of the elevated ob- 
ject on the east border (the rock Z), close to the N. of W. II E¥, was on 
the floor, and the adjacent floor to the N.W. was very bright, much brighter 
than a or the ‘sector,’ and it extended one third of the distance from the 
border to spot No. 4, as in sketch.” Mr. Gledhill could not determine its 
form, but considered that it was the streak y intensified. 

1870, July 19. Mr. Gledhill observed the four craters 1, 17, 3, 30 only; 
he described No. 1 as a large circular crater with raised walls, but not 
much brighter than the floor. 

1869, August 28. Mr. Pratt writes: “The tuven of the floor was con- 
spicuously divided by the line from m to ¢, the ground sloping east and 
‘west of this line, the eastern part being brighter than the part on its west, 
while the locality of spot No. 4 was judged to be the highest of the whole 
‘floor.’ In connexion with this remark of Mr. Pratt it may be well to 
‘notice that, combined with Mr. Elger’s observations on 1870, Jan. 10, of 
-a depression in the floor east of No. 1 (see Interval 12 to 24 hours), the two 
suggest that this depression does not extend so far as No, 4. Again, com- 
paring this observation of the western part of the floor being darker than 
the eastern, which is in accordance with Mr. Gledhill’s on March 24, 1870 
(see Interval 12 to 0 hours), it would appear that Mr. Elger’s observa- 
tion of the bright western area on 1870, May 9 and 10 and August 6, was 
an intensified brightness of the ordinary brilliancy of the floor, sloping to the 
west. The Intervals 24 to 36 and 48 to 60 hours, the season spring, with 
the sun’s altitude about 14°, seem to indicate that the increased brightness 
-was quite independent of illuminating angle. 

Speaking of the apparent changes observed, not only on Plato, but over 
a wider range, between August 16 and 28, 1869, Mr. Pratt says: ‘‘ Thus, 
among apparent changes of a particular character, and restricted to certain 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 87 


small localities, there does appear to have been a wider and more gene- 
ral disturbance in the brightness and definition of objects, all which dis- 
turbance appears to be confined to the low-lying lands of that part of the 
moon‘observed, Not that changes were not visible in high regions; but 
these are more easily referred to changes of illuminating and visual angle, 
while the disturbances above mentioned are not so easily accounted for, 
especially those changes in the visibility of the light-streaks on the floor 
and the striking differences of brightness of the spots.” 

1869, October 26. In connexion with Mr. Gledhill’s return of this date 
I remark, “ ‘Crater Row’ being so well seen, and the border of Plato so sharp 
and distinct, it is remarkable that spots Nos. 5, 6, 7, 13, 14, and 16 should 
not haye been well and easily seen, although it appears they were seen, also 
that spot No. 3 should have been seen single, and that only sometimes, when it 
was seen double the previous night.” 

1870, November 14. Mr. Gledhill observed Nos. 1, 3, 30, and 17 as 
craters, and says, “ they look like bright elevated rings.” 


Interval 24 to 12 hours. 

1870, March 23. See ante, Interval 36 to 24 hours. 

1869, September 27. Mr. Gledhill recorded a broad band of brightness 
parallel to the north border, enclosing spots Nos. 13, 19, and 16; he does 
not say they were seen as well as the bright band, I haye, however, re- 
corded them as having been seen. 


Interval 12 to 0 hours or sunset. 

1870, November 15. The four craterlets Nos. 1, 3, 30, and 17 are de- 
scribed by Mr. Gledhill as elevated crater-cones. 

1870, March 24. Mr. Gledhill writes:—“Terminator on N.E. end of 
Apennines ; the eastern shadows lie on the floor. A line drawn along 
the west edge of the ‘sector,’ and produced to the north border, separates 
the bright east part of the floor from the darker west part; the inner slope 
of the west wall glows in sunlight, while the floor near it is the darkest 
portion of the crater [Plato].” See p. 95, line 9, 


ApprrionaL Norns, 
Differences of Visibility of neighbouring Objects. 

1869, August 26, 11 hours 30 minutes. Definition frequently exceed- 
ingly good but disturbed, with much boiling at times. Mr. Pratt has fur- 
nished the following record :— 

“There was a marked difference between the M. Imbriwn, the M. 
Serenitatis, and the M. Frigoris, in respect of the visibility of minute objects 
on their surfaces. The Mare Imbrium was literally covered with small white 


spots and streaks. The three streaks from Aristillus to the south border of 


Plato were again traced. Archimedes had roughly four light streaks E. and 
W., and about nine or ten easily discerned white spots. Beer and Mddler 


‘and neighbourhood looked invitingly for a close study. 


*The Mare Serenitatis was of a dull grey, with few white spots ae 


comparatively few features visible. Of those visible all were very indistinct, 
‘EXCEPT THE MORE ELEVATED oNES; thus, of the small objects round Tiwi 


most were invisible, a few indistinct, even I HK, I H9, I Hy3 [the three small 
craters N.W. of Linné] were almost obscured. Linné itself a cloudy white 


‘spot, with knot of light in centre, but not nearly so bright as when seen 


on the 23rd inst. Posidonius y was brighter and half the size of Linné. 
Bessel was tolerably clear. About half the number of white spots S.E. of 


88 REPORT—1871. 


‘Bessel. were very indistinctly seen, the remainder invisible. Posidonius, 
just within the terminator, was fairly defined. Sulpicius Gallus and one 
or two near it on the pleateau were clear; so that the MoRE AN OBJECT WAS 
RAISED above the general level of the Mare the clearer was its definition, 
while those on the level of it were more or less obscured. 

“The Mare Frigoris was very hazy indeed ; even close to the foot of the 
north slope of Plato objects could not be defined, while those raised a little 
above the Mare were remarkably well defined indeed. The whole northern 
slope of Plato appeared everywhere rugged and uneven.” 


Indications of intermittent Visibility and of possible voleame Activity. 


On the evening of the 13th of May, 1870, no less than twenty-seven spots 
were seen on the floor of Plato, 26 by Mr. Pratt, and an extra one by Mr. 
Elger. This extraordinary display occurred between 132 and 144 hours 
_ after the terminator had passed 4° E. long. It is, however, not a little 
remarkable that, on the same evening, Mr. Gledhill, at Halifax, observed 
four spots only. The great number seen by Mr. Pratt, as compared with 
the small number seen by. Mr. Gledhill, is doubtless due to a fine state of 
the earth’s atmosphere at Brighton. 

With regard to the streaks seen by Mr. Pratt on the same evening he 
remarks—“ I could not see the small streaks on the western part of the floor, 
and sometimes even my old ‘trident’/and the streak « were so indistinct as to 
be difficult. What was the cause? Surely not the earth’s atmosphere; 
for at the same time spots could be seen. Perhaps we shall discover that 
spots are raised at a higher level than light streaks, and thus visible when 
streaks are obscured.” 

This remark of Mr. Pratt’s is important: certainly the state of the earth’s 
atmosphere could not have affected the two classes of objects in different 
ways. If the intensity of the spots depended upon the purity of our atmo- 
sphere, one would think that the brightness of the streaks would also have 
been increased ; but in Mr. Pratt’s experience it was not so. Mr. Elger 
‘speaks of some as bright and others faint. Mr. Gledhill, with a bad atmo- 
sphere, speaks of them as bright ; but he saw only four spots. Are the spots 
really brighter than the streaks ? But, then, why do both vary in brightness ? 

Mr. Pratt having perused [carefully] the M8. has furnished me with the 
following remarks :— 

“May it not be well to mention that, on the occasion referred to, 1870, 
May 18, I observed fifteen streaks, one of which was a new one. [This 
was the streak from spot No. 5 towards No. 14.] This number was much 
above the average, the curious fact being that although so many were per- 
ceptible with attention, yet the increase in their brightness was in a lower 
ratio than that of the spots. There are two possibilities which may affect the 
discrepancy | difference |between the notes of Mr. Gledhill and myself in relation 
to thestreaks:—First, the times at which we observed may have been different. As 
for myself, I tested the chance of working with any thing like satisfaction once 
at least every half hour during the whole of the evening, and before I tried for 
the last time, at 11 hours, had been unable to perceive either one spot or streak. 
Secondly, priority of observation bestowed on objects of one class may detract 
from the estimated brilliancy of the other class. In my own case, immediately 
I went to the telescope, at 11 hours, I saw several spots conspicuously, and in 
consequence searched for spots alone for nearly an hour. A search for so long a 
time for one class possibly may, in a slight measure, reduce the sensibility of 
-the eye for objects of the other class, whether spots or streaks.” 

The following extracts from Mr. Pratt’s letter, dated 1870, May 19, are 


a 


7 al 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 89 


interesting :—‘ Some spots having at different times been observed as cra- 
terlets, their character as volcanic is settled in my own mind. Whether 
all spots are analogous I should be glad to know; but on the supposition of 
such similarity existing, the suggestion naturally arises whether the light 
streaks be not scoriz or lava, or a mixture of both, resulting from the action 
of the craterlets with which they seem to be connected.” 

A comparison of the curves for the 20 lunations, April 1869 to November 
1870, is suggestive of the craterlets being a distinct class of objects. The 
phenomena characterizing the cratelets, as indicated by the curves, differ 
very materially from the phenomena manifested by the spots; for example, 
in the correspondence of the maxima at the time of the supposed outbreak 
of Aug.—Sept. 1869, we have an increase of visibility in spots, the behaviour 
of the craterlets being altogether different. Certain neighbouring spots, to 
which allusion has been made, declined greatly in visibility, and were very 
seldom seen during a period in which the craterlets were almost always 
visible; and in connexion with this it may be remembered that craterlets 
are characterized by high degrees of visibility, while of many spots which 
have large ranges the normal degrees of visibility are low. 

That a connexion exists between the streaks and spots is, as Mr. Pratt 
remarks, “self-evident ;” and Mr. Elger has shown that most of the spots 
occur on the streaks. Now as both spots and streaks vary in brilliancy and 
visibility, may not the steaks consist, as Mr. Pratt suggests, of ejecta from 
the volcanic orifices of the craterlets? The increased brightness of the 
streaks in the neighbourhood of the border has been frequently noticed, as 
well as the unevenness of the floor. It may be possible that newly ejected 
matter (especially if it be of the character of “broken glass,” suggested, I 
believe, by Dr. Huggins as explanatory of the appearance of Linné) may 
reflect light more strongly, and thus contribute to the brighter appearance 
of the streaks about the time at which the craterlets manifest increased 
activity, and this may become so great as even to conceal the craterlets 
themselves. On the other hand, although we are perfectly ignorant of any 
meteorological or chemical action occurring at the surface of the moon, it 
may be permissible to suggest that, if such action be possible, the reflective 
power of the ejecta may become impaired, and the streaks in consequence 
rendered less bright. 

It is exceedingly difficult to conceive that volcanic action can be in existence 
on the moon’s surface without “vapour” of some kind escaping from the 
orifices. If this be the case, condensation must follow, and the orifice may be 
covered by the condensed vapour, the upper surface of which may strongly 
reflect the light and produce the appearance of a spot when not in a state of 
actual eruption ; and this spot may be seen on a surface covered with ejecta, 
the reflective power of which has been impaired since it left the orifice. 

One of the brightest portions of the floor of Plato is the S.E., which is 
characterized by the “sector” or “fan.” On the 10th of January, 1870, 
Mr. Gledhill observed as many as nine crater-cones on the eastern part of 
the floor, viz. Nos. 1, 9, 11, 17, 4, 3, 30, 7, and 32. It is easily con- 
ceivable that ejecta from some of these may be the perennial source of the 
. reflective power of the “ sector.” 

“Tt is, as far as I can see,” says Mr. Pratt, “not at all proven that it is 
impossible that they, the spots, may not be small acting volcanos at this 
present moment; and you will please credit me with having noted that, on 
the 13th of May, although the spots were very greatly in excess of their 
-usual brightness, the relative brilliancy of the light streaks was not nearly 


90 vie REPORT—1871. 


in the same proportion, indeed not so high as on some nights when fewer 
spots have been visible. The supposition of Schroter of an exceedingly low 
atmosphere, confined to the lower regions, seems to me especially consonant 
with the above observations, for the following among other reasons :— 

“4 thin atmosphere, the only possible detection of which is confined to the 
lower parts of the floor [that is within the mountainous enclosure of Plato}, 
may obscure the streaks partially [to effect this there must be condensed 
material of some kind] without affecting the spots, which, if craterlets, are 
raised more or less above the level of the streaks [the low fogs, the upper sur- 
faces of which are at a less elevation than ordinary buildings are high, may be 
cited as examples]; for such an atmosphere would probably be rendered more 
dense by and during the supposed activity in the spots, which on that night 
were unusually bright and, according to the hypothesis, in action, [It must 
not be forgotten that on comparing the observations of Mr. Pratt with those 
of Mr. Gledhill, the presumption is that the unusual number and brilliancy 
of the spots was simply the effect of a finer atmosphere at Brighton as 
compared with that at Halifax. The phenomenon which is at variance with 
this is the less brilliancy of the streaks as recorded by Mr. Pratt; still we 
have the bright streaks of Mr. Gledhill supporting the hypothesis of the effects 
of the earth’s atmosphere.| Hence after a subsidence of the brightness of the 
spots and the restoration of the normal state of the atmosphere, we might 
expect to see the streaks come out more distinctly.” 

It will be remarked that, in my suggestions above, the increased bright- 
ness of the streaks is supposed to depend upon the eraterlets actually 
ejecting material, while the increased brightness of the spots depends upon 
the escape of vapour. I have not quoted Mr. Pratt’s remarks for the 
purpose of controverting them; they appear to me to be exceedingly 
valuable, and in the present state of selenological inquiry it is important 
to canvass every view that may be put forward. It is quite consonant with 
both our views that increased activity in a spot may, and doubtless does, 
manifest itself by increased brilliancy ; and it is not unlikely that the forma- 
tion of a spot in the way suggested over a volcanic orifice otherwise invisible 
may precede an actual eruption, contributing to an increased brilliancy of 
the streaks if they really result from volcanic ejecta. 

On the agencies capable of affecting the visibility of objects on the moon 
Mr. Pratt remarks :—‘ To my own mind the only likely agencies that can 
exist in the moon capable of affecting the visibility of objects are the every- 
where-denied lunar atmosphere and real volcanic activity; as far as I can 
learn, the observations of some fayour the one agency, while other observations 
do the same for the other, at the same time that different observers 
alternately deny the possible existence of either. Surely they are very 
closely related. If volcanic activity be established, can it exist without 
an atmosphere? While if a low atmosphere be established, would not the 
stronger objection to present volcanic activity be removed? The hope that 
persistent and minute observation of a suitable region might produce a 
result sufficient either to weaken or strengthen the supposition has been at 
once the impetus and bond which has induced me to give a large share of 
attention to Plato. We may not have attained such a result even yet; but 
possibly continued application may be rewarded. I hope so. The close 
study of typical species is generally the best method of acquiring a good 
knowledge of genera.” 

Mr. Pratt further adds: —*‘ The reverse of what I have here stated I have 
‘several times observed, viz. that the light streaks on those occasions were 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 91 


much brighter relatively to their best state than were the spots, of which 
generally at those times few have been discernible.” 

1870, May 13. Mr. Pratt has not only specified the order of brightness as 
follows :— 


Spots No.: 1. 4. 3. D: 17. 14. 22. 6. 13. 16. 

Visibility: 1:000 892 ‘897 -510 830 483 175 -222 +156 -294 
Spots No.: 20. 23. 18. 19. 29. 0. 24. 21, oO 10. 
Visibility: -046 046 072 ‘150 -036 046 ‘057 026 :222 -062 
Spots No.: 2. 25. 30. 31. 12. ike 

Visibility: 046 ‘144 +139 031 031 -113 


which we can compare with the degree of visibility for the 18 lunations as 
given immediately under the number of each spot (from this comparison we 
see that the brightness on May 13 was not strictly accordant with the 
visibility), but he has described the character of visibility by the words easy, 
conspicuous, &c., thus forming with the spots not seen eight classes of objects, 
an analysis of which may be interesting. 


Class I. contains one spot only, No. 1, deg. of vis, = 1-000, 
Pratt. Exceedingly bright and dense, 
Elger. Unusually bright. 
Gledhill. Bright spot. 

Class II. contains one spot only, No. 4, deg. of vis. = 
Pratt. Bright but hazy. 
Elger. No remark, 
Gledhill. Spot. 

Class ITI. contains one spot only, No. 3, deg. of vis. = +897. 
Pratt. Distinct; he inserts 5 between 3 and 17. 
Elger. 3 and 17 nearly equal. 
Gledhill. Bright spot. 


Class IV. contains four spots, viz. Nos. 17, 5, 14, 22,— 


No. Pratt. Elger. Gledhill. Vis. 
Ave Conspicuous. Nearly equal to 3. Bright spot. 830 
Very faint on east 
5. border of eastern Not seen. -510 
arm of * trident.” 

14. a Seen by glimpses. = 433 
22. a Not seen. 3 175 


Mr. Pratt observed the three components of the group 3, 30, 31: he 
described 30 and 31 as steadily seen; they occur in Class*VI. Mr. Pratt 
accorded to spot No. 22 a high degree of brightness on this evening, and 
described it as “ conspicuous:”’ neither Mr. Elger nor Mr. Gledhill detected 
it; this doubtless depended upon the state of our own atmosphere. It may, 
however, be remarked that the spot was less visible on May 13, 1870, as 
compared with its visibility in August 1869, when it was seen by every 
observer. 

The position of spot No. 5, as observed by Mr. Pratt on August 26, 1869, 
was on the west border of the eastern arm of the “ trident.” The spot No 5, 

_ discovered by Challis, and possessing a normal visibility of -510, has been so 
frequently observed as almost to warrant its stability of position; and should 
its relative position, as regards the eastern arm of the trident, be found to 

_ vary, it will afford evidence of a probable variation in the position of the 

arm. Schroter’s drawings of the Mare Crisium indicate similar movements 
of the streaks from Proclus over the Mare, 


92 REPORT—1871. 


Class V. contains eight spots, viz. Nos. 16, 6, 13, 19, 18, 20, 23, 29. 


No. Pratt. Elger. Gledhill. Vis. 
16. Easy. Easy. Not seen. "294 

6. + Not seen. a -222 
13. ” ” ” “156 
19. ” ” ” 150 
18. ” ” ” 072 
20. 53) ” ” “046 
23. ” ” eB) 046 
29. ” ” ” 036 


Of the spots in this class, and which Mr. Pratt describes as easy, one 
only, No. 16, was seen by Mr. Elger. This spot has a higher degree of 
visibility than 22 in Class IY., “ conspicuous ;” and this is perhaps another 
indication that the visibility of No. 22 on May 13 did not wholly depend 
upon the state of the earth’s atmosphere. 

The normal degrees of visibility in this class range from -294 to -036, 
furnishing a strong indication that they were seen in consequence of a fine 
state of the earth’s atmosphere. 


Class VI. contains five spots, viz. Nos. 9, 30, 24, 31, 21. 


No. Pratt. Elger. Gledhill. Vis. 

9. Minute. Not seen. Not seen. 222 
30. Steadily. ey 3 +139 
24. Bs Seen 3 or 4 times. ,, ‘057 
31. 55 Not seen. $5 “031 
21, ” ” ” 026 


The same remark may be applied to this class as to Class V., viz. that the 
spots were seen in consequence of a fine state of the earth’s atmosphere. 
The two spots Nos. 9 and 30, with comparative high degrees of visibility, 
are very frequently seen by Mr. Gledhill, and doubtless were not seen by 
him in consequence of the bad state of the atmosphere at Halifax. 


Class VII. contains six spots, viz. Nos. 25,7, 10, 2, 0, 12. 


No. Pratt. Elger. Gledhill. Vis. 
25. .. Frequently glimpsed. Not seen. ‘144 
ic ax NOt Seen. e “113 
1 yee 5s a 062 
2. Hazy. 55 a ‘046 
OS gees 5s as “046 
12. ; ; ‘031 


Spot No. 25, vis. *144,is frequently seen by Mr. Elger. 
In addition to the above, Mr. Elger frequently glimpsed No. 32. The 
WHOLE of the above spots, as well as the streaks recorded by Mr. Pratt, were 
observed three separate times at intervals of about twenty minutes. The 
majority was seen much oftener. 
The following spots were not seen on the evening of May 13 :— 
Spot: 11. 34. Si lbnia GBy. »2T.b 1t26) > QB aaa 
Vis.: 144 -026 -015 -015 -010 -010 -005 -005 -005 
With the exception of spot No. 11, which is frequently seen by Mr. 
Gledhill, these spots were doubtless concealed by or, rather, required a still 
finer state of the atmosphere to bring them out. It is difficult to say why 
Mr. Pratt did not detect spot No. 11 when he saw thirteen spots with lower 
degrees of visibility. It is one of those spots to which special attention 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 93 


should be directed. Of the remainder, three have been observed once only 
by Mr. Gledhill, viz. Nos. 26, 28, and 35; two have been observed twice, 
viz. Nos. 27 and 33; two thrice, both old spots, viz. 8 (Gruithuisen) and 15 
(Dawes); and one, No. 34, six times between January 15 and March 18, 1870*. 

In his letter dated 1870, May 19, Mr. Pratt says that “ spot No. 8 could 
not be recovered even with the most minute attention.” Of spot No. 1 he 
says, “it was brighter than I haye seen it before, guite round and dense, 
much like the image of a star on a good night surrounded by the very least 
trace of a ring of light. [Neither] internal nor external shadows could be 
seen, although I constantly expected a slight glimpse.” 


Spot No, 22. 


; In reference to this spot Mr. Pratt writes, under date 1870 August 26, as 
ollows :— 

*« Spot No. 22, according to my observations, has manifested a remarkable 
inerease of brightness, and those parts of the shaded portions of the floor of 
Plato which are nearest to the rim have come out more conspicuously darker 
than the rest than I remember to have previously noted. The tint of the 
floor, toe, has progressively paled. These three phenomena [the increased 
brightness of spot 22, the intensification of the darker parts of the floor near 
the rim, and the progressive paling of the floor] may possibly be connected 
by a common cause; for certainly in this lunation there is somewhat of a 
coincidence amongst them; for instance, spot 22 is intensely bright at the 
time the marginal portions of the shaded parts are most conspicuously dark, 
and these two, again, coincide with the time when the general tint of the 
floor is at its darkest. Again, after August 12 and 13, spot 22 decreased in 
relative intensity, although I am not ready to hazard the assertion that it 
had on August 16 positively declined to its usual intensity, as it was not 
seen. [It was on this evening that Mr. Pratt observed three spots only.] 
Two similar instances, I believe, I have noted before, when 22 manifested a 
singular brightness at sunrise. But the connexion between the visibility of 
the deeper-tinted margin and the general deepening of colour is perhaps more 
close still, as both certainly paled after August 13. The perplexity seems to 
be that the variation in intensity of the margin is relative in respect of the 
general colour ; and if differences of angles of illumination and vision do affect 
the general tint, it might be supposed that they would in the same manner 
affect the margin and so produce no relative variation of intensity.” 

In connexion with the relative intensity of which Mr. Pratt speaks, the 
state of the border is somewhat important. August 12 and 13, when the 
marginal portions of the floor were intensified in colour, Mr. Pratt recorded 
of the border :— Definition fair at times, with much tremor, wind N.E.” 
This was on the 12th. On the 13th the record is: “ Border, definition bad, 


* The history of spot No. 34 is curious ; the following are the only records which exist 
of it. The observations were all made by Mr. Gledhill with the Halifax 93-inch equatorial 
in the Observatory of Edward Crossley, Esq. 

1870, January 15, 10 to 13 hours. “I am continually thinking I see an object close to 
No. 1 and to the west of it.” 

February 11, 6.45. “No. 1 often comes out double ; last year I often saw it thus. Iam 
- now almost quite sure I see a minute object close to the west of it.” 

February 12, 6.0. “Saw 9, 11, 30, and object close west of No. 1.” 

March 12, 6 to 8 hours. No. 34 mentioned as having been seen. 

March 13, 6 to 12 hours. “Unless I am very much mistaken indeed 34 is an easy 
object, 7. e. No. 1 comes out easily double.” 

There are no records after this date. Instruments less than 9-inches aperture are not 
likely to redetect it. 


94 REPORT— 1871. 


much boiling, wind N.E.” On the 12th, definition fair, the floor was recorded 
as “very dark.” On the 13th it was dark, but not so much so as on the 
12th. On the 16th, as well as on the 15th, the definition of the border was 
“bad.” These records clearly throw a doubt upon the supposition of the 
“‘ paling” having resulted from some lunar action, inasmuch as when the 
deeper tint was observed the definition was “good,” the “tremor” and 
“boiling” having a tendency to confuse the portions of the floor, On the 
other hand, spots have been much more numerous with bad definition than 
3 as observed by Mr. Pratt on the 16th; and this would lead to the supposition 
that the apparent extinction of the spots with a pale floor was in some 
way differently connected than by a deteriorated state of the earth’s atmo- 
sphere. I have often observed that the passage of a thin cloud over the 
moon has greatly contributed to intensify the tints of the darker portions of 
the surface; but in this case the intensification has been general and not 
partial, as it would be if dependent upon local lunar action. 

Mr. Pratt records a case of partial obscuration which was well seen on 
August 13. “It appeared,” says Mr. Pratt, on this wise. A general view 
of the floor showed it much speckled and streaked in other parts ; but over 
the area specified [Mr. Pratt has not mentioned the particular part of the 
floor; but from what follows I apprehend it must be in the neighbourhood of 
No. 3] there seemed an absence of markings; close attention, however, 
enabled some to be seen, but not nearly so richly as the remainder of the 
floor, and we know well enough that that particular area is not wanting in 
markings. The evening’s view has just occurred to memory when I first 
discovered that spot 3 was a triple one, and had a remarkable view of its 
neighbourhood [Qy. Was this on May 13 ?], therefore exactly the reverse 
being the case. August 13 seems as conclusive a proof as one observer is 
likely to obtain in a year’s work.” 

Of four observers on the same evening, two record No. 38, and the other 
two appear not to have seen it. Taking them in chronological order, Neison, 
9.5 to 9.15, records it as distinct; Pratt, 10.30 to 12.30, did not observe 
it; Ormesher, 11.0 to 11.30, does not show it in his drawing; Gledhill, 
14", records it as a bright disk: he also records 30. As these observations 
are not contemporaneous, with the exception of Ormesher’s, haying been 
made while Pratt was observing, it appears, from its absence in both their 
records, that from 10.30 to 12.30 it was really not visible ; and this tends to 
support Mr. Pratt’s idea that for the time it was hidden by something like 
an obscuring medium. What this could have been it is difficult to surmise. 
The remark, however, of Neison that 30 was not to be seen between 9.5 
and 9.15 is interesting in connexion with Gledhill recording both spots at a 
later epoch, 14”, and also detecting five not seen by Pratt, viz. 3, 30, 9, 11, 
18. Neison suspected he saw 14, not recorded by Gledhill nor Pratt, but 
seen by Ormesher. Pratt saw 22, not seen by either of the others. The 
case of 14 is a little perplexing ; iit might, however, have been missed by 
Pratt on account of the bad definition. With regard to the greater number 
of spots seen by Gledhill, two circumstances may have contributed to this 
result, the larger aperture of Mr. Crossley’s instrument and the epoch at 
which Mr. Gledhill observed. It may possibly be found that the greater 
number of spots recorded after the sun’s meridian passage at Plato depend 
upon the. steadiness and purity of the air mostly experienced after midnight. 


Sunset and Sunrise on Plato. 
Extracts from Mr. Pratt’s notebook, 1870, Oct. 17, 11" to 12% Defini« 


7 


OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 95 


tion fair, with boiling. * « Plato is a grand and striking sight. Tint of 
floor medium. More than half the floor in shadow. Terminator just in- 
cluding the W. rim. The rim of the crater on the N. exterior slope finely 
seen. In three parts the rim appeared broken down to level of floor—close 
to m, opposite to c, and nearly so at W. II E¥? [the breaks at m and op- 
posite c are in the line of the well-known fault crossing Plato from N.W. 
to S.E.]. ¢ was throwing a long spire of shadow the full length of the 
floor at 11" 40". That part of the floor contiguous to the W. and 8.W. 
rim was deeply shaded, with streaks of shade running towards the centre of 
the floor. Between the break near c and the shadow of ¢ a straight shading 
as of a narrow valley was well seen. [These shadings appear to be roughly. 
coincident with the dark spaces on the floor as seen under high illumination, 
the straight shading being, as Mr. Pratt suggests, between the “sector” and 
the E. arm of the “trident.” Is there really a valley here running into 
the central depression between 1 and 4, seen by Mr. Elger in January, 1870, 
and observed much earlier by Schréter?] Between these shadings and the 
shadow of the K. rim were three roundish lighter regions, the higher parts of 
the floor giving the appearance of a strongly marked convexity.” 

** A strong suspicion arises that the apparently higher portions of the 
floor are the light streaks usually seen, and the highest parts are spots 1, 17: 
and 5.” Mr. Pratt further suggests that the light streaks are coincident 
with formations analogous to “spurs” from the chief centres of the residual. 
activity on the floor. 

{t is not a little remarkable that on the occasion of such a very favourable 
oblique illumination the craterlets 1 and 17 should not have been detected 
by Mr. Pratt; both have raised rims of the nature of true volcanic cones, 
and 1 has been seen, and I believe 17 also, with interior shadows and bright 
interiors facing the sun. Mr. Pratt does not appear to have seen even the 
remotest semblance of a shadow. The spots properly so called do not appear 
generally until the sun has attained an altitude of 20°. If craterlets are 
recorded as spots earlier, it is probably in consequence of bad definition 
confusing the crater-form appearance. Is it possible that on the two 
occasions mentioned by Mr. Pratt, Oct. 17 and Nov. 1, the craterlets 1, 17, 
3, and 4 were by some means concealed? As regards Nov. 1, the observation 
of the crater-cones as the shadows gradually recede from E. to W. is very 
frequent ; indeed the surface of Plato as it just emerges out of night appears 
to be in a very different state to what itis about mid-day ; objects are much 
sharper, and it is difficult to conceive of any agency so affecting such visible 
objects as to render them invisible at a time when they are generally most 
conspicuous. So far as contemporaneous observations are capable of throwing 
light on this phenomenon, three spots only were recorded on the same even-= 
ing; No. 1 by Mr. Elger, who noticed it from 9* to 9" 5™, near the shadow 
of the summit of the middle peak of the W. wall, three hours later than 
Mr. Pratt’s observation. Mr. Gledhill at 6", same as Mr. Pratt, says, “Moon 
so low and air so thick that very little light from moon can reach us;’’ he 
says also, “I see 3 as double elevated cones [?.e. 3 and 30]. No other objects 
can be seen.” Mr. Neison, 5.10 to 8.15 [probably 8.10 to 8.15] succeeded 
_in seeing 3 only, which he records as very faint. He does not give the state 
of the atmosphere as to definition ; but from his remarking that “ a deep cleft 
in west edge of wall was very distinctly seen,” I should suppose that it was 
pretty good. Taking the four sets of observations it would appear that at 
sunrise on Plato Nov. 1, 1870, some agency was in operation capable of 
concealing the craterlets; and combining these observations with those of 


96 REPORT—1871. 


Oct. 17, it would also appear that the same agency was in operation at the 
time of the previous sunset. 

1870, Nov. 1, 6" to 6" 40". “A grand view again. Definition fair at 
times. The margin of the eastern end of the floor very distinctly shaded, 
showing that end to be convex as well as the western. This shading did not 
conform to the general form of rim, but ran inwards (as shown in the 
sketch); and three places on the floor were much brighter than the rest, 
which was free from shading (their localities I have no doubt are those of 
spots 3, 4, and 17), while the next bright parts of the floor are suggestive 
of the light streaks; and the shading or lower part coinciding with the 
narrowing of the streak between 4 and 3 as seen under higher illumination 
in a measure supports the impression.” 

The dip of the floor towards the border, as mentioned by Mr. Pratt, is 
now well established by numerous observations, also the comparatively 
greater elevation in the neighbourhood of the fault crossing Plato from 
N.W. to S.E. These characteristics will probably afford some clue towards 
framing a theory of the formation of the plain and rampart. Starting with 
the now acknowledged principle that the moon manifests on a large scale the 
operation of volcanic forces, we may first inquire as to their modus operandi 
in the forms we observe. So far as we know, volcanos and earthquakes are 
closely connected, and there is great reason to believe that both are the 
results of expansion occasioned by the intumescence of material beneath the 


Fig. 8. 
A c B 


crust or surface. It was, I believe, Scrope who first called attention to the 
effect of the expansion of an intumescent mass elevating the superincumbent 
material; and Hopkins, twenty-two years later, clearly showed that when 
the surface was elevated to the point at which the tension and cohesion just 
balanced each other, the slightest increase of tension ruptured the surface 
and produced fissures, which might be considerably augmented by earthquake- 
waves accompanied by the sudden subsidence of the tract between two 
principal lines of fissures. In applying this reasoning to the explanation of 
the formation of “ Plato,” the remarks of Scrope are so much to the point 
that a transcription of them is essential to the due apprehension of the 
forces concerned. 

In chapter x. of his ‘Considerations of Volcanos,’ p. 205 (1825), Serope, 
speaking of M. de Buch’s opinion that the intumescence and rise of the 
basalt elevated the superincumbent strata, says: “TI differ from him, inas- 
much as I conceive the intumescence and rise of the basalt to be not 
the cause but the result of the elevation of the overlying strata. 

“A general fact, noticed by M. de Buch himself, proves this most 
thoroughly, viz. that wherever the basalt appears, the strata are invariably 
found dipping towards it, which is wholly inexplicable under the idea that 
the basalt eleyated them. . .. If, however, we suppose the expansion of 
the subterranean bed of crystalline rock to have taken place at a great depth, 
elevating the overlying strata irregularly along the line of yarious fissures, 


- 


THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS. 97 


as for example at A and B (fig. 8), it is clear such fissures will open outwardly ; 
but in the interval of two such fissures, as at C, another must be found opening, 
on the contrary, downwards, that is, towards the confined and heated lava, 
which in consequence must intumesce and fill the space afforded to it, and 
perhaps force its way through some minor cleft upon the external surface of 
the elevated rocks.” 

Plato we know to be a large cavity in an elevated region, between the 
Mare Imbrium and the Mare Frigoris, connected with the mountain-studded 
region of the Alps on the west, and descending with a precipitous slope 
towards the east. The whole of the surface around Plato is exceedingly 
rugged, containing at least the remains of three craters of more ancient date. 
It is the floor of Plato only that presents any appearance of a recent character ; 
and even this when viewed by very oblique light is far from being level. 
The sketch (fig. 8) to which reference has already been made is intended to con- 
vey some idea of the successive steps by which it is probable that Plato has 
arrived at its present form. It is roughly drawn to scale, which is somewhat 
too small, and, consequently, the height of the rim rather exaggerated; the 
extent being 316,800 English feet, the height, under 4000 feet (7. e. of the 
rim exclusive of the four pinnacles), will be nearly J;th part. The letters 
A and B are placed over the supposed foci of expansion, the arrows indi- 
eating the direction of the elevating movements, the dotted line showing the 
extreme height to which the surface could be raised without fracture. Over 
A and B, and above C, are placedthe three main fissures resulting from the in- 
creased tension and the general breaking up of the elevated mass, and which 
might have been accompanied with an almost immediate subsidence, as sug- 
gested by Hopkins, Report Brit. Assoc. 1847, p. 64, in the following passage :— 
“Tf the intumescence of the subjacent fluid, and consequently its supporting 
power, were immediately afterwards diminished by the escape of elastic 
vapours, there would be an immediate subsidence.” Such a subsidence, or 
rather a succession of subsidences, would fully account for the formation of 
the floors of most craters; and the upwelling of lava from numerous small 
orifices would tend to produce such a floor as we observe on Plato. The 
section presents all the characteristics of the walled plain under considera- 
tion, the dip towards the border being strongly indicative of the main line of 
fissure opening outwardly at the foot of the rampart. It may be well to 
mention that no new principle is introduced in this explanation, which is 
based upon the views of two leading geologists, after comparing them with 
phenomena that have been assiduously and repeatedly observed. 


Second Provisional Report on the Thermal Conductivity of Metals. 
By Prof. Tarr, 


Suxce the date of the former Report the Committee have obtained a splendid 
set of Kew standard thermometers. With these, complete sets of observa- 
tions, at very different temperatures, have been made on iron, two specimens 
of copper, lead, german silver, and gas-coke. As great difficulty was found 
in keeping the source of heat at a constant high temperature in the statical 
experiments, they were repeated from day to day till satisfactory results 
were obtained. But a simple and ingenious device of Dr. Crum Brown (con- 
sisting in making the descending counterpoise of a small gas-holder nip an 
india-rubber tube) supplied so very great an improvement in steadiness of 
ai that it was considered advisable to repeat all the statical expe- 
ie H 


98 REPORT—1871. 


riments with this modification. This has accordingly been done, during the 
present summer, but it has not yet been possible to perform the large amount 
of calculation necessary to obtain final results. It may be stated, however, 
that the results as a whole will not differ very considerably from those for- 
merly obtained, so far, at least, as can be judged from a comparison of the 
graphic representations of the experiments. 


Report on the Rainfall of the British Isles, by a Committee, consisting 
of C. Brooxs, F.R.S. (Chairman), J. GuatsHer, F.R.S., Prof. 
Puiuutps, F.R.S., J. F. Bateman, C.H., F.R.S., R. W. Myint, 
C.E., F.R.S., 'T. Hawxstey, C.E., Prof. J. C. Avams, F.R.S., C. 
Tomuinson, F.R.S., Prof. Sytvester, F.R.S., Dr. Pots, F.R.S., 
Rocers Fie.p, C.E., and G. J. Symons, Secretary. 


Your Committee have much pleasure in reporting that the organization 
under their supervision is believed to be in a generally efficient state. With 
a staff of observers, numbering nearly two thousand, spread over the whole 
extent of the British Isles, there can, however, be no question that, to ensure 
perfect efficiency and uniformity of observation, a systematic inspection of 
stations is absolutely necessary. In a paper read before the Society of Arts 
in 1858, Mr. Bailey Denton appears to have considered that there should be 
one inspector to about each 200 stations; at that rate we ought to have ten. 
The Meteorological Committee of the Royal Society have made it a rule to 
have all their stations inspected each year. On the most moderate com- 
putation it is indisputable that at least one inspector of stations is required 
for our large body of observers, the whole of whose time should be devoted 
to travelling. 

Ever since their appointment your Committee have felt and acted upon 
this conviction; but want of funds has prevented them from employing a 
regular inspector, and obliged them to rely solely upon the unpaid services of 
their Secretary. Even under these adverse conditions considerable progress 
has been made with the work, and upwards of 400 gauges had been visited 
and examined previous to the Liverpool Meeting. At that Meeting, how- 
ever, the Association only granted half the sum for which we asked, and we 
have consequently (most reluctantly) been obliged to stop this important 
and useful work. 

As an interim measure, and with a view to ascertaining in what districts 
inspection is most requisite, it has been suggested that a schedule of ques- 
tions as to the positions of their rain-gauges should be sent to every observer. 
The Committee unanimously approved of the suggestion, and annex a copy of 
the Circular and Schedule they are about to issue. 

British Association Rainfall Committee, 
62 Camden Square, London, N.W. 

Srr,—The above Committee feel that it is most important that precise in- 
formation as to the position of all the rain-gauges in the British Isles should 
be promptly obtained. They are aware that under present circumstances it 
is impossible that each gauge should be personally inspected, and have there- 
fore instructed me to ask you to fill up the accompanying form, which I 
shall be obliged by your returning as soon as possible. 

As an indication of the kind of information which the Committee desire 
to collect, I have filled up one form for my own gauge; but there are of 
course many subjects not touched upon in the specimen which will be ac- 


i i en ee ee a a 


ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 99 


ceptable in others, such as distance from the sea and from lofty hills, as 
well as their direction, &c. 

The Committee will also be glad of any suggestions as to the conduct of 
rainfall work, and of information respecting any stations or old observations 
not included in the list published by them in 1866, and of which I shall be 
happy to send you a copy if you have not already received one. 

Yours very truly, 
G. J. Symons, Secretary. 


[Illustration of mode of filling up return. ] 


POSITION AND PARTICULARS OF THE RAIN-GAUGE 


At [Camden Square, London, | 
In the County of [Middlesex. ] 


Year in which observations were first made (1858. ] 

Hour of observation [9a.m.] If entered against the day of observation, or 
the one preceding {Preceding}. 

Position [In garden, 120 ft. by 24 ft. | 

Surrounding objects, their distances and heights :— 


Distance. Height. 
N. [Wall a peat lne 5 ft.] 
N.E. {House .. 92 ft. 40 ft. ] 
E. [Wall .» 215, ft. 5 ft.] 
S.E. [Wall eg ire 5 ft.] 
S. [Wall ee A 5 ft. ] 
S.W. [Summer House .. 24 ft. 7 ft.] 
W.  [Raspberry-bushes does 'O She 3 ft. | 
N.W.[ Wall 12 ft. 5 ft.] 
Inclination of ground [Quite level, but in N. E. rises 30 ft. in ; mile.] 
Height of Ground above sea-level [111] ft. as determined by [Level ling from 


Ordnance Bench-mark]. 

Height of top of gauge above ground [0] ft. [6] in. 

Pattern of gauge. (If similar to any on plate, quote the number; if not, 
give sketch.) [Similar to No. X., but the bent tube is made straight, 
and a jar inserted for the purpose of ensuring more accurate mea- 
surement. | 

Have the same gauge and measuring-glass been used throughout? ([No.] 

Has the gauge always been in the same position? [No.] 

the previous position [800 yards further west. | 

If not, state briefly < the reason for the alteration [Growth of trees. ] 

the supposed effect [None perceptible. ] 


REMARKS, 
[Measuring-glass broken in 1861, and a new tested one obtained, the 
rainfall of each day until its arrival being bottled separately, and mea- 
sured by the new glass. | Signed, [G. J. SYMONS. ] 


_ Another branch of investigation which has been arrested by the same 

cause is the relative amount of rain falling in different months, or, as we have 

usually termed it, the ‘‘ monthly percentage of mean annual rainfall.” Several 

articles upon the subject have appeared in our previous Reports; and last 

year we pointed out that the observations for the decade 1860-69 offured 

data of completeness unparalleled, either in this or any other country, the 
2 


100 REPORT—1871. 


result of which we had hoped to have submitted to the present Meeting. 
Excepting in our own Reports, we are not aware that the seasonal distribu- 
tion of rain in this country has received any attention, while on the Con- 
tinent it has at all times been looked upon as almost equally important with ~ 
the gross amount. 

Although several short and interrupted sets of observations have been 
made in Northern Derbyshire, the rainfall of that hilly district has not 
hitherto been examined with the thoroughness which its importance deserves. 
We have in previous Reports urged the desirability of several additional 
stations being established ; and as no one else undertook the work our Secre- 
tary did so, and by the assistance of the observer at Buxton, and Mr. 
Hazlewood, of Castleton, was enabled to commence several sets of rain- 
gauge observations in the district. Some others are still required, which, if 
our funds permit, we intend to add. 

Pit-gauges.—In our last Report we drew attention to the fact that a gauge 
of which the orifice was horizontal, level with the ground, but in a small pit 
or excavation, had at Calne collected about 5 per cent. more than one of which 
the receiving surface was one foot above the ground; whence it followed 
that as a great many rain-gauges (the majority in fact) are placed with their 
apertures a foot above the surface, the records of all these gauges were 
below what they would have been if placed in pits as just described. We 
gave some reasons which appeared to us to prevent the general use of pit- 
gauges, and added the following concluding remark on page 176 :— 

“This result appears so startling that further experiments will be con- 
ducted on the subject.” 

The funds at our disposal have not allowed us to do so; but fortunately the 
Rey. F. W. Stow, M.A., has tried one pair of gauges mounted in this manner 
at Hawsker, on the Yorkshire coast, a few miles south of Whitby. The 
following are the results during 1870 :— 


Tastz I.—Experiments with Pit-gauges. 


Hawsker, 1870. Brit.Assoc. Report, 1869-70. 

Months. cae Rei aes rea Ratio. cept % Difference. 
January ....| 1:°610 ner irae) 110 113 — 3 
February....| 1:995 2-300 115 109 + 6 
MisiiG hs os pa 1-052 1-293 123 107 +16 
2. a enaer 0-370 0-390 105 105 0 
be a Minch sas Sieg eee 3 
sine gas 2-650 2-705 102 102 0 
ealiy’ 7 Siceoc te te 0-920 0-977 106 103 + 3 
August ....| 1:887 1-908 101 103 — 2 
September ..| 0°845 0-934 110 103 7 
October ....| 5°000 5053 101 102 = 1 
November ..| 3°043 3°234 106 106 0 
December ..| 5°230 6-420 123 108 +15 
Wotals i aca 24-602 | 26:984 
Means...... pays & egy 109°3 105-5 + 38 


ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 101 


Of course it was not to be expected that the results of a single year should 
agree exactly with the mean of two other years, still less when the size of 
gauge used was different, and the locality so opposite as the inland district 
of Calne and the rock-bound Yorkshire coast. We therefore look upon it as 
satisfactory that in only four months out of eleven do the ratios at Calne and 
Hawsker differ more than 3 per cent. In April, June, and November they 
are identical. The Calne results are thus strongly confirmed ; and it may be 
considered as certain that pit-gauges always exceed those at one foot, 
although the precise amount of excess remains to be determined. 

In our last Report we expressed the hope that we should this year be able 
to state the result of the discussion of all the rainfall registers which were 
absolutely continuous from January 1, 1860, to December 31, 1869. We 
have the pleasure of doing so in two respects, viz. (1) with reference to their 
bearing on the question of the existence or otherwise of secular variation of 
rainfall in the British Isles, and (2) as data indicative of the distribution of 
rain over the country. 

The secular variation of rainfall, or the relative dryness and wetness of 
different years and groups of years, is one of the most important and difficult 
branches of rainfall work. It has been treated in our Reports for 1865, and 
very fully in that for 1866. In the latter we gave the calculations in detail, 
from which the values shown on the accompanying diagram were obtained. 
Referring to that Report for full explanation, we have only now to mention 
that the subsequent years 1866 to 1869 have been computed in the same 
manner and added to the diagram (fig. 1). We may also remark that various 
observations collected since its publication have confirmed the general accuracy 
of the curve quite as much as could have been anticipated, On the present 
occasion we do not intend to discuss the relative rainfall of different years, but 
the relation of the fall during the ten years 1860-69 to previous decades. 
For this purpose we have grouped the yearly values in decennial periods, 
similar to those adopted in our 1867 Report, whence we obtain the following 
result :— 


Taste II.—Ratio of Rainfall in each ten years since 1730 to the Mean of 
sixty Years, 1810-69. 


Period. Ratio. Period. Ratio. 
1730-39 89-9 1800-09 88-2 
1740-49 70:6 1810-19 98:6 
1750-59 85:5 1820-29 103°2 
1760-69 91-1 1830-39 101-4 
1770-79 103-5 1840-49 102°6 
1780-89 93°5 1850-59 95:2 
1790-99 96°5 1860-69 101-5 


Having previously pointed out the peculiarities of the earlier portion of 
the curve, it is only necessary on the present occasion to call attention to the 
last forty years, whence it will be seen that, according to this mode of inves- 
tigation (which is principally based on English returns), three out of the four 
decades had a rainfall nearly identical, and the other (1850-59) considerably 
_below them, the deficiency being nearly 7 per cent. 

This result is based on a combination of records, as fully explained in our 
1866 Report. We proceed to examine how far it is corroborated by individual 
stations, but are at once confronted by the paucity of stations of which per- 
fectly continuous records for even half a century exist. We therefore con- 
fine ourselves to the forty years, from 1830 to 1869, for which period we 


1871. 
jo “gue0 Log 


‘TROT 


REPORT 


“R-N9RT *A-NCRT *6-0F8T *6-088T | *6-028T | “6-OT8T | “6-008T | *6-06LT | *6-08LT | “6-OLLT “6-09LT | *6-09LT | “B-OFLT “B-OSLT “6-9 LET | 


*uBaTYy TO “4M99 197 


| “6-098T 


102 


‘698 ‘A’V OL 96L4T ‘AV WOU 
‘NIYE@ ocOsTLY & SEIN T SNOTILVO LOA Te 


[Sy 


ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 103 


have twelve perfect records at widely separated stations. The mean fall in 
each decade and in the whole period, and the ratio of each decade to the 
whole period at each station, is given in Table III. 


1840-9. 


ee 

oO}  F* OF Jet 
wo Be CO NN 
| 


From careful examination of Table III., it appears that the amount of 
rain which fell in the ten years 1830-39 was very similar to that which 
fell in the ten following years, the difference being a decrease, but scarcely 
one per cent. The investigation in our 1866 Report shows an increase of 
1-2 per cent. ; and examination of returns ceasing in 1850, and therefore not 
quoted in either Report, show several cases of absolute identity. 

With one investigation leading to a decrease of 1 per cent., another to an 
increase of the same amount, and a third to identity, we are led to the con- 
clusion that the two decades may be considered to show similar results. 
This is a much more important fact than it at first appears; and for this 


Taste I1J.—Comparison of the Rainfall in each Decade since 1829 with 
the Mean Rainfall of forty years, ending with 1869. 


Mean Rainfall in each 10 years. Mean 
Station. Rainfall, 
1830-39. | 1840-49. | 1850-59. | 1860-69. | 1830-69. 
in. in. in. in. in. 
Epping ..... 25:84 26:99 23:18 24-13 25-04. 
Exeter Institution | 28-92 29°35 26-91 31-76 29°24 | 
Tavistock ...... 52°81 54-27 49:18 53°17 52°36 | 
iE live: ln 34°51 31:88 30°71 33°31 | 32-60 
Kendal os... 56°22 51:18 44-9] 53°32 51-41 | 
Point of Ayre....| 28:26 | 28:20 | 29-01 | 30-61 | 29-02 | 
Rhinns of Islay ..| 34:07 33°79 30°58 33:43 | 32:97 | 
Isle of May...... 21-96 20-94 15:21 20-48 19°65 | 
Buchanness...... 26-40 26°84 23-40 25°59 | 25°56 
Kinnairdhead ....| 19°66 22-01 22-05 24:17 | 21-97 
Island Glass ....| 33°23 34:98 31-92 81:13 | 32°81 
Start Point...... 27-39 25-05 93°77 31:37 | 26°89 
Mea TIS§ 1:20. beic.e ase 32:44 aya be 29-24 32°71 31:63 
Ratio of Means ..| 102°6 101-6 92-5 103-4 


104 REPORT—1871., 


Taste IIT. (continued). 


| 
Ratio of Rainfall in each 10 years’ to 40 | 
Station. years’ Mean. | 
1830-39. | 1840-49, | 1850-59. | 1860-69. | 
| Bp pune eee 103 —-||)=—«:108 93) a) oo 
| Exeter Institution} 99 | 100 92 109 
| Tavistock ...... LOR 3 204 94 101 
Halifaw: 5400s: 106 | 98 94 102 
Kendal ii... = 109 | 100 87 104 
Point of Ayre.... 97 97 100 106 
| Rhinns of Islay ..| 103 102 93 102 
| Isle of May ....| 112 107 78 103 
Buchanness...... 103 105 92 100 
Kannairdhead.... 90 100 100 110 
Island Glass ....| 101 107 97 oe | 
Start Point...... 102 |= 93 88 Laie | 
| | 
Mean Ratios....| 102-2 101°8 92:3 103°7 
| 


reason: while there are only about a dozen registers complete for the four 
decades, there are thirty-eight which are complete for the last three decades. 
Now that we have found the relation between the first two decades, the re- 
turns for the thirty years are rendered almost as instructive as those for 
forty years. 


Fig. 3. 
ne Dp, 1871 Report. 1871 Report. 
1866 Report, England. All stations. 


1840-9. 1850-9. 1860-9, | 1840-9. 1850-9. 1860-9. | 1840-9. 1850-9, 1860-9. 


3 100 
: oP 


We have therefore compiled Table IV., which differs from Table III. only 
in its being for thirty years instead of forty, and in giving observations from 
thirty-eight stations instead of twelve. 


ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 


105 


| Tanen TY.—Comparison of the Rainfall in each Decade since 1839 with the mean 
; Rainfall of thirty years ending 1869. 


4 : ; Mean | Ratio of Rainfall in 
i Mean ae in each) Rain- each decade to 30 
Division., County. Station. Ae pal fall. years Mean, 
b 1840-49, '1850-59, |1860-69. |1840-69, |1840-49. 1850-59, |1860-69. 
7 in, in, in. in. 
II. | Sussex ......... Chichester Infirmary ...! 29°10 | 26°67 | 29°03 28°27 | 103 94 | 103 
” a podereens + (Chilgrove)...| 33°41] 32°23] 33°22 32°95 | 101 98 | tor 
Be | lertah iss J..2-%: Hemel Hempstead ......! 25°86 | 26°43] 26°39| 2623] 99 | ror | 100 
Ne HSOX oo... Pp pings oy. ckssase ees 26°99} 23°18| 24°13| 24:77] 109 94 97 
” Nortollc,  ...... Diss (Dickleburgh)...... 25°05 | 22°31| 22'22| 23:19] 108 96 96 
Ae Wilts -..| Salisbury (Baverstock) | 31°09 | 28°69| 30°25 3o°or | 104 96 100 
” Devon. ..s:2:2:: Tavistock (West St.) ...] 54°27] 49°18] 53°17] 52:21] 104 94 | 102 
” «Baar Exeter Institution ...... 29°35 | 26°91 | 31°76] 29°34 100 92 | 108 
” 2 CaeRERERe Honiton(Broadhembury)| 35°14} 32°75 | 34°56| 34:15 | 103 96 | 101 
VI. | Worcester ...| Tenbury (Orleton) ...... 28°41 | 28°82] 30°90) 29°38| 97 98 | 105 
VII. | Nottingham...| Welbeck ............... +e-| 25°44] 23°29] 24°64] 24°46] 104 95 | Ior 
VUI. | Lancashire ...| Bolton (The Folds).....) 46:46| 44:01 48°98 | 46:48 | 100 95 | 105 
IX. | Yorkshire ...| Redmires .............066.. 40°75 | 37°86| 39°68) 39:43] 103 96 | 101 
” ” ---| Halifax (Well Head) ...! 31°88) 30°71| 33°31] 31°97| 100 96 | 104 
” s REAPS CULLO UE  sueawasiaganaaier wilce 43°41 | 35°51! 41°35] 4o°og| 108 89 103 
” ” Beall VOR caine ecororenecceber 25°42 | 22°02| 24°48] 23°97] 106 92 102 
X. Durham ...... Bishopwearmouth ......! 19°94} 16°91 | 20°25] 19°03| 105 89 | 106 
» Westmoreland] Kendal...............s00s »-| 52°18] 44°gI |. 53°32 | 49°80| 103 go | 107 
XI. | Isle of Man ...| Point of Ayre...........| 28:20 29:01] 30°61 29'27| 96 99 | 105 
XII. | Wigtown ...... Mull of Galloway, L.H.| 20°67| 22°52 | 27°66| 23°62] 88 95 117 
XIII. | Haddington...) Haddington.....2......... 23°77| 24°35 | 25°63| 24°58| 97 99 | 104 
” Edinburgh ...| Inveresk ............0.000. 25°81 | 24°72| 29°02| 26°52] 97 93 110 
EVA ABUL... 20260550: Bladda ThA css.esceseac 40°02 | 35°23] 40°14] 38°46| 104 gz | 104 
” 1 Mull of Cantire, L.H. | 45°76} 41°19} 44°17] 43°71 | 105 94 | Ior 
” So» wer xepeedar Rhinns of Islay, L.H. | 33°79} 30°58| 33°43] 32°60] 104 94 | 102 
BEV L WPRICE TE Ji... 0c ce Isle of May, L.H. ......| 20°94 15°21} 20°48] 18°88] 411 81 | 108 
” Bente ...5. 80) MeanstOns <A educated’ 35°74] 39°21 | 43°99] 39°65} 90 99 | 111 
XVII. | Kincardine ...| Girdleness, L.H.......... 23°14 19°71| 22°72| 21°86| 106 go | 104 
Aberdeen ...... Buchanness, L.H. ...... 26°84.) 23°40| 25°59| 25'28| 106 93 | 101 
Rd cece Kinnairdhead, L.H. ...| 22°01 | 22°05 | 24°17! 22°74] 97 97 | 106 
p ERRORS oe. ok: ce --| Island Glass, L.H........ 34°98 | 31°92] 31°13 | 32°68} 107 98 95 
Maso scksh Barrahead, L.H.......... 31°60 | 32°67] 31°73] 32°00] 99 | 102 99 
Sutherland ...) Cape Wrath, L.H. ...... 38°86 | 36°94! 39°37| 38°39| 108 96 | 103 
Caithness ......! Dunnethead, L.H. ...... 27°39 | 22°09] 25°40| 24°96| 110 88 | 102 
Orkney......... Start Point, L.H. ...... 25°05 | 23°77) 31°37| 26°73| 94 89 117 
Pe Shetland ...... Sumburghhead, L.H. ...| 25°43 | 25°22] 2645] 25°70| 99 98 | 103 
XXII, | Dublin......... Black Rock ............... 23°20 | 21°78] 27°10| 24°03} . 96 gI | 113 
(XXII. | Antrim.........! Belfast Linen Hall...... 29°44.| 30°01 | 36°77} 32°07| 92 94 | 114 
Abstract of Tasre IV. 
England and Wales, 19 stations ...,., oBeccngaenou chs 33°23 | 30°60 | 33°28 | 32°37 | 102°8 | 94°7 | 102°5 
otlAnG aU StALIONS. G00, ...ccc..cade-eedpeousneae ses-| 29°52 | 27°69 | 30°73 | 29°31 | 100°9 | 94°0 | 105°1 
Ireland, 2 stations ................00 Ae Bea see sone 26°32 | 25°90 | 31°93 | 28°05 | 94°0 | 92°5 | 113°5 
MMeanirOt tite"above 2.1.5. ..6.c.sceececcecsecsgesdacets 29°69 | 28°06 | 31°98 | 29°91 | 99°2 | 93°7 | 107°0 
BRUNOL SS/StAGIONS ...c.0seesccceeecssserongeassvess 31°21 | 29°05 | 32°07 | 30°78 | 1Q1'5 | 9473 | 104°2 


From the above Table the remarkable similarity of the results obtained 


by the two dissimilar modes of investigation is rendered so obvious that it 


106 REPORT—1871. 

is unnecessary to dwell further upon it. We now proceed to the second 
part of our investigation, namely, to consider the distribution of the rain- 
fall of the last decade, during which we have nearly four hundred perfect 
sets of observations. As each set of observations comprises more than a 
thousand entries, and the following Table contains the result of nearly half a 
million observations, it is probable that it contains some slight percentage of 
error, but we have no suspicion of the existence of any which appreciably 
affect the results. 

The head-lines of the following Table sufficiently explain its contents. 


Taste V.—Mean Rainfall at 325 Stations during the ten years 1860-69. 


Height of Rain-gauge.| yyoan 
County. Station. gecaar = 
ground. aes 1860-69" 
ft. in. feet. inches. 
Drvisron I. 
Middlesex .:|\Camden:Town: . .. 2.665041 O» Gra) eetkO0 25-681 
Drvisron II. 
Surrey: .0; ++. Weybridge Heath ........ OG 150 | 25°051 
ea ee ee es Croydon (Tanfield Lodge) ..| 0 8 155 )926:383 
Ee See es »  (Waldronhurst)....| 35 0 237 =| 24:388 
See 2 Ses Winbledom’. 23.035 05 3% 3.0 160 | 23-476 
_ .| Kew Observatory ........ 1 3 19 | 23-282 
Kentss <5..15- - 9s Hythe (Horton Park)...... 1 4 350 | 32°677 
ME Sede s 02 PPOTIBTIG RON yeas, «aqautendioss. suajers 10 71 | 28-258 
epee. cs OETES Maidstone (Linton Park) 0...8 296 | 27-559 
An bas ee eck ss (Hunton Court)..| 0 6 80 | 25:998 
BUssex.s. 5, : West Thorney [Emsworth]..| 0 8 10? | 26°875 
os tox SAE (Chichester Museum ...... 0 6 50 | 29-026 
3) 0% Sees a (Shopwyke) «| 112 61 | 29-194 
5 "Ds ae eee a (West Dean)....| 1 6 250 | 37-082 
Pigme2 2 9» (Chilgrove)...... 0 6 284 | 33-224 
<5 Se + eee Arundel (Dale Park)...... 3.5 316 | 33-732 
9) 1 See Hastings (High Wickham)..| 2 0 212 | 26-373 
gp 92 . Seaiee Maresfield Rectory........ 1 3 250 | 32-199 
PREPS «GR Ne cS (Forest Lodge) ..| 1 2 259 | 31-479 
Hampshire ....| Isle of Wight (Osborne) 0 8 172 | 30-725 | 
Ps ..| Fareham (North Brook)....| 0 2 26? | 33-906 | 
> 2g) Petersfield (Tiss) ......-. ae | Seas 38-033 
- ..|Selborne (The Wakes) 4 0 400 | 34-427 
3 Pus PA SYAEBL ORR 15 ee ses « 30 325 | 27-036 
Berkshire ....| Reading (Englefield) ...... +0 190 | 25-726 
2 ....|Long Wittenham ........ I-20 170 | 27-379 
Diviston III. 
Herts «vile «; her Bayfordbary,| << 0s dessnes 0 4 250 =| 25-011 
Ro ehicehts ceareierels St. Albans (Gorhambury) ..| 2 9 eb 27:849 | 


ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 


Taste V. (continued), 


County. 


| 


| Drviston III. 
| (continued). 
Herts 


eee ee ee 


se ee ewe 


ae 


a a | 


Cambridge Sar s| 


| ” 
| 


Drviston LY. 


oe ee ewes 


oy) AIO SSeS 


Divisron VY. 
Wiltshire. 


-| Althorp House 
.| Wellingborough .......... 


Station. 


HemelHempstead( Nash Mills) 
Tring (Cowroast) 
Hitchin 
Royston 
High Wycomb 
Radcliffe Observatory...... 
Banbury (High Street) .... 


ee eee eee 
6 8 he wires aye) 6) og See a 
ee 


at ef Sierisuel iv, < epre 


Kimbolton (Hamerton) .. 
Cardington 


99 ee 
ee 


Ely ( ‘Stretham) 


eLeiw ¢, mie 6 a) ee 


@ «1 Wisbeach (Harecroft House) 


Bigpiie +. sie acee cece eee 
Dainty s,s Fe 2 APPEL 
Braintree (Bocking) 
Saffron Walden (Ashdon) .. 
Hadleigh (Aldham) ; 
Bury St. Ed. (Abbeygate) . 
» (Westley) 
» (Barton Hall) 
sp ACMUEOEE) 5. «i Seenehs 
Diss (Dickleburgh)........ 
Downham Market (Outwell) 
a” », (Fincham) 
Norwich Institution 
¥ (Cossey) 
(Honingham Hall) 
Fakenham (Bamere) «fps 
Balkhary,.. sta otiearotuetades 


ey 


see eae 


ee 


eee eee 


ed 


ee D 


Baverstock . 10.0deees eon 


Salisbury Plain (Chiltern Ho.) 
Swindon (Penhill) 


ee eee wae 


Above 


ground. 


ft. int 


DHORDOLKWKhLODWOALRNO 


[s) 
WMOOTMRDOCOCSOSANOSCOBRBSOBSCAS 


3 0 
4 0 
0 10 


Height of Rain-gauge. 


Above sea. 


feet. 


250 
395 
238 
266 
225 
207 
350 
310 


170 


106 
109 
142 


ae 


360 
20? 
234 
200 
300 


"940? 


216? 
145? 
84? 
120 
16 
100 
53 


88 


150 
39 
43 
60 


300 


380? 


107 


Mean 
Annual 
Rainfall, 


1860-69. 


inches. 


26°388 
27:594 
23°922 
23°569 
25°705 
26°129 
26222 
23°349 
24-092 
23°132 
22-487 
21-760 
18-170 
20-609 
24-037 


24-132 
20-466 
22-750 
23-984 
23-056 
25°469 
23°962 
23°522 
23-680 
24°835 
22°223 
22:637 
23°139 
227169 
24:035 
23°975 
25:097 
23-875 
23°232 
19°559 | 


30-247 
29-279 
28-592 


108 


County. 


| Drviston V. 
(continued). 


Worcester .. 


9 


REPORT—1871. 


TBE V. (continued). 


Morset:.. <> «ac 
\ Devon's .. os 


a ee a 
ee 


WE mise her's < ofa 
Somerset ..... 


Dryiston VI. 


Gloucester .... 


_..| Clifton (South Parade) . . 
. .| Gloucester (Quedgeley) .... 
.| Cirencester (Further Barton) 


.| Burford [Tenbury]........ 
...-| Ludlow (Knowbury) ...... 
....| Shiffnal (Haughton Hall) . 

ia] SUPEWIAUEY eos! so! oe sees’! 
..| Oswestry (Hengoed) 
:| Northwick Park .......... 
.| Worcester (Lark Hill) 


Height of Rain-gauge. 


Station. 


Above 

ground. 

ft. in. 

Bela Poet or sh aon ous «pile < 0.3 
Plymouth (Saltram) ...... 0 3 
(Harm) "2 ,°°. So: a0 

Plympton StMary(Ridgeway)| 0 6 
Tavistock (Library) ...... 20: °G 
x (West Street)....| 4 6 
Rover Piaesy: 2.50 ete A Me 
Coryton Lew Down ...... 6 0 
Exeter Institution ........ i cum fs 
Cullompton (Clyst Hydon)..| 1 0 
(Bradninch) Fen 

Honiton (Broadhembury) . i a 
South Molton (Castle Hill)... 3.5 
Barnanapfe’ joss a hi oe itty 0 6 
teistieia heh sts ot te tS 5 0 
Pepzanee™ <.ics Agee oe oa 
Redruth (Tehidy Park) ....) 0 6 
Truro (Royal Institution) ..| 40 0 
gp  MCPererh) . .. . «25 se0s 1 
Bodmin (Castle Street) ....| 2 6 
pre(OVarlezean)....... 2 6 
Wadebridge(Treharrock Ho.)) 2 9 
Langport (Long Sutton)....| 0 10 
E. Harptree (Sherborne Res.)) 1 0 


Bristol (Small Street)...... 25 


5. = ( Pnils dnt.) 


Ross (Archenfield)........ 
ve (uoeklands) oS oe 
Leominster (West Lodge) .. 


eee eee 


ners : Oe 
Warwick..... 


Tenbury (Orleton)........ 
| Birmingham (Edgbaston) . 


a 
WHODORUREFOCONOACO 


Above sea. 


feet. 


60 
96 
94 
116 
283 
286 
92 
445 
155 
200 
234 
400 
200 
43 
116 
94 
160 
56 
190 
338 
550 
303 
50 
338 


40 
192 
50 
420 
250? 
150 
250 
100? 
1000? 
355 
192 
470 
137 
200? 
510 


Mean 


Annual 


Rainfall, 
1860-69. 


inches, 


32°248 
44-813 
42°888 
48-646 
43°356 
53°170 


43-126 | 


45-941 
31°757 


32-694 | 


38-060 


34562 | 


47-118 
39:°905 


37°872 | 


41-507 
41-229 
42:877 
42:556 
47-708 
54557 
39°301 
28:574 
42-097 


30°549 
32°955 


34:085 | 


27°421 
32°612 
28°211 
33°591 
27°105 
26°744 
28°530 
24-870 
19:499 
35:°647 
28°017 
28-039 
30-900 


30°562 


ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 109 


Tasie V. (continued), 


Height of Rain-gauge.|  yfoan 


f Annual | 
County. Station. Above Rainfall, | 
goa | Po | Neee-en. | 
ee iT ft. in, feet. inches. 
Leicestershire ..| Wigston ...............- 0.6 220 | 25:165 
Pe ..| Thornton Reservoir ...... Bee 420 | 25-611 
99 ..| Waltham Rectory ........ 8 560 | 24-319 
ed ¢-| Belvewr Castle... .sstikentt| & 8 237 | 24-476 
Tangoln ...... Granthamis 4 a.2 5925) ssveyets's:<'s OnnG 179 | 22-407 
, Sats Tiiniceln: 6 7h. sielncpahaye capetornd 3 6 26 | 20°870 
_. “aes Markel Basen... .< » é<hysrens 3.6 100 | 23-429 
re Gainsborough...... si-egsiiae 2 76 | 21-659 
are Stockwith ... 3.6 21 | 21-347 
ee Brigg . : 3 6 16 | 24118 
Be. fe wore yrs POM) ace. «- cess aver eferors 15 0 42 | 21-391 
a BarNgeD yes, «)- + «pispse F seephene 3. 6 51 | 22-163 
| aa Brigg (Appleby Vic.)...... 0 9 60 | 24-097 
eis. «. guaty « NeweHolland) 5. «6s ei =) decd 3. 6 18 | 22-665 
Nothnugham. ..|Southwell .....<.+.-%--| , 14,0 2002 | 20:844 
i ....| Welbeck Abbey .......... 4.0 80 | 24-636 
* eee)! WIGERBODY. 23. 61} ct: in ster: Buf 127 | 22-469 
- MRT RCGOTE fi) chs) 0 code: srs ofan 3.6 52 | 22-743 
Derby ........ EAE. dig.d <7 oun eral 6 0 180 | 26-807 
eee @hiesterfield') 20 0. tense 3 6 248 | 26-930 
See Kilnarsh (Norwood) ...... 3 6 238 | 24-591 
-9 “sae Combs Moss ............ 3 6 1669 | 49-620 
Masts s og » Reservoir ....:... 3 6 710 | 50-008 
Sarees Chapel-en-le-Frith ...... 3.6 965 | 41-947 
() SS geeooe Wroodhegdi ae oes a: ages 3 6 878 | 52-188 
Drviston VIII. 
Cheshire ...... Bosley Minns ...:..9905%° 3 6 1210 | 32-849 
5 eee > Weservoir -::32::3: 3.6 590 | 32°043 
Beene 5 LS). Macclesfield.............. 3.6 539 =| 34:5386 
SEES :, (Park Green) ..| 2 1 450 | 36-746 
Bee £6. Bollington (Spond’s Hill) ..| 3 6 1279 | 37-464 
Se Whaley “.. (2520 Aepete 3 6 602 | 43-894 
RS Marple Aquednet ........ 3 6 321 | 34:810 
Mee » Lop Lecktipe fryer 3 6 543 | 35-254 
Se Godley Reservoir ........ Pra 500 33°979 
ae Mottram (Matley’s Field) ..| 3 6 399 | 37°732 
\ ieee Newton 2. .is:2¢22223.9% 3 6 396 | 31°633 
oy Arnfield Reservoir .:.:...: pote a 575 | 37-232 
mi. Aaa Rhodes Wood Reseryoir....| 1 0 520 46°323 
mon}. AL, Woodhead > HIPPO 680 | 51-828 
Lancashire ....| Denton 99 segiher 8 324 | 32-974 
3 ....| Gorton y AEN) 2898 263 | 33-712 


110 


County. 


Drvisron VIII. 
(continued). 


Lancashire . 


Drvisron IX. 


Yorkshire, W. R. 


A Pe 
bo bd 


REPORT—187 1. 


TaBLeE V. (continued). 


..| Manchester (Old Trafford). . 


a (Ardwick) 
~ (Piccadilly) .... 


o Oldham (Waterhouses) ... 


= (Gas-works)...... 
(Strines Dale) .. 


. .| Bolton (The Folds)...... 7 


po Chennont) *Fs2 tor 
wn (Heabea yee srry Fes 


...+| Rochdale (Nagden Dane) .. 
...| Ormskirk (Rufford) ...... 
.. | Preston (Howiek)*::%.. 5: 
...+| Blackpool (South shore).... 
sind DUTY RUTAL 23 02 Skee, ee 
. ..| Clitheroe (Downham Hall). . 
...| Lancaster (Caton) ........ 
..-|Cartmel (Holker) ........ 


Sheffield (Broomhall Park). . 
edietsr se hee ce eee 


fst. 1 ee ee ey 
Dunford Bridge .......... 
Saddleworth Station ...... 
Standedge. oJ sions ys sins 
Huddersfield (Longwood) . 
a se a 
Halifax (Warley Moor) . 
se (CWell Head) .... 
»» (Midgeley Moor) .. 
», (Ovenden Moor) .. 
Leeds (Leventhorpe Hall) .. 
sy al Seebeck) au ci avy.) 6+ 
York (Bootham).......... 
Settle ........-.. ese eee, 


.| Hull (Beverley Road)...... 
PRIOR N Siee She dos os ee a. 


Height of Rain-gauge. 


Above 
ground. 


ft. 


in. 


DAMDBDABAOAMRDOOAGCOCR°cCcCON 


a or 
- Bs WROEOORODBOS 


WOSDOROOSO: 


Above sea. 


feet. 


Mean 
Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 


inches, 


34°727 
32597 
36°775 
40-898 
36°133 
377123 
36-007 
48-981 
56-610 
44-210 
44-132 
34-999 
38°303 
32°994 
48:560 
44786 
43°944 
45-625 


31-276 
39-684 
28°159 
23°990 ~ 
56°177 
41:968 
53°700 
34-008 
32°121 
46-330 
33°313 
50-000 
46-090 
23-261 
22-853 
24-479 
41°349 
60-075 
25-024 
27-455 
31:105 | 


| 


County. 


Division X. 


Durham ...... 
Northumberland 


Drviston XI. 


Glamorgan 
Cardigan...... 
Brecknock . 


a 


Isle of Man.... 
Guernsey 2 
Alderney...... 


Drviston XII. 
Wigton 


a 


Kirkcudbright. 
Dumfries. a : 


SF) 3 te ewer 


.| Seathwaite 
..| Ullswater (Watermillock) .. 
.| Bassenthwaite (Mirehouse). . 
-| Cockermouth (Whinfell Hall) 


...+|{ Cardiff (Ely) 
.| Hay 


.| Cargen [Dumfries] 


ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 


TasLeE V. (continued). 


Station. 


se ee wee 


| Bishopwearmouth 
| Allenheads 
Shotley Hall» jictascarjt slad:.- 
Bagwell @: ... . cotints oan tant 
Wylam. Ball... ad os ot 
North Shields (Wallsend) .. 

- (Rosella Place) 
Stamfordham ............ 
Hexham (Parkend) 
Lilburn Tower 


i 


see eee 
se ee ee ew ae 


Carlisle (Bunker’s Hill) .... 
Kendal (Kent Terrace) .... 


.| Windermere (The Howe) .. 
.| Appleby 


Ce 


WALES AND THE ISLANDS. 


JEON TS) ey ai Clete eg aie 
(Pen-y-maes)........ 
Rhayader (Cefnfaes) ...... 
Hawarden [Chester] ...... 
Holywell (Maes-y-dre) .... 
Llandudno (Warwick House) 
Point of Ayre 


ee 
ey 


SCOTLAND. 


Mull of Galloway ........ 
Stranraer (South Cairn).... 
Corsewall 

Little Ross 


ee 


Fi 


Dumfries (March Hill Cott.)| 0 


Westerkirk (Carlesgill) .... 
Wanlockhead 


eer ere ee eer sense 


...++| Kelso (Springwood Park) .. 


0 
1 


Opn: oO BR: 


Above 
ground. 
ft, in, 

0 9 

0 3 

0 6 
oO 4 

0 6 

1 0 

ibe 10) 

0 4 

6 0 

5,6 

3 6 

Oo. 7 

2 0 

6 0 

4 6 

2 

Ide D 


SCORDONTNOOROS 


Height of Rain-gauge. 


Above sea. 


feet. 


1369 
312 
87 
96 
100 
124 
400 
76 
300 
422 
720 
310 
265 
184 
146 
470 
442 


420 
317 
880 


400 


204 


lll 


Mean 
Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 


inches. 


20-247 
51:160 
28°494 
28-874 
26°900 
26-640 
26-065 
27°637 
33°550 
28-657 
154-046 
59-910 
53°756 
57°366 
27-616 
53°322 
87:°923 
35°994 


42-016 
45°183 
31-680 
44-980 
26:443 
24-430 
31-004 
30-609 
37°177 
28°624 


27-656 
49-603 
37°027 
26°981 
44-372 
37045 
60-092 
66-628 
24-663 


Om 


County. 


Dryiston XIII. 


Selkirk ...... 
Peebles ...... 
Berwick ...... 
| Haddington. pf. 
” ‘ 
Edinburgh .... 


Drvision XLY. 
| Lanark: ..44'¥. 


Sis) 9; we 06 8 


Drviston XY. 


Dumbarton .... 
Stirling, |: a. - 


REPORT—187 1. 


TABLE V. (continued). 


Height of Rain-gauge. 


Station. ‘Kbove 
ground. 
ft. in 

Bowl Uo vccer rere reterateteters's i 
Penicuick (N. Esk Reservoir)) 0 6 
Lauder (Thirlestane Castle)... 0 3 
Dunse (Mungo’s Walls)....| 0 6 
Prestonkirk (Smeaton) ....) 13 0 
...| Haddington (Millfield) ....| 4 0 
8.) Hast Danton: «4 is. ece ened 0 3 
Cobbinshaw Reservoir Ue 
vo | Unvereshe. fauna ete Fe 2 0 
Hamilton (Auchinraith)....) 4 9 
§ (Bothwell Castle)... 18 0 
Glasgow (Cessnock Park) ..| 4 4 
3» (Observatory) ....| 0 1 
Baillveston y+... etree ees 0 3 
Shotts (Hillend House) ....| 7 0 
Ayr (Auchendrane House)..| 2 3 
Largs (Mansfield) ........ 0 6 
Gorbals, W. W. (Ryat Lynn) 0 5 
os (WaulkGlen)| 0 5 

: (Middleton)... 0 5 
Mearns (Nether Place) ....| 0 6 
Greenock (Hamilton Street) | 0 6 
Loch Long (Arddaroch) ....| 0 10 
Falkark (Kerse)!i% 2... ssf END) 
Stirling (Polmaise Gardens) |’ 0 2 
Plaga 5.8: ILE, Foe oo ios 3.3 
Castle Towardssieecee..%. 4 0 
Lochgilphead (Callton Mér)..| 4 6 
Inverary Castle .......... O 781: 
Appm (dards). o Asie Bie 0 3 
Ardnamurchan: .........°. 3.6 
Cantire, Mull of.......... rectarte 
Campbeltown (Devaar)....| 3 4 
Rhinns of Islay’:'... 5.0... 3.0 
Lismore (Mousedale) ...... 3.4 
Mull, Sound of .......... 0 6 
Tyree (Hynish) .......... LAk8 


Above sea. 


feet. 


537 
1150 
558 
267 
100 
140 
90 
863 
90 


150 
146 
29 
180 
230 
620 
96 
30 
310 
280 
550 
360 
50 


80 


12 
55 
65 
65 
30 
15 
82? 
279? 
752? 
742 
37? 
12? 


Mean 
Annual 
Rainfall, 


1860-69. | 


inches. 


33°033 | 


38°014 
29:977 


28-494 | 
23-263 


25°630 
23:767 


37-450 — 
29-016 


31°951 


28-885. | 


37°958 
44-411 
46°471 
33°445 
44-825 
48-920 
47°801 
49-845 
56°682 
507143 
66°156 


78°321 
32-960 
41:300 
40-141 
54554 
54253 
67:370 
63-640 
45594 
44-166 
47:312 
33°434 
46°215 
72159 
79-992 


County. 


or 


Divisrion XVI. 


ee 
Ce 
ee ed 
whee ates 
a 
were wees 
se eee eee 
eee ee 
Pie 61a eFqne. 0 
er 
Se 
ec 
a 
ee wee ewes 
ee ee rene 
re 
Ce 


ee eee eee 


Division XVII. 


| Kineardine .. 


Weeedeari 


ee ee ewes 


Division XVIII. 
Ross & Cromarty 


... | Lochleven Sluice 


..| Brechin (The Burn) 
.... | Girdleness 
....| Braemar 
....| Aberdeen (Rose Street) .... 
....| Alford (Castle Newe) 

..| Kinnaird Head 
. ..| Buchanness 


....| Barrahead 

...| 9. Uist (Ushenish) 
.| Harris (Island Glass) 
.| Rona 


ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 


Taste V. (continued). 


Station. 


ee 


BAUER oh che een nee 
Leven (Nookton) 
Isle of May 
O05 05: SA Fa 
Dunblane (Kippenross) . 
Deanston House 
Eanriek Castle: odes ed. vs die 
Bridge of Turk .......... 
Auchterarder House ...... 
(Trinity ig 
Loch Barnhead (Stronvar) . 
Perth Academy 
Scone Palace 
BURY soe ey creporeacae eae etal as 
Craigton 
Kettins 


ee 


Ce ee ee ee 


ee 


ee 
ee 


Ce 


ee eeee 
a 88) 6 0 oo, 8) 6 8 6 «we 


Sekai ie) 66, e aeuy'v) te) 6, way orcs: 


a 
ee 
ee 


Gordon Castle 


oe eee ere eens 


Isle of Lewis (Stornoway) .. 
(Bernera) .... 


39 
Cromarty 


© we ei 6) elisital ie) et 6) 6 («) elie 


.| Isle of Skye (Oronsay) 


+4 (Kyleakin) .. 
(Raasay) 


(Portree) 


? 
CY I, Ce hh 
oy 6)sa, e/a, ine) tel me ap oY ,0 s 
Dy, s) ol) el erate 


«ee eae 


Ce 


ee 


Height of Rain-gauge. 


113 


Mean 


Above | Above sea. 
ground. 

ft ink feet. 
0 10 ten 
0 6 Dy 
0 6 80 
Pare 182 
0 6 60 
0 4 100 
0 4 130 
0 0 igaeies 
0 6 270 
2S 162 
QO 1 133 

64 5 83 
2-6 80 
(0) 3 35 
0 38 481 
1 0 218 
0 38 570 
2 0 60 
0 6 235 
a 17 86 
Te | 1114 
0 4 95 
3.04 64 
1 6 60 
oe Siler 
0 6 15 
3A 28 
0 6 ayy 
0 2 3? 
1, 4 80 
iS 80 
ome) 640? 
0 4 aay ae: 
3.«A4 50? 
On. .6 20) 
3.«O0 104 


Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 


inches. 


35:780 
28°589 
28:988 
20-482 
61-820 
36165 
43-991 
48°805 
61:890 
34315 
35°324 
82:434 
23°584 
29°182 
29°729 
34876 
33°172 
35°187 
29-050 


34-910 
22°718 
33°404 
29°433 
33°500 
24-168 
25:588 
29-192 


31°792 
68°027 
25°941 
72:359 
82-067 
77:120 
104-261 
31°726 
43-905 
31°129 
39:°470 
27:084 


| 


114 REPORT—1871. 


TasBLe YV. (continued). 


| Height of Rain-gauge-| yyoan 
; aa Wilco tel! 
County. Station, Wises Rainfall, 
ground. ALES: 1860-69. 
Pee feet. i 5 
Recunox XIX; ft. in eet inches 
Sutherland ....| Golspie (Dunrobin Castle) ..| 0 3 6 | 27-692 
» owisis| Cape Wet 2 6 ssscssasecv 3 6 355 ? | 39-371 
Caithness...... Wick (Nosshead) ........ 3.4 127? | 24-699 
en se |: DunnethGad "5 iaacesss¢ oe 3 6 300? | 25-401 
iG. bs Mek Pentland Skerries ........ 3) 1S 72?) 28-763 
Orkney ...:.; Hoy (Graemsay East) ....| 3 4 27? | 39-007 
yim ba cea | a ee Os, West). .... vat 37? | 32°693 
el ere |Shapinsay (Balfour Castle)..| 0 6 50 | 32-408 
Brkt’ b:. fhish Pomona (Sandwick) ...... 2 0 7 38°853 
eat. aehk Sanda (Start Point) ...... 0 6 29?) 31:371 
ale Te North Ronaldshay ........ 3.4 212} -31:015 
Shetland ...... Sumburghead ............ 3 4 265? | 26-454 
ue bx wks Bressay Lighthouse ...... 0 4 60 | 36-488 
Diviston XX. sats 5 
CGE sor a4 | Cork (Royal Institution) ..| 50 0 70 | 34-771 
Pons Cant ee La a ee ae Sys seas | cemegend, 
Waterford ....| Waterford (Newtown) ....| 4 0 60 | 40-669 
CIBTS Suess. MSlinlog ie Ue eeein aoe vi «i 5 0 123 | 47-654 
Drviston XXI. 
Queen’s County..| Portarlington ............ ie 240 | 36°857 
King’s County..| Tullamore .............. 3 0 235 | 27-938 
Wicklow ......| Bray (Fassaroe) .......... 5 0 250 | 41°822 
Dapha,.'. sss... Black Rock (Rockville) ....| 29 0 90 | 27-096 
Drviston XXII. 
Fermanagh ....| Enniskillen (Florence Court); 11 0 300 | 44368 
ATMBEN j.. 2%... 5 Armagh Observatory ...... de 208 | 32-014 
Antrim ...... Belfast (Queen’s College) ..| 7 4 68 | 34-225 
Pens odor Ross », (Linen Hall) ...... 4 0 12° | 36°767 


Before accepting these decennial averages (1860-69) as data indicative of 
the distribution of rain over the country, we have to offer a few prefatory 
remarks. The difference between the amount collected by any two rain- 
gauges depends on at least four separate and distinct conditions, three of 
which must be ascertained and corrected for before the fourth can be accu- 
rately determined. 

The conditions are :—(1) length of series of observations ; (2) correction for 
secular change ; (3) height of gauges above ground. 

(1) Even if there were no other evidence in existence than the accompany- 


ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 115 


ing diagram (fig. 1) of the fluctuations of rainfall, we feel that it would suffi- 
ciently prove the impossibility of determining accurately the rainfall at any 
place except by observations continued over a long series of years at that 
place, or by differentiation from some proximate long-continued series. 

(2) It does not follow that simultaneous observations, even for ten years, 
giving for example a mean difference between two stations of five inches, 
prove that the rainfall at the one station is greater than the other by that 
amount, although if they are not very distant the one from the other it 
would probably be a safe assumption. 

(3) Before mean results can be given with any pretensions to accuracy and 
finality, they must be corrected for the elevation of the rain-gauge above the 
ground, 

The above remarks sufficiently show that the mere average of the fall of 
rain measured during ten or more years does not necessarily give the true 
mean rainfall at that place. 

Let us take as an example the highest amount recorded in the Table 
(Seathwaite), which had during the ten years (1860-69) an average of 
154 inches; many persons would say at once that that was therefore the 
mean rainfall at that station. It is, however, nothing like it. From 
Table II. and fig. 2 we see that the rainfall over England, generally, 
during those ten years was 1:5 per cent. above the average, upon which 
evidence we are bound to reduce the observed mean in that proportion, 
and then the average becomes 152 inches instead of 154, Even this, how- 
ever, is not correct; for we pointed out in condition (2) that the same 
years, or groups of years, are not similarly wet in all parts of the country. 
Referring, therefore, to Table IY. we find that at the nearest station to 
Seathwaite, Kendal, the decade in question was 7 per cent. above the thirty- 
year mean ; hence, on the supposition that the Kendal values are applicable 
to this station, we have to reduce 154 inches by 7 per cent. instead of by 
1-5 per cent., and hence the probable mean comes out 141-8 inches. 

Now most fortunately we can test the accuracy of this calculation in three 

ways. 
(1) The mean fall at Seathwaite in the previous decade was 126-98 ; from 
the Kendal observations the fall in that decade was 10 per cent. less than 
the mean ; therefore 591109 ) we find the probable mean comes 
out 141-1 from this decade, and 141°8 from that of 1860-69. They thus 
agree within less than an inch, or one half per cent. 

(2) The fall at Seathwaite has now been continuously observed for twenty-six 
years, viz. from 1845 to 1870 inclusive; the mean of the whole twenty-six 
years’ observations is 140-03, 

(3) This value, corrected according to the Table in our 1866 Report, becomes 
aoe’ exactly with that indicated by the decades 1850-59 and 

This example proves three points :—(1) the great degree of accuracy which 
is attainable by proper methods; (2) the care requisite to secure it ; (3) the 
serious errors inseparable from the use of mere arithmetical averages without 
reference to secular changes. 

These observations, however, must of course be taken as general results, 
and not be construed as having any bearing on the relative rainfall even of 
proximate stations, the rainfall of which will vary considerably according to 
‘local circumstances. 

Hence it will be seen that the probable average at Seathwaite is 141 inches 

12 


116 REPORT—1871. 


instead of 154, or 7 per cent. less. A similar, but generally less correction, 
may be required for other stations. The figures in Table V. must not there- 
fore be considered as showing the mean fall at the several stations, but only 
as approximations generally pretty close. The data in our possession, if cor- 
rected in accordance with the method explained, would afford more accurate 
results, but the investigation is altogether beyond our present resources. 
Large tracts of Ireland, and even of Scotland, are still without observers ; 
much has recently been done to remedy these deficiencies, but there are still 
many localities where observations are very much wanted; we shall gladly 
receive any offers of assistance from those who have residences or property in 
those parts, and our Secretary will readily advise them as to instruments. 


Third Report on the British Fossil Corals. By P. Martin Duncan, 
F.R.S., F.G.S., Professor of Geology in King’s College, London. 


Introduction.—There can be no doubt that the paleontology of the Madre- 
poraria of the Paleozoic strata is in a condition of profound confusion. 
When these Reports were commenced, the very excellent descriptions and 
classification of the Paleozoic Corals by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, 
strengthened by those of M. de Fromentel, appeared to have satisfied pa- 
leontologists, and they were received and adopted without much demur. 
But during the last three or four years a series of more or less important 
attacks has been made upon the views of those distinguished authors ; 
consequently opinions respecting many important matters in the paleontology 
of the Paleozoic corals are in a very unsatisfactory state. 

L. Agassiz, A. Agassiz, and now Count Pourtales would remove the Ta- 
bulata from the list of Madreporaria. Mr. Kent and I doubt the propriety 
of establishing the Tabulata as a group. Count Keyserling demurred years 
since at receiving the long septaless Tubulata amongst the Madreporaria, 
and, after due examination, I agree with him in relegating them to the Al- 
cyonaria. 

Working amongst the Rugosa, I have shown that they do not invariably 
characterize Paleozoic strata, for some of the types have persisted, and no 
reasonable doubt can be entertained concerning the descent of the Jurassic 
Coral-fauna from the Paleozoic. 

The genus Palwocyclus has been shown not to belong to the Fungide, 
but to the Cyathophyllide. Genera with the hexameral arrangement of 
septa have been found in Carboniferous and Devonian strata. 

Lindstrém’s interesting researches respecting the operculated condition of 
some Paleozoic corals require most careful study and much following up, 
and the assertion of L. Agassiz respecting the hydroid relationship of those 
Rugosa which have tabule demands further inquiry *. 

Ludwig, of Darmstadt, has added to the confusion by not acknowledging 
the received classification in the least; and in his able enthusiasm (anti- 


* G. Lindstrom, pamphlet translated by M. Lindstrém from the original Swedish, 
‘Geological Magazine,’ 1866, p. 356. He notices that Guettard first described an oper- 
culum in a rugose coral, and that then Steenstrup saw one in a Cyathophyllum mitratum. 
Lindstrém produces evidence respecting the genera Goniophyllum, Calceola, Zaphrentis, 
Hallia, and Favosites (see also p. 406 et seg.). : 


ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 117 


Gallican enough) he alters generic and specific names, employing sesqui- 
pedalian Greek, and even absorbing the original authors (‘ Paleontogra- 
phica,’ H. von Meyer, 1866). 

Thus he confuses Stromatopora concentrica, Goldfuss, with the Madre- 
poraria, and calls it Lioplacocyathus concentricus. Fortunately Ludwig gives 
a plate of it (tab. lxxii. fig. 1), and thus proves the total absence of all 
structures which differentiate the Madreporaria, After thus dignifying a 
rhizopod, we may be prepared for any thing. 

The same author figures a form which is clearly that of Heliolites porosa, 
and calls it by the extraordinary name of Astroplacocyathus solidus, Ldwg. 
It appears that this naturalist studied this eminently cellular type from a 
cast, hence the term solidus. Again, in tab. lxxi. fig. 2, Ludwig delineates a 
good specimen of Cyathophyllum hexagonum, Goldfuss, 1826, and with sur- 
passing coolness names it Astrophleothylacus vulgaris, Lawg. He then con- 
founds a species of Lithostrotion and Smithia Hennali, E. & H., in one genus, 
Astrophleocyclus, Ldwg. 

The student of the Silurian corals will be surprised perhaps to find that, 
according to Ludwig, Halysites catenularia, Ed. & H., the Catenipora escha- 
roides of Lonsdale, is transformed into Ptychophleolopas catenularia, Ludwig, 
doubtless on the principle that having found such a very distinguished generic 
title, the compiler of it has the right to eclipse the discoverers of the form. 
Cheetetes, which some of us consider to belong to the Aleyonarian group, as 
it has no septa, Ludwig decorates with the title “‘ Liophlaocyathus.” 

In his sixty-ninth plate, fig. 5, there is a very good representation of a 
coral ordinarily known as Acervularia Troscheli, Ed. & H. This form was 
inaccurately described by Goldfuss, who called it Cyathophyllum ananas. Now 
the authorship is settled by this Alexander, who cuts the knot by claiming 
the species as his own, under the title of Astrochartodiscus ananas, Ludwig ! 

Then Pleurodictyum problematicum, Goldfuss, is altered into Taeniocharto- 
cyclus planus, Ldwg. 

To render matters easier to the student, Ludwig associates Acervularia 
lucurians and Cyathophyllum helianthoides in one genus, Astroblascodiscus, 
and of course places his name after the species. Then Cyathophyllum cespi- 
tosum becomes, under the same lexicographic hands, <Astrocalanocyathus 
cespitosus, Ludwig! In another place Cyathophyllum helianthoides, Gold- 
fuss, just mentioned under the term Astroblascodiscus, appears as -Astro- 
discus. Lonsdale’s Cystiphyllum cylindricum is turned into Liocyathus ca- 
tinifer, Ldwg. 

This author, moreover, appears to hold a brief against the belief in the 
quadrate arrangement of the septa in the Rugosa, and, in a manner which is 
excessively arbitrary and artificial, terms such and such septa primaries, so 
as to reduce the cycles to sixes. In spite of the evidence of great industry 
given by Ludwig, I cannot accept his classification, nor do I find his hypo- 
thetical septal readings consistent with facts. Nevertheless, Ludwig has 
contributed to our knowledge of Permian corals, and has discovered some 
species of genera hitherto supposed to characterize the Carboniferous forma- 
tion in the Upper Devonian of Germany. 

The nature of this Report must therefore be very different to those already 
presented to the Association. Those reports relating to the Corals of the 
Mesozoic strata were essentially founded upon observed facts, and upon data 
which had been more or less before the geological world for years; the 
‘generalizations embodied in them were established upon very satisfactory 
details, But in the present instance there is much uncertainty; there are 


118 REPORT—1871, 


vast accumulations of details to be worked out without the existence of a 
satisfactory classification, and, in fact, the whole subject of the Palaeozoic 
Madreporaria is in too transitional a state for an exhaustive report to be made 
upon them. 

In presenting this Report, therefore, I hope the Association will consider 
that I have not yet completed my task, and that it will allow me to continue 
my work and to present other reports when occasion offers. No further 
grant will be required, as the future reports will deal more with the results 
of other labourers than with my own. . 

The present Report is divided into four parts. 

I. The consideration of the alliances of the Neozoic and the Paleozoic 
Coral-faunas. 

II. The classification of the Perforata. 

III. The classification of the Tabulata, 

IY. The Rugosa. 

In order to avoid useless repetition of well-known facts, I have referred 
to them by giving their bibliography, except when they are contained in 
inaccessible works. 

I. The Paleozoic corals of Great Britain have been the subject of many 
admirable works ; they have been largely treated of in the ‘ Monograph of 
the British Fossil Corals’ (Paleeontographical Society) by MM. Milne-Edwards 
and Jules Haime, and by M‘Coy in Sedgwick’s great work. Phillips, 
Lonsdale, King, Sam. Woodward, Parkinson, Martin, Fleming, Portlock, 
Sowerby, and Pennant have described species in their well-known works, 
and Kent, James Thomson, and I have contributed some information on 
the subject of the Scottish corals. But, with the exception of the labours of 
the last three persons, the literature of the Paleozoic Corals will be found very 
accessible in the monograph already noticed; any omissions, and a con- 
siderable number of new species will be published in my Supplement to that 
monograph, which I trust will appear year after year, especially as the 
Supplement to the Mesozoic Corals is now complete (Palzontographical 
Society). 

The Y taées range and the horizontal distribution of the species of corals 
have been worked out by Robert Etheridge, F.R.S8., in a work which is now 
in course of publication (Cat. of Brit. Fossils). 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime classified the British Palaeozoic 
Corals amongst the sections Aporosa, Tabulata, Tubulosa, and Rugosa. The 
great section Perforata is not represented in the British strata, but it is in 
the equivalerit American beds. 

The only representative of the Aporosa in their classification was one of 
the Fungide, Palwocyclus being the genus. It is a Silurian form, and no 
others of the family have been discovered in the other Palaeozoic rocks. The 
genus has been the subject of a memoir in the Philosophical Transactions, 
1867, where its rugose affinities are pointed out, and its cyathophylloid na- 
ture also. But the Aporosa are nevertheless represented in the Devonian and 
Carboniferous rocks by the genera Battersbyia and Heterophyllia (Phil. 
Trans. 1867). 

The alliances of these forms and of some of the Rugosa with the Jurassic 
Coral-fauna have been noticed in my Supplement to the Brit. Foss. Corals 
(Pal. Soe.), part “‘ Liassic,” and in the Essay in the Phil. Trans. of 1867*. 


* The Panastrmacen, Genera Battershyia and Heterophyllia (Phil. Trans. 1867, p. 643 
et seg., P. M. Duncan).—The so-called ccenenchyma of Battershyia inequalis, Kd. & H., 
is like that of Battersbyia grandis, nobis, and B. gemmans, nobis. It is really nothing 


ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS, 119 


I do not consider that the Tubulosa belonged to the Madreporaria, but 
that they were Alcyonarians. 

It is very certain that some Aporose, Perforate, and Rugose corals have 
tabule, and that their existence cannot remove the forms from their re- 
eeived zoological position into the separate section of Tabulata. 

Thus the well-known Aporose coral of the deep sea, Lophohehia pro- 


more than portions of Stromatopora which enclose the corallites and grow simultaneously 
with them. 

T have altered the generic characters of Battersbyia, in consequence of a careful exami- 
nation of the old and the two new species. It is as follows:—Corallum fasciculate and 
branching ; corallites tall, cylindrical, unequal in size and distance; septa numerous and 
following no apparent cyclical order. 

Endotheca yery abundant: it is vesicular, and there are no tabule, Hpitheca, costa, 
and ceenenchyma wanting. The wall is stout, and the septa spring from wedge-shaped 
processes. The columellary space is occupied by vesicular endotheca. Gemmation extra- 
ealicular and calicular from buds having only five septa. 

There are three species :— 


Battersbyia insequalis, Duncan. pond Limestone ; 


grandis, Duncan. found in pebbles, 
gemmans, Duncan, and not 77 si¢z. 


In Battersbyia gemmans the buds which develop more than five septa grow into coral- 
lites, which are destined to bud again from the external wall, and the buds which de- 
velop five septa produce other buds from their interseptal loculi; the buds thus developed 
resemble the corallites with more than three septa. This curious alternation of gemma- 
tion has not been noticed in any other genus. 

The genera Battersbyia and Heterophyllia (Phil. Trans. loc. cit.) have much in common, 
They have a stout wall, a vesicular and dissepimental endotheca, delicate septa, very irre- 
gular in their number, and neither tabular epitheca nor a quaternary septal arrangement. 

The genus Battersbyia has nothing to ally it to the Rugosa or the Tabulata. Hetero- 
phyllia has in some of its species the solitary septum or vacancy which is so often observed 
in the Cyathophyllidx. Its costal wall and endotheca connect it with the Mesozoic and 
recent Astreide. 

The singular septal development of Battersbyia is witnessed in the fasciculate Liassic 
Astreide. The pentameral arrangement of the Battersbyian septa is not unique, for 
Acanthocenia Rathieri, D’Orb., of. the Neocomian has only five septa, and so have the 
species of Pentacenia, all of which are from the same great formation, The proper Liassic 
and some of the Lower Oolitic Thecosmiliz and Calamophylliz represent and are allied 
by structure to Battersbyia. The highly specialized characters of the Heterophyllie, espe- 
cially of H. mirabilis, could hardly be perpetuated during great and prolonged emigra- 
tions, so that the genus appears to be without representatives in the secondary rocks. Its 
alliance to Battersbyia, however, is evident enough. 

The genus Heterophyllia, M‘Coy, was examined by me in 1867, and the study of several 
new species of it rendered a fresh diagnosis requisite. 

The following description of the diagnosis appeared in my essay on the genera Hetero- 
phyllia, &c., already noticed :— 

“The corallum is simple, long, and slender, The gemmation takes place around the 
calicular margin, and is extracalicular. The septa are either irregular in number and 
arrangement, or else are six in number and regular. The cost are well developed, and 
may be trabecular, spined, and flexuous. The wall is thick; there is no epitheca, and the 
endotheca is dissepimental.” 

The genus may be subdivided into a group with numerous septa, and a group with six 
septa. — 

it the first the rugose type is faintly, and in the last the hexameral arrangement is well 
observed. 

The dense wall and the dissepimental endotheca prove that the type of the Mesozoic 
Coral-fauna was foreshown. 

The endotheca varies in quantity in the different species, and it resembles the tabular 
arrangement ; but even when this is the case and the cross structures are well developed 
and numerous, they do not stretch over the axial space, so as to shut out cavities 
as if they were floors; they do not close in the whole of the visceral and interlocular 


120 REPORT—1871. 


lifera, Pallas, sp., may have some of its corallites subdivided by perfect 
tabule ; the species of Cyathophora of the Oolites also ; yet it would be a most 
objectionable and improper proceeding to remove these genera from their 
recognized alliances. I found an Astrwopora in the Museum at Liver- 
pool with tabula; and Mr. Kent has pointed out the perforate affinities of 
Koninckia and of the form he has published. Some Rugosze have perfect 
tabula, others have them not; and in Cyclophyllum and Clisiophyllum dis- 
sepiments exist in some parts of a corallum and not in others, where they 
are replaced by tabule. This interesting fact may be gleaned from James 
Thomson’s sections taken from the Scottish corals. ; 

Nevertheless there are forms which are essentially tabulate, and not rugose, 
but which, so far as their hard and septal structures are concerned, may 
be aporose in one instance and perforate in another ; for instance, Columnaria 
and Favosites. These forms may still provisionally be considered Tabulata. 

Alliances.—The Lower Cretaceous and Neocomian corals appear to connect 
the oldest and the newest faunas, and to form an excellent starting-point 
both for the study of the Tertiary as well as for the Paleozoic forms. It 
will be readily observed that the succession of genera and species from the 
lower Cretaceous horizon to the present day is gradual; and that although 
many forms died out, still the general appearance of the consecutive faunas, 
such as those of the Middle and Upper Cretaceous, the Nummulitic, the Oli- 
gocene, the Miocene, the Pliocene, and of the two great faunas of the present 
day, presents a remarkable similarity of what is usually called “facies.” 
The similarity between the Lower Cretaceous fauna and that of the Miocene 
has been treated of elsewhere *, and the analogies of the mid-tertiary corals 
and those of the Pacific also. Moreover since the last Report was read the. 
distinction between reef, deep-sea, and littoral corals has been more satisfac- 
torily established, and the reason why consecutive faunas upon the same 
areas could not possibly be identical, even as regards the genera, has been 
explained +. 

As the Coral-faunas are studied from those of recent date backwards in 
time, extinct forms are met with which gradually fill up the spaces in the 
very natural received classification, and itis perfectly evident that the existing 
species were foreshadowed in the past. A great number of existing species 
lived in the so-called Pliocene, and not a few in the Miocene ft. Reuss’s 
admirable researches amongst the vast reefs which are of an intermediate age 
between the Flysch and the typical coral districts of the Miocene age, have 
carried back the homotaxis of the existing coral areas to a time which has 
hardly been recognized by British geologists, but whose fossils are clearly 


cavities in a horizontal plane. In some species the dissepiments are curved, and are as 
incomplete as when they are more or less horizontal in others, and vesicular endotheca 
exists, more or less, in nearly all the forms. 
There are no true tabule, and the dissepiments do not interfere in any way with the 
passage of the septa from the lowest part of the corallum to the calice. 
There are eight species of Heterophyllia :— 
Heterophyllia grandis, M‘Coy. Heterophyllia M‘Coyi, Duncan, 
— ornata, MZ‘ Coy. Lyelli, Duncan. 
granulata, Duncan. —— mirabilis, Duncan. 
angulata, Duncan. Sedgwicki, Duncan. 


The first two are found in the Carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire, and the others in 
the Scottish Carboniferous strata (see Phil. Trans. 1867, p. 643 et seq.). 

* ‘West-Indian Foss. Corals (P. M. Duncan, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. xxiv. p. 28). 

t Coral Faunas of Europe (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. xxvi. p. 51 ef seq.). 

$ Corals of Poreupine Expedition (Proc. Royal Society, xviii. p. 289). 


ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 121 


represented at Brockenhurst. In the great reefs of the Castel-Gomberto 
district there are the remains of a larger coral-fauna than that which now 
exists in the Caribbean Sea; and although a profound Flysch exists between 
them and the reefs in the Oberburg district, indicating great oscillations of 
the area and vast changes in the life of the time, still the genera which con- 
tribute so largely to the formation of modern reefs are found represented in 
abundance in the lowest reefs, which clearly belong to the Nummulitic period. 

Our Eocene corals and those found at Brockenhurst are the stunted off- 
shoots of the faunas which flourished at Oberburg and in the Vicentine, but 
nevertheless some of their species are closely allied to those of much later 
geological date. 

Without the assistance of the labours of Reuss and D’Achiardi zoophytolo- 
gists could not have imagined that the well-known coral-faunas of the Hala 
Mountains of Sindh, of the Nummulitic deposits of the Maritime Alps and 
Switzerland, and of the London and Paris basins were but fractions of a 
fauna which was probably richer in species than any modern coral tract; and 
this welcome aid proves the impropriety of neglecting foreign palxontology, 
even when writing reports like the present, and which treat of the produc- 
tions of the rocks of a small area. The impossibility of comparing with any 
satisfaction the Nummulitic coral-fauna and that of the Upper Chalk is 
obvious; because the Nummulitic fauna, so far as it is known to us, was 
either a reef or a comparatively shallow-water one, whilst the corals of the 
Upper Chalk were dwellers in a deep sea, where reef species cannot and 
could not exist. We must seek to compare the Upper Cretaceous corals with 
the deep-sea forms of the Nummulitic, but unfortunately they are not yet 
found*, 

The Lower Cretaceous corals of Great Britain were the contemporaries of 
the reef-builders of the Gosau and equivalent formations, and thus deep-sea 
and reef species were contemporaneous, as they are at the present time, but they 
were separated by wide distances. The comparison of the reef-fauna and that 
of the deep sea is in this instance as futile as it would be at the present time ; 
but we may compare the reef-fauna of Gosau with that of the Nummulitic, 
Oligocene, Miocene, and existing reefs, and not without benefit and good 
results, for there are persistent species which unite the whole together. 

A comparison may also be instituted between the deep-sea coral-faunas of 
the Chalk and those which flourished at corresponding depths in the succeed- 
ing geological epochs. Thus, thanks to Messrs. Wyville Thomson, Carpenter, 
and Jeffreys, I have been able to assert the extraordinary homologies between 
the deep-sea Cretaceous corals and those which now exist to the west of these 
islands. These results are being published by the Zoological Society. The 
present arrangement of coral genera in and about reefs was foreshadowed as 
early as the Kocene, and such assemblages of genera existed in those old reefs as 
would characterize the coral life of atolls in the Caribbean Sea and in the raised 
reefs of the Pacific Ocean. The genera Madrepora, Alveopora, Porites, Helias- 
trea, and Millepora were represented in the Oberburg, and their species con- 
stitute the bulk of existing reefs. It is important to be thus able, from the 
labours of MM. Milne-Edwards, J, Haime, and Reuss, to determine the 
existence of Perforate and Tabulate corals in the earliest tertiaries, for inter- 
esting links are thus offered to the paleontologist by which the older and 
the newer faunas are connected. Such researches diminish the importance 

of the break between the early Tertiary fauna and the present, and also, to a 


* See P. M. Duncan on anew Coral from the Crag, and on the persistence of Cretaceous 
types in the deep sea (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xxvii. pp. 369 & 434), 


122 REPORT—1871. 


certain extent, that between the Paleozoic and recent faunas. Thus the find- 
ing of species of the great Perforate genus Madrepora in the Oberburg 
carries the genus a step further back than their discovery in the Oligocene 
of Brockenhurst, and when taken into consideration with the presence of 
the Stephanophyllia, a perforate simple coral, in the Crag, Eocene, and Lower 
Cretaceous deposits, and with Actinacis, a highly developed compound form, 
in the Lower Cretaceous strata of Gosau, the immense break between the 
next form of the family and the existing is materially diminished. The next 
form is not met with until the Carboniferous deposits of Indiana are reached 
in a downward course ; and we owe to the late Jules Haime the knowledge 
of the structures of Paleacis cuneiformis, Haime, MS., from Spurgeon Hill, 
Indiana. It is indeed remarkable that the vast coralliferous strata which 
intervene between the Carboniferous and the Lower Chalk should not present 
a satisfactory proof of the existence of those members of the existing great 
reef-building family. There is a curious fact which may be taken for what 
it is worth in considering the absence of genera which have been represented 
in some ancient deposits and which have not been found in intermediate 
strata. Thus the existing West-India reefs contain abundance of the species 
of the genus Madrepora and Millepora; indeed they, with the forms of 
Porites, constitute the bulk of the formations. Now, although Porites is 
common in the Miocene reefs of the area, the others are very rare, for the 
coral structures were principally composed of tabulate forms and Heliastreans, 
Yet we know that before the Miocene reefs flourished, Madrepore and Mille- 
pore were common enough; they were living all the while in other coral 
tracts. But the break between the Paleozoic and the Lower Cretaceous forms 
cannot be bridged over without investigating the value of the classification 
which separates the most closely allied “subfamily of the Perforata, although 
the Perforata are found in the Great Oolite. 

II. The Perforata characterized by a porous coenenchyma and other tissues 
present many modifications of their hard parts. Some approach the Aporosa, 
and others would hardly be considered corals by the uninitiated on account of 
the sponge-like reticulations of the skeleton. The genus Madrepora is defined 
as follows by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime :— 

The corallum is compound and increases by budding. The ecenenchyma 
is abundant, spongy, reticulate, slightly or not at all distinguishable from 
the walls, which are very porous. The visceral chambers are subdivided by two 
principal septa, which meet by their inner margins, and are more developed 
than the others. 

The septa, especially the two largest, although perforated, are continuous, 
and very often lamellar. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime distinguish the Poritide in the fol- 
lowing manner :— 

The corallum is compound, and entirely formed of a reticulate coonenchyma, 
which is formed of trabecule and is porous. The corallites are fused 
together by their walls, or by an intermediate coonenchyma, and they multiply 
by budding, which is usually extracalicular and submarginal. 

The septal apparatus i is always more or less distinct, but never completely 

lamellar, and is formed by a series of trabecule, which constitute by their 
union a sort of lattice-work. The walls present the same structure as the 
septa. The visceral chambers sometimes have rudimentary dissepiments, 
but are never divided by tabule. 

This family is divided into two subfamilies— 

1. The Poritine, with a rudimentary or absent coenenchyma. 

2, The Montiporine, with a well-developed ccenenchyma. 


‘ahh 


ON THE BRITISH FOSSII. CORALS. 123 


Tt will be noticed, when specimens of Montiporine and Madrepore are 
compared, that the distinction is in the absence of the two large and not 
very perforate septa in the case of the first-mentioned group, and it is clear 
that the excessively trabecular character of its septa, coonenchyma, and walls 
is characteristic. Moreover the Montiporine are recent forms. 

The genus Litharcea amongst the Poritine approaches Madrepora, however, 
and its septa are often so lamellar that they resemble those of some Helias- 
treans amongst the Aporosa. Here the distinction between the forms 
becomes limited. The two great septa are not extended to the median line in 
Litharea, and there is scanty cconenchyma, but still there is some. The colu- 
mella of Litharea is simply formed by the union of trabecule from the septal 
ends. 

Now Protarea vetusta, Hall, and Protarea Verneuili, Kd. & H., Lower Silu- 
rian corals from Ohio, only differ from the species of Litharea by having more 
aporosesepta and some ccenenchymal protuberances*. It is necessary, however, 
on account of the comparatively late appearance (so far as our investigations 
has as yet gone) of Madrepora and Litharea, whilst admitting the extraor- 
dinary relation of the last-named genus to Protarwa, to examine another of 
the Jurassic Perforata. 

The genus Microsolena of the Poritins carries the excessively trabecular 
type of the Poritinse as far back as the Great Oolite; it is of course one of 
the extreme forms, and most remote from Madrepora. It has more or 
less confluent septa, and nothing like the styliform columella of Protaraa. 
Thus Paleacis, a form of the Madreporine, and Protarcea, a type of the 
Poritine, are still unsatisfactorily disconnected by intermediate species with 

_their allies in the secondary rocks. But, on the other hand, it is something 
to be able to show an anatomical connexion between the Protaree of the 
Lower Silurian and the Microsolene of the Jurassic and of the Litharee of the 
Nummulitic rocks, and between Paleacis and the Turbinarians of the group 
Madrepora, of which <Actinacis is the oldest (Lower Chalk)?. It shows that 
the reticulate or perforate corals existed amongst the first known coralliferous 
rocks, that the scheme of their organization has been perpetuated to the 
present day through many kinds of variations, but with a great break, which 
is owing to the imperfection of the geological record. 

III. The Tabulata, which form such large portions of many modern reefs, 
were, as has been already noticed, in existence during the Miocenef, the 
Oligocene §, and the Eocene||._ They were, of course, not found amongst 
the deep-sea deposits of the Cretaceous period, such, for instance, as our 
White Chalk; but Reuss found the genera in the reefs of Gosau. Heliopora 
Partschi, Reuss, sp.; H. macrostoma, Reuss, sp. ; Polytremacis Blainvilleana’; 
P. bulbosa, d’Orb.: these are not uncommon in the reefs which were in 
relation with the Hippurites, and the last coral genus lived during the 
Eocene. Reuss established a genus in 1854 for some compound, massive 
corals, with prismatic corallites with thick imperforate walls. The calices 
are without radiating septa and have no columelle. The tabulx are very 
irregular, some being complete and others uniting obliquely with their neigh- 
bours. The septa are represented by trabecule. This Lower Cretaceous 
genus he named Stylophyllum, and will be considered further on. 


* See Hist. Nat. des Corall. vol. iii. p. 185, 

+ M. Lindstrom has lately described a Ca/ocystis, a perforated coral from the Silurian. 
t See Duncan, West-Indian Fossil Corals (Q. J. Geol. Soc.) ; Reuss, Corals of Java, &e. 
-§ Reuss, op. ci¢,, and Duncan (Pal. Soc. Tertiary Corals of Brockenhurst). 

|| MM. Milne-Edwards and Haime, Hist. Nat. des Corall. &e. 3 


124. REPORT—1871. 


Pocillopora, so common a genus amongst the Indo-Pacific reefs, was found 
in the West-India Miocene, the Javan deposits, and at Turin and Dax. It 
is considered to be allied to Canites by Milne-Edwards, but Jules Haime 
doubted the Zoantharian characters of the last-named genus, which is Pale- 
ozoic. Seriatopora, a modern genus, does not appear to have been found 
fossil; but it is closely allied, according to the received opinion, with Rhab- 
dopora, Dendropora, and Trachypora, all Paleozoic genera, the first being 
Carboniferous and the others Devonian. Millepora, the great reef-building 
genus of the West Indies, can be traced into the Lower Tertiaries, and is 
closely allied to the #Heliopora already mentioned, and by structure to the 
Heliolites of the Paleozoic period. 

Between the Lower Cretaceous reefs and the Paleozoic there were the 
Devonian, the Oolitic, the Lower Liassic, the Rheetic, and the St. Cassian and 
the Muschelkalk reefs, but not a trace of a tabulate coral has been recorded 
from them, in spite of the affinities of the modern and most ancient genera 
of the Devonian. Cyathophora has tabule, but its alliances are with the 
Astreide. On examining the lists published in my last Report, the absence 
of tabulate corals in the whole of the Mesozoic strata of Great Britain will be 
apparent, and I have not been able to distinguish any foreign forms belonging 
to that vast age (except our Holocystis elegans, Ed. and H.), of which notice 
will be taken in treating of the Rugosa and the species of Columnastrea. 

Just as the Thecide, Favositide, and Halysitinze formed the reef-builders of 
the tabulate fauna of the Paleozoic times, so Milleporidze and Seriatoporidee 
contribute to the recent reef-fauna ; but these last genera had species in the 
Palwozoic fauna, so the break of the end of the Permian or Carboniferous 
periods was not complete so far as the Tabulata were concerned. The ab- 
sence of them from the successive secondary reefs that have been examined 
by palzontologists has probably been produced by the destructive fossilization 
which is so common in existing reefs, and by the real absence of the forms 
from certain reef-areas of which there is an example (see ‘ West-Indian Fossil 
Corals,’ Duncan). 

The Tabulata were as abundant in the Paleozoic periods as during the 
Tertiary epochs, and the ancient and modern genera and species have certain 
characters which differentiate them more or less from all other coral forms. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime characterize the Tabulata as fol- 
lows (Hist. Nat. des Corall. iii. p. 223) :— 

The corallum is essentially composed of a well-developed mural system, and 
the visceral chambers are divided into a series of stages by transverse floors, 
which act as complete diaphragms. 

The septal apparatus is rudimentary, and is either completely deficient or 
only represented by trabecule which do not extend far into the intertabular 
spaces. 

The lamellar diaphragms, floors, or tabule, which close the visceral 
chamber of the corallite at different heights, differ from the dissepiments of 
the Astraidee by not depending in any manner upon the septa, by closing 
completely the space below, for they stretch uninterruptedly from side to 
side, instead of simply occupying the interseptal loculi. 

The septal apparatus does not affect the Rugose type, but that character- 
istic of the Perforata and Aporosa. The forms classified under the section of 
the Tabulata are very numerous, and hence the importance of determining 
whether they can be undoubtedly allied with the rest of the Actinozoa. 

Many years have elapsed since Agassiz expressed his opinion, founded upon 
direct observation, that the Afidlepore, an important genus of the Tabulata, 


ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS, 125 


were not Actinozoa, but Hydrozoa, and lately he has reasserted this state- 
ment. If Millepora is one of the Hydrozoa, those tabulate forms which 
resemble it in structure, such as eliolites, must reasonably be asso- 
ciated with it in classification. The importance, then, of determining this 
point is very great, and unfortunately it is accompanied by many difficulties. 
Before proceeding to criticise Agassiz’s remarks, it is necessary to examine 
the nature of the structures of the genera associated with Millepora, or, in 
fact, to review the classification of the Tabulata, and to note their affinities 
with the other sections. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime divide the Tabulata 
into four families :—Milleporide, Seriatoporide, Favositide, Thecide. 

The principle upon which this classification is founded is philosophical and 
natural to a certain degree. ‘The first two families have more or less ccenen- 
chyma between the corallites, and the last two have little or none, the co- 
rallites being soldered together by their walls. 

The genus Pocillopora unites the two divisions, for it belongs to the Favo- 
sitide, and yet has a compact coenenchyma on the surface of the corallum. 

The classificatory value of the presence of coonenchyma in the whole of the 
Madreporaria may be estimated by examining the scheme of MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime. 

When treating of the Madreporids (Hist. Nat. des Corall. vol. iii. p. 91), 
they subdivide them into Eupsammine without an independent coenenchyma, 
Madreporine and Turbinarine with a very abundant coenenchyma. 

The Poritide they subdivide into the Poritinee without coenenchyma, and 
the Montiporine with an abundance of that structure in the spongy or 
alveolar form. 

The Euphylliaceee (Ed. & H. op. cit. pp. 184 & 197) have such genera 
as Barysmilia and Dichocenia, associated with Dendrogyra, Gyrosmilia, Pa- 
chygyra, Rhipidogyra, which have or have not much ccenenchyma. 4 

The Stylinacee are divided into independent, ‘‘ empatées,” and agglomerate. 
The independent genera have no coenenchyma; the ‘‘ empatées” possess it in 
the extreme so as to merit the term peritheca. 

The agglomerate have an excess of exotheca, but some genera are admitted 
which are united by their walls, and are therefore without exotheca or ce- 
nenchyma. Thus Phyllocenia has an exotheca quite ccenenchymatous, and 
Astrocenia has none. The corallites of Hlasmocenia have large mural ex- 
pansions, and those of Aplocenia are soldered by their walls. Heteroceenia 
and Pentacceenia present the same anomalies, 

The Astreeinz present such genera as Aphrastrewa and Septastrea, the one 
with and the other without extramural tissue, and Heliastrea and Solenastrea 
with and Jsastrea without the same structure. 

_ It is then evident that the presence or absence of coenenchyma had different 
significations in the estimation of the distinguished French zoophytologists. 

It is evident that the structure of the corallites of Isastraee and their defi- 
ciency in ccenenchyma in comparison with the Heliastree and Solenastreese. 
cannot be of any very great organic significance ; for the corallites of Heli- 
astra occasionally grow so close together as to produce absorption of the 
exotheca and costee, and the same occurs in the Astroccenie. The presence 
of exotheca, peritheca, and ccenenchyma (for they are grades of a particular 
structure) depends very much upon the habits of the corallum, and the notion 
of teleology can hardly be separated from the consideration of this presence 
and absence. Certainly to separate great groups by the presence or absence 
- of coenenchyma is not natural. It may be very useful to the classificatory 
student, because the limitation of forms is the prevailing want; but it is not 


126 REPORT—1871. 


so to the biologist, for these mixed and unnatural limitations and separations 
only form gaps in his argument, which require bridging over, 

The Favositide and Thecide, Paleeozoic forms, may then be separated, for 
the purposes of classification, from the Milleporide and Seriatoporidee, which 
are almost all post-Paleozoic ; but this limitation is not to impede the plain 
course of the paleontologist, who studies from a biological point of view; 
nor is it to stand in the way of the assertion, that the break between the 
Paleozoic and younger Tabulata is almost nit. 

The genus Millepora belongs to the Milleporide, and the ccenenchyma of its 
species is very abundant. It is of “a very irregular and spongy structure, 
rather than tubular” (Ed. & H.). The calices are of very different dimen- 
sions on the same corallum. There are no distinct septa, nor is there a 
columella. The tabule are horizontal. These are the diagnostics of the 
genus according to Milne-Edwards and Jules Hame. A careful examination 
of the calices of good specimens determines that the trabecule, of which the 
coenenchyma is composed, often projects into them, in the position of septa; 
but there is nothing like the regular arrangement as seen in Heliopora, or 
in the Poritide of the Perforata. The cells of the coenenchyma may occa- 
sionally be seen to open into the space above the last tabula. 

The absence of septa and this relation of the ccenenchyma to the gastric 
space are most important. The tubular nature of much of the coonenchyma 
is evident, and longitudinal sections of some size prove that the spongy nature 
of it is by no means constant nor uniform. 

In Heliopora, belonging also to the Milleporide, the ecenenchyma is very 
abundant, and covered here and there with rounded pores arranged more or 
less regularly and separated by papillose granules. These grains are the 
extremities of cylindrical “tigelles” which cireumscribe the tubules, the 
calice of which is open at the surface. The calices are circular. The septa 
are slightly developed, and there are twelve of them. The tabule are well 
developed and horizontal (Ed. & H.). The nature of the coenenchyma and 
the distinct septa distinguish this genus from the last. Both of the extinet 
species have a papillose or striated structure running over the cceonenchymal 
surface. In all the species the septa do not project far into the calice; but 
the amount of projection is not sufficient, as a structural peculiarity, in any 
case to determine more than a specific distinction. Hence MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime when they separate, in their scheme of the Millepo- 
ride*, Millepora and Heliopora and other genera from Heliolites, Propora, 
and Lyellia, the particular Paleozoic genera, they can only be permitted to do 

'so on the plea that the plan renders the genera readily distinguishable. The 
projection or non-projection is not sufficient to determine a generic difference. 

Now Heliolites has a beautiful ccenenchyma, very geometric, and not irre- 
gular and spongy ; its cellules are placed regularly and symmetrically. In 
most of the species the septa are distinct, and project far inwards, but in 
Heliolites Grayi they are almost rudimentary. 

The genus Polytremacis links Heliolites and Heliopora together, for its 
coenenchyma is that of the second, and the septa resemble those of the first- 
named genus. Polytremacis is not older than Heliopora in the secondary 
ages, and the septal distinction which cannot expel Heliolites Grayi from 
its genus, and which is improperly allowed to distinguish Polytremacis and 
Heliopora, and these and Heliolites, may well have been produced by varia- 
tions in a succession of early secondary forms, 


* Op, cit. p. 225, 


ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 127 


The septal development of Heliolites is exaggerated in Propora, a genus 
from the Upper Silurian, and which perhaps lasted into the Carboniferous, 
The cost in this genus are well developed, but the ccenenchymal cells are 
less geometric than in Heliolites. The structural relations are of the closest, 
and the generic distinction is not of the usual generic value. Another 
Upper Silurian genus, Lyellia, represents these symmetrical Milleporide 
in America. The corallite walls are subcostulate and not so costulate as in 
Propora. The septa (12) are well developed, as in Heliolites and Propora and 
Heliopora, and the ccenenchyma is perfectly vesicular—spongy, in fact, like 
Heliopora. Here, then, in the distant and British and Northern European 
Silurians, there were closely allied forms varying amongst themselves, but 
more than the secondary types, the variation having some sort of likeness in 
both instances. It is impossible not to acknowledge the genetic affinities of) 
all these genera except Millepora, of which more will be said, or to hesitate 
to assert that there has never been a break in the Tabulata, and that the Re- 
cent and Paleozoic Heliopora and Heliolites are very closely allied, the one 
being the descendant of the other*. -Awopora is a tertiary genus, and its 
immense columella, which fills up the corallite inferiorly and leaves but little 
room in the calice around it, of course prevents the tabule from reaching 
across the axial space. The tabule come in contact with but do not perfo- 
rate the columella, so that this structure grows progressively without any 
reference to them; they do not form floors upon which a columella is deye- 
lopedy. There are no septa, and the coenenchyma is reticulate in the ex- 
treme. No living analogue of this genus exists, and exception may be taken 
whether it be a true coral. It has no Paleozoic representatives, 

Battersbyia is a very remarkable Paleozoic genus, and has been examined 
by met. MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime§ classify it with the Mil- 
leporidee, but apparently only provisionally ; but it will be noticed elsewhere. 
I haye associated Battersbyia and Heterophyllia together as a new division 
of the Aporosa of the Astreeide, under the name of the Palastraeacer, which 
are noticed in the first part of this Report. 

The Fayositide are divided by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime into 
the following subfamilies: Favositine, Cheetetinee, Halysitine, Pocilloporine, 
All are presumed to present the following family characteristics :—‘ The 
corallum is formed essentially of the lamellar walls of the corallites, and 
possesses hardly any or no ccenenchyma. ‘The visceral chambers are divided 
by tabulz, which are numerous and well developed.” 

The subfamilies without any ccenenchyma, and those whose corallites form a 
massive corallum, are the Favositine and the Cheetetine, and the genera whose 
corallites are not united on all sides the Halysitine. The Pocilloporins 
constitute the ccenenchymal subfamily. One of the great difficulties of the 
zoophytologist appears strongly enough whilst investigating these Tabulata, for 
the question constantly arises, and can only be answered yery unsatisfactorily, 
are such and such forms really Actinozoa? are they not Polyzoa, Hydrozoa, 
or of some class which has become extinct, and which has no modern repre- 
sentatives ? 

Some genera are characterized by the absence of septa. Thus Cheetetes | 
has long basaltiform corallites, numerous tabule which do not correspond in 


their plane throughout the corallum, no septa, and the reproduction is fissi- 
parous, i 


* See Huxley’s Address, Geol. Soc. 1870. : 
t Pal. Soc. Tertiary Corals, 3rd*Series, P. M. Duncan, pl. vil, figs, 11-15, 
¢ Phil. Trans, 1867, § Op, cit, p. 244. t 


128 REPORT—1871. 


Keyserling considered the genus to belong to the Alcyonaria amongst the 
Actinozoa; but MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, considering the great 
analogy between Chetetes and Favosites, and particularly with Beaumontia, 
‘ou la présence de cloisons n’est pas contestable”*, determined its position 
to be amongst the true Tabulata. 

The same authors now recognize the necessity of separating Chetetes from 
Monticulipora, and assert that the members of the last-named genus increase 
by gemmation. 

The genus Dania differs from Chetetes in haying the tabule on regular 
planes which traverse the whole corallum. This peculiarity is hardly of 
generic value. 

Stellipora (Hall) is not generically different from Monticulipora, and the 
truth of this assertion can be estimated by comparing the diagnosis of the 
genera given by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime ft. 

The differentiation of Dekayia (Ed. & H.){ and of Labechia is also unsatis- 
factory, and their more or less mammillated coenenchyma ranges them together 
by the side of Stellipora as subgenera of Monticulipora. 

Now Jules Haime, when investigating the Oolitic Polyzoa, classified forms 
without septa and with tabule, like Chetetes or Monticulipora, as Polyzoa, 
and the beautiful Stellipore were especially included. 

Now the question arises, are there any recent Polyzoa whose soft parts 
have been examined that have tabule? From our knowledge of the recent 
Polyzoa, it is unsafe to answer this in the affirmative. There is a freshwater 
species which is said to have tabule, but the assertion requires confirmation. 
The classification, then, of these forms amongst the Polyzoa must be deferred, 
and I propose to decide against it now. 

Beaumontia, the genus noticed above, is distinguished by MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime § as follows :—‘‘ This genus is distinguished from 
all other Chetetine by the formation of its tabule, which are irregular or 
vesicular, and it thus resembles Michelenia, belonging to Fayositine.” The 
presence of septa belonging to three cycles is asserted by the same authors, 
and this fact must remove the genus quite out of the neighbourhood of septa- 
less forms. 

The genera of the Chetetine were formerly Chetetes, Monticulipora, Dania, 
Stellipora, Dekayia, Beaumontia, and Labechia. It has been shown that 
Stellipora, Dekayia, and Labechia are subgenera of Monticulipora, that Dania 
cannot be separated from Chetetes, and that Beawmontia has no correct affinity 
with the others, and that it belongs to another family. 

The genera should stand thus :— 


CH2TETINE. 


Chatetes. Subgenus Dania. 

Monticulipora, Subgenus Stellipora. 
- Dekeayia. 
of Labechia. 


But the subgeneric names should be dropped. 
' This result is interesting because it eliminates Beawmontia and makes a 
compact series, the affinities of which are not Polyzoan, but which may be 
Alcyonarian or Hydrozoan. 

The long tabular or basaltiform corallites of Chetetes and its allied forms, 


* Op. cit. pp. 271. F Op. cit, vol. iii. pp. 272, 281. 
¢ Ibid. p. 283. § Op. cit, vol. iii. p. 282. 


ee a a 


ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 129 


and their more or less horizontal and perfect tabule, recall the Tubiporins 
amongst the order of the Alcyonaria. 

The Alcyonaria are Actinozoa which are separated by MM. Milne-Edwards 
and Jules Haime from the Zoantharia on account of the pinnate structure of 
the tentacles, and from these important organs being invariably eight in 
number. 

The zoantharian tentacles, on the contrary, are simple or irregularly rami- 
fied, and increase in number with age. 

The Alcyonaria are divided into the families of the Aleyonide, the Gorgo- 
nid, and the Pennatulide. 

The first two families have an adherent corallum, and the last consists of 
free forms. 

The Alcyonide haye no hard central axis, but this characterizes the 
Gorgonide. 

Now the Cornularine, Telestine, and Aleyonine, subfamilies of the Aley- 
nide, are clearly allied to the Tubiporine by their soft structures; but the 
hard external structures of this subfamily are only faintly shown in the spi- 
culate scoriaceous conditions of the external tegument of Nephthya, Spoggodes, 
and Paraleyonium. The polypes of Nephthya and Paraleyonium enter their 
spiculate and dense external covering when they contract; but the hard 
structures of Spoggodes celosia, Lesson, are very slightly developed. 


Tusrrora (pars), Linneus. 


Tubipora, Lamarck. 

The genus has been examined by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime 
with their usual care and acumen. 

The specimens of Zubipora are so common that the descriptions of these 
authors concerning the hard parts of the corallum can readily be followed. 

The corallites are formed principally by a tabular wall, the tissue of which 
is calcareous and readily fractured. There are no septa, but there are ru- 
dimentary tabula, which cut off the visceral cavity into more or less perfect 
stages. The corallites are cylindrical, and usually attain an equal height ; 
but they do not touch each other, for they are united by a peritheca, which 
is only seen here and there in distinct floors. The budding takes place 
from the connecting peritheca, which is therefore a true ccenenchyma, and 
not like that of Solenastrea. Were the corallites in contact the appearance 
of Cheetetes would be presented ; so that the presence of the coenenchyma is 
the differentiating structure. It is only of generic value, and thus there is 
a yery strong reason for associating the Chietetine and all the other fossils 
with long tubular structures, no septa, and tabule with the Alcyonide in the 
subfamily Tubiporine and near the genus Zubipora. These remarks are 
subject, of course, to the consideration whether the views of Agassiz already 

noticed are correct. 

Reuss’s genus Stylophyllum (Gosau Chalk) cannot be associated with the 
Aleyonide, for the species has septa. The corallites are united by their 
walls without there being a coenenchyma, and the walls are imperforate. The 
junction of the corallites takes place by means of an epitheca. 

The junction may occur at any part of the corallite. 

The resemblance of Stylophyllum to some of the Halysitinze (Ed. & H.)* 
‘necessitates an examination of their structural peculiarities. ~ 

* * Op. cit, vol. iii, p. 286. 


1871, 3 x 


130 REPORT—1871. 


MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime differentiate the Halysitine as 
follows :— 

“The corallum is compound, but its corallites unite imperfectly, and 
constitute lamellar expansions or long fasciculi; they are either free on two 
sides, or are united together by ‘eapansions murales,’” 

The septa are small, but usually very distinct; finally the walls are well 
developed and aporose. 

The genera are :—Halysites, Fischer ; Syringopora, Goldfuss ; Thecostegites, 
Ed. & H. (Harmodites, Michelin); Conostegites, Ed. & H.; Fletcheria, Ed. 
& H. 

Halysites. The species are invariably formed by corallites which are joined 
on two sides, and which in transverse outline resemble links of a chain. 
The epitheca is very strong, and unites the corallites perfectly where 
they are in contact from the base to the calice. Septa12. Tabule 
horizontal and well developed. (Silurian.) 

Thecostegites. The corallites have septa, horizontal tabule, and an exotheca 
unites them, and it is more or less tabular in structure, and exisis in 
stages like the Zubipora. In’Z. parvula the coenenchyma is nearly 
compact. (Devonian.) 

Conostegites. There are numerous septal striee, which mark also the smooth 
and convex surfaces of the tabule. The tabule are more or less infun- 
dibuliform, and the epitheca unites the corallites here and there. 

Syringopora. The corallum is fasciculate ; the corallites are cylindrical and 
very long, parallel, and free laterally, except where horizontal tubes 
connect them. The walls are well developed, and clothed with a strong 
epitheca; septa exist. The tabule are infundibuliform. 

Fletcheria. The corallum is fasciculate; the corallites are cylindrical, close, 
and long. The epitheca is complete; septa exist. Tabule horizontal 
and well developed. No intercorallite tubes or expansions of epitheca. 
Gemmation calicular. 

It is evident that some of these genera are very slightly allied; for in- 
stance, Syringopora and Fletcheria, and both of them and Halysites. 

Halysites, with its stout epitheca and simple tabule with non-tubular 
joints, is a very definite form. 

Thecostegites should belong to the Milleporide. 

Oonostegites, with infundibuliform tabule, is related to Halysites as Miche- 
linia is to Favosites. 

Fletcheria is altogether aberrant. 

The Halysitinee comprehend, according to this analysis, Halysites, Fischer ; 
Stylophyllum, Reuss; Conostegites, Ed. & H. 

The genera Syringopora and Fletcheria will be considered further on. 
wae subfamily of the Pocilloporinse contains the genera Pocillopora and 

‘aenites, 

Pocillopora has septa (and my specimens show 12), which, even in fossil 
specimens, mark the top of the tabule. There is a columellary swelling on 
its tabule. The ceenenchyma is very stout and thick in old portions of the 
corallum, less so where growth has just ceased, and the coenenchyma barely 
exists where the corallites or calices are developing. It is cellular at first,. 
and then fills up with calcite and other coral salts. 

Fossil forms have been described by Reuss and myself from the Cainozoic 
formations. 

_ Ceenites resembles Pocillopora in a certain density of its coenenchyma, but 
differs in only haying three tooth-like septa, like the genus Alveolites. 


ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 131 


The number of septa and the habit of growth of the two genera separate 
them very widely ; and the propriety of connecting the last-named one with 
the Milleporide must be considered. 

There are four genera in the family of the Seriatoporide :—Seriatopora, 
Dendropora, Rhabdopora, Trachypora. 

The family is characterized by the continual growth of the lower parts of 
the corallites and the rarity of tabule. 

Seriatopora is a recent genus, and therefore those associated with it must 
be carefully examined. 

Dendropora, Michelin, is clearly too closely allied to Rhabdopora to be 
separated generically. 3 

Rhabdopora, formed for the Dendropora megastoma, M‘Coy, by MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime, has only one species, the diagnosis of which is as 
follows :— 

Rhabdopora megastoma, M‘Coy, sp.—The corallum is branching. Branches 
four-sided, starting from the stem at an angle of 70°, and very equal. Cce- 
nenchyma granulated or subechinulated and obscurely striated. Calices in 
vertical series on each face of the branches. Septa (teeth) 12 in number and 
subequal. : 

It is impossible to separate this from Seriatopora, for the four-sided suture 
of the branches is only a specific (if that) distinction. 

Trachypora appears to be an Alcyonarian. 

The distinction between Pocillopora and Seriatopora is not generic, and 
therefore these genera and Dendropora (for Dendropora and Rhabdopora 
are equal, and the first name is the oldest) are absorbed in one. Oken’s 
name Acropora (1815) may be used as the generic term :—AcRoPporA 
(Seriatopora, Lamarck ; Pocillopora, Lamarck ; Dendropora, Michelin ; Rhab- 
dopora, Ed, & Haime). 

All the species of the absorbed genera should take the generic name of 
Acropora, and the family becomes that of the Acroporine. Thus the sharp 
distinction between the recent and Paleozoic forms is partly smoothed down, 
and the old Dendropore and Rhabdopore were doubtless the ancestral 
forms of the recent Acropore. Ccnites cannot be associated with the 
family. 

The family of the Thecides is characterized by well-formed septa, which 
are prolonged throughout the visceral chamber, well-developed tabule, which 
grow like dissepiments upon the sides of the septa, and these last do not 
spring from the upper surface of the tabul, asin some Tabulata. The walls 
are solid, compact, and united. 

The corals contained in the family are all Silurian forms, so far as is 
known at present. 

Thecia, Kd. & Haime. It is a most remarkable fact that this genus, the 
species of which have no true wall, but a dense ceenenchyma between septal 
prolongations or costs, should here give the family name. Thecia Swinder- 
niana, Goldfuss, sp., has been called Agaricia, Porites, Astreopora, and Palco- 
pora by different authors, so that its classificatory position may well be a 
matter of doubt. It is not in the least allied to Columnariz, which has solid 
walls, and which fulfils all the characteristics of the Thecide. 

In Theeia, Ed. & H., there is a long visceral cavity surrounded by a dense 
tissue, as in Millepora, through which the septa, or rather the costa, run. 

What is the structure of Plasmopora and Propora but that of Theeia 
‘slightly modified. The genus clearly must be associated with them amongst 
the Milleporidic. 

K2 


132 REPORT—1871. 


Columnaria is a fine form; the great septa (12 to 18) and tabule, with 
the compact walls, distinguish it at once. Col. alveolata is a Lower Silurian 
form, C. Gothlandica is Upper Silurian. It is a most important genus, and 
its affinities will be noticed. 

The Favositide have a massive corallum without coenenchyma, septa, and 
perforate walls; that is, there are openings which permit the visceral cavity 
of one corallite to communicate with that of another in several places. The 
following genera are included by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime :— 
Favosites, Emmonsia, Michelinia, Remeria, Koninckia, Alveolites. 

Favosites is the typical genus. In some species the mural foramina are 
scanty in number, in others numerous; and they are even in relation with 
the angles of the wall, especially in /. alveolaris. 

The earliest species of the genus are Lower Silurian, for instance :—F’. Goth- 
landica, F. multipora, F. aspera, F. Forbesi (which ranges through to the 
Upper Silurian), and F, fibrosa (haying the same vertical range, and is found 
as a Devonian fossil). 

F. Hisingeri has the same range as F. fibrosa. F. cristata and F. cervi- 
cornis are the same, and the range is from the Upper Silurian of England 
to the Devonian of Russia. 

The species which are Devonian, and do not range above or below, are :— 
F. Goldfussi, F. basaltica, F. polymorpha, F. alveolaris, F. pediculata, F. Tehi- 
hatchefi, and F. mammillaris. The only known Carboniferous Favosites is 
F. parasitica, and it is a degenerate form. 

F. Gothlandica has rounded processes encircling the mural pores, and the 
projections formed upon one fit against those of the neighbouring corallite. 
F, multipora has three vertical series of pores, and its walls are almost as per- 
forate as some Alveopore. 

The tabule are almost universally horizontal in the Favosites, but some are 
wavy in their course; and the septa are a series of vertical spines which vary 
in size according to the cycle, and are often referable to three cycles in six 
systems. In some there is a faint columellary swelling on the tabule. 

A careful examination of the species proves that the earliest known forms 
are as highly developed as the Devonian, but that the species parasitica is_ 
dwarfed. 

Emmonsia has imperfect tabule. The tabule are vesicular at the sides, 
or dissepimental, and they communicate more or less with each other. 

Remeria has infundibuliform tabule, and the species is Devonian. 

Koninckia is an Upper Cretaceous form; it has thin and nearly horizontal 
tabule, thin walls very much perforated, and six series of large spiny septa. 

Michelinia has irregular and vesicular (dissepimental) tabulee, and simple 
strie for septa (Devonian and Carboniferous). The alliance of AMichelinia, 
Remeria, and Emmonsia is very evident. Mr. Kent has written a most 
interesting description of Favositipora (Kent), Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1870, 
vol. vi. p. 384, which unites the Favositine and the Favositide. 

Alveolites offers the same objection to being united to avosites that.Canites 
does to Pocillopora; in fact Alveolites is a Canites with perforated walls, 
and it is proposed to deal with both genera by disassociating them from their 
recognized families, 

Syringopora I propose uniting with the Favositide, as it has tubular 
connexions between the visceral centres of the corallites, which are fore- 
shadowed in J, Gothlandica. 

After this analysis of the Tabulata, it is necessary to state the opinions of 
Prof, Agassiz respecting their Hydrozoan characteristics, 


ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS, 133 


Prof. Agassiz (senior) writes as follows in the ‘ American Journal of Science 
and Arts,’ 2nd series, vol. xxvi. p. 140, November 1858 :-— 

“The animals of Millepora are Hydroid Acalephs and not polyps;” that 
is to say, they are Hydrozoa and not Actinozoa. The résumé of several letters 
to Dana is given at the same place. “JI have seen,” writes Agassiz, “in 
the Tortugas something very unexpected. Millepora is not an actinoid polyp 
but a genuine Hydroid, closely allied to Hydractinia. This seems to carry 
the whole group of Favositids over to the Acalephs, and displays a beautiful 
array of this class from the Silurian to this day.” 

Dana adds a note to this statement. “The drawings of Professor Agassiz 
which have been sent us for examination are so obviously Hydractinian in 
most of their characters that no one can question the relation. With re- 
gard to the reference of all the Favositide (a group including Fuvosites, 
Fenestella, Pocillopora, &e., as well as the minuter Millepora, Chetetes, &e.) 
to the Acaleph class, direct evidence is not yet complete, as the animal of the 
Pocillopora has not been figured by any author on zoophytes. From the 
specimens of the species of this genus which I procured in the Pacific, I never 
obtained a clear view of the polyps, and hence made no figure. The brief 
description on page 523 of my Report may be reasonably doubted until con- 
firmed by new researches. The much larger cells in Pocillopora, Favosites, 
and Jenestella than in Millepora, and the frequently distinct rays in these 
cells, are the characters I had mentioned to Prof. Agassiz as suggesting a 
doubt as to their being Acalephs, and to this what follows above relates.” 

Agassiz observes, in a subsequent letter, after observing that the Sidero- 
poree obviously are polyps, ‘‘ There are two types of radiating lamelle which 
are not homologous. In true polyps (excluding Favositide as Hydroids) the 
lamelle extend from the outer body-wall inward along the whole height of that 
wall, and the transverse partitions reach only from one lamella to the other, 
so that there is no continuity between them, while the radiating lamelle 
are continuous from top to bottom in each cell. In Milleporide the partitions 
are transverse and continuous across the cells; so are they in Pocillopora and 
in all Tabulata and Rugosa; while the radiating lamellae, where they exist, 
as in Pocillopora and many other Favositide, rise from these horizontal 
floors, and do not extend through the transverse partitions; indeed they are 
limited within the spaces of two successive-floors, or to the upper surface of 
the last. A careful comparison of the corallum of Millepora and Pocillopora 
with that of Hydractinia has satisfied me that these radiating partitions of 
the Favositide, far from being productions of the body-wall, are foot-secre- 
tions, to be compared to the axis of the Gordonia corallum &c., and their 
seeming radiating lamelle to the vertical groove or keel upon the surface of 
the latter, which, reduced to a horizontal projection, would also make the 
impression of radiating lamellz in the foot of the polyp. If this be so, you 
see at once that apparent radiating lamelle of the Favositide do no longer 
indicate an affinity with the true polyps, but simply a peculiar mode of 
growth of the corallum; and of these we have already several types, that of 
Actinoids, that of Alcyonoids, that of Bryozoa, that of Millepora, and other 
corallines, to which we now add that of Hydroids. Considering the subject 
in this light, is there any further objection to uniting all the Favositid with 
the Hydroids? Sideropora and Alveopora being of course removed trom the 
Favositide. It is a point of great importance in a geological point of view, 
and for years I have been anticipating some such result, as you may see by 

" comparing my remarks in the ‘ American Journal,’ May 1854, p-315. Ifall 
the Tabulata and Rugosa are Hydroids, as I believe them to be, the class of 


134 REPORT—1871. 


Acalephs is no longer an exception to the simultaneous appearance of all the 
types of Radiata in the lowest fossiliferous formations, and the peculiar cha- 
racters which these old Hydroid corals present appears in a new and very 
instructive aspect.” 

A. Agassiz includes the Tabulata amongst the Hydrozoa. He notices 
“that the absence of radiating partitions in the Tabulata seems to show 
without much doubt that their true place is among the Hydroids.” It is 
true that Prof. Agassiz has not observed the Medusa-buds on the specimens 
he has figured, yet the Hydroid character of the animal and their similarity to 
Halocheris-like Hydroids is very striking (Havard Catalogue, 1865, p. 219). 

Prof. Alexander Agassiz informs me that his father still holds these opinions, 
and that new researches have satisfied him about the correctness of the 
drawings which have been lately reproduced. “ Willepora is not. an actinoid 
polyp, but a genwine Hydroid, closely allied to Hydractinia.” 

This very strong expression of opinion is founded upon the appearance 
presented by the polyps of Millepora alcicornis, the drawing of which has 

been reproduced by A. Agassiz. Now the distinction between the Actinozoa 
and the Hydrozoa is well marked; in the first the generative apparatus is 
included in the gastric and perigastric cavities, and in the last the digestive 
and generative organs are perfectly apart. very variety of tentacular and 
disk apparatus may exist in either, but the external development of the gem- 
mules, ova, and embryonic forms. must be recognized before any Ceelenterate 
| animal can be associated with the Hydrozoa. 

Here is the point at which Agassiz fails. His researches are only sug- 
gestive, until the generative organs are recognized on the protruded polypes 
of Millepora, and until the mesenterico-ovarian layers are proved not to exist 
within the calices. The external resemblance of the Millepore polypes to the 
sterile Hydractinia is evident. 

The remarks upon Favositide, Sideropore, and other genera, made by 
Agassiz in consequence of the assumption that Millepora is Hydrozoan, are of 
doubtful value ; and I must refer back to my analysis of the Tabulata to show 
how a confused classification between both classes imperils research. Sidero- 
pora is nota tabulate form even. A careful examination of Columnaria satis- 
fies me that Agassiz’s description of the lamelle fails in that genus; and inas- 
much as the wavy lines of Gorgonia and Corallium are connected with the water 
system of the species, they can have no possible relation with the radiate 
amellz or groovings of the Milleporan calices. The homologues of the grooves 
are the depressions and irregular interstriated portions on top of the ccenen- 
chyma between the calices in the Tabulata. 

The perforate walls and the septa of the true Favositidsee seem to remove 
them from the range of the remarks of Agassiz, which may well deserve 
attention, so far as Millepora is concerned, for it is a genus with, marked 
distinctions from all other corals. 

It is not reasonable to include the Rugosa, because some of them haye no 
tabulz, and others have them so much like dissepiments, or associated with 
dissepiments, that we are impressed with the unimportance of the differen- 
tiations established by the presence of horizontal tabule. 

It is most important that the minute structure of the Milleporide should 
be thoroughly investigated, and any report on the Palaeozoic corals must be 
very incomplete without a detailed description of its study. 


ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 1385 


Section TABULATA. 

Families. 

Milleporide, Coenenchyma cellular. 

Acroporide, Coenenchyma compact. 
Favositide. Walls perforated. 

Without ccenenchyma .. ; Halysitide. Walls imperforate. 
Alveolitide. Septa tridentate. 


With ccenenchyma .... { 


Genera. 
Millepora*. 
Heliolites, Helioporat, Polytremacis. 
Propora, Plasmopora, Thecia. 


MILLEPORIDZ...... Lyellia. 
Thecostegites. 
| Awopora. 
onus ...... { Monee Seriatopora, Pocillopora, Dendropora, Rhab- 


Favosites, Koninckia, Favositipora, genus noy. (Kent). 
Michelinia, Remeria, Emmonsia. 
| Syringopora, 
| Aulopora. 
Halysites. 
Stylophyllum. 
Hatysitip#® ...... < Conostegites. 
Columnaria. 
_Beaumontia. 
Alveolites. 
{ Coenites. 
| Fistulipora. 


FAayositip@ ...:.. 


IGVEOLITIDA ...... 


Incerte sedis ...... Fletcheria. 


ALCYONARIA, 
Cheetetes. Monticulipora. Dania. Stellipora. Labechia, 


IY. The Rugosa.—MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime observe (op. cit. 
vol. iii. p. 323), ‘that this division comprchends simple and compound 
corals, and that the septal apparatus never forms six distinct systems, and 
appears to be derived from four primitive elements. Sometimes this dispo- 
sition is shown by the great development of four principal septa, or by the 
existence of four depressions which occupy the bottom of the calice and 
take on a cross-like look. In other instances there is observed only one of 
these depressions or excavations, or one large septum interferes with the 
regularly radiate and star-shape of the septal arrangement. Finally, there 
are instances where no traces of distinct groups or systems of septa can be 
recognized, and where the septa are represented by numerous stris arising 
on the upper surface of the tabule or dissepiments near the calicular mar- 
gin.” They continue as follows :— The corallites are always perfectly di- 
stinct amongst themselves, and are never united by independent ccenenchyma. 
The walls are in general very slightly developed. The visceral chamber is 


* Millepora is a most aberrant genus if it is one of the Madreporaria Tabulata. I have 
not yet satisfied myself about the Hydroidean characteristics of its soft parts; but an 
" examination of the ccenenchyma of a series of species throws great doubt upon the Ma- 
dreporarian affinities. ; 
+ The relation of Heliopora to Heliolites is of the closest. 


136 REPORT—1871. 


ordinarily occupied by a series of tabule or vesicular endotheca, and the 
endotheca often occupies the greater part of the corallum. The septal 
lamin, although generally very incomplete, are never perforated or ‘ pou- 
trellaire ;’ finally, their lateral faces are not furnished with synapticule, and 
are only rarely granular. : re 

«‘ The individual corallites increase by gemmation, and never by fissiparity. 
The buds are generally calicular, and this form of gemmation may continue 
in the same individual. In some cases the gemmation is lateral.” 

The originators of the “ Rugosa” divide them into four families :— 


1. Stauridee. 3. Cyathophyllide. 
2. Cyathoxonide. 4. Cystiphyllidee. 


In criticising this classification some definite plan must be adopted, which 
should refer to the philosophy of the classification of the Aporosa and Per- 
forata. In fact the scheme of generic subdivision and differentiation adopted 
in the Neozoic corals can be made to apply to those of the Paleozoic age. 
Thus an essential distinction is made amongst the Neozoic corals by the 
simple or compound nature of the corallum. Simple Caryophylline constitute 
a series of genera, and the compound forms are separated as Coenocyathi, 
Now in the Paleozoic genus Cyathophyllum, MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime admit, in direct opposition to the Neozoic scheme, both simple and 
compound forms. ‘This, I think, is an error, but only an error of classifica- 
tion, for there can be no reasonable doubt of the intimate genealogical 
relation of the simple and compound genera of Cyathophyllum. 

Families *. 

1, Sravrx.—Genera: Stawria, Holocystis, Polycelia, Metriophyllum, 
Conosmilia. 

Of these Holocystis is a Lower Greensand form, and Conosmilia is Austra 
lian and Tertiary. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime place the Stauride first in their 
list of families ; but it would have made the classification more simple if the 
second family took their place ; and I propose to change the order of arrange- 
ment, but proceed at present in the recognized method. 

There is a well-developed wall in the Stauridz ; the septa are continuous 
from the top to the bottom of the calice, and are eminently quaternary in 
their arrangement. The endotheca assumes the vesicular structure between 
the septa, and then crosses over in the form of horizontal tabule. The 
Stauride approach the Cyathophyllide more than the Cyathoxonide; and, 
indeed, the only essential distinction between the first two families is in the 
truly lamellar state of the septa in the first instance, and in the incomplete 
condition of them in the second. Nevertheless it should constitute a family 
distinction. 

Two of the Stauridian genera are compound, and three are simple forms. 

Stauria, which as yet has not been found in British strata, has neither cclu- 
mella nor coste, whilst Ho/ocystis has both of these structures. There is no 
reason why the last-named genus should not be the lineal descendant of the 
rience Both were probably shallow-water forms in the neighbourhood of 
reefs. 

The simple forms Conosmilia and Polycclia are closely allied, and the 
presence of the first in the Australian Tertiaries, and of the other in the Euro- 


* See Hist. Nat. des Coralliaires, vol. iii, p. 825 e¢ seg. (Milne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime). 


ON HEAT GENERATED IN THE BLOOD. 137 


pean Permian, is highly suggestive. The remaining form, Metriophyllum, 
offers a great difficulty, for if the received classification be adopted, the genus 
is very aberrant. Thus Metriophyllwm has not four principal septa, but the 
septa are arranged in four groups, a gap or kind of septal fossula being be- 
tween each group. The British Devonian species (IM. Battersbyi, Ed. & H.) 
was founded upon a transverse section of a slab, and therefore the entire 
nature of the septa could hardly be determined. The question arises at once, 
what do those septal fossule mean? And another follows very naturally, are 
they in relation with the primary septa? 

I think that they denote a difference in the physiology of the polype, for 
they would permit of a deeper development of the visceral cavity and an 
enlarged condition of the ovarian apparatus. Moreover, these fossule may 
have much to do with the growth of the coral in calibre and in septal num- 
ber; and, furthermore, Lindstrém’s admirably suggestive paper on the oper- 
culated structures, necessitates much attention being paid to them. Can 
there be any genealogical classification which will connect in one family 
such different forms as Metriophyllum and Polycelia? I think not. 

Eliminating, then, Metriophyllum from the Stauride, I propose to permit 
the genus to remain per se for the present. 

2. Cyarnoxonrpa.—Genera: Cyathowonia, Paleozoic; Haplophyllia(Pour- 
tales) and Guynia (Duncan), recent. 

This group has no endotheca, and resembles the Turbinolide amongst the 
Neozoic corals, but it has the quaternary arrangement of the septa. 

All the forms are simple. Cyathowonia preceded the others, and all are 
closely allied. The foreshadowing of the Neozoic forms in the Paleozoic 
Cyathoxonide is evident enough. 


Report on the Heat generated in the Blood during the process of 
Arteriahzation. By Anruur Gamern, M_D., F.R.S.E., Lecturer on 
Physiology in the Extra-Academical Medical School of Edinburgh. 


In a Report which was submitted to the British Association in Liverpool 
last year*, I very shortly alluded to the objects which I had in view in com- 
mencing an investigation on the very obscure subject of the heat generated 
during the arterialization of blood. 

I pointed out that two methods of research suggested themselves as likely 
to elicit facts which would lead to a solution of the problem, and I stated 
that both these methods had been employed by previous observers. 

The first method, which would at first sight appear likely to furnish us 
with most important data, consists in ascertaining the temperature of the 
blood in the right and left ventricles of the heart of living animals. If our 
methods of experimenting were free from the great fallacies which are in- 
troduced when we are compelled to interfere, in a serious manner, with the 
central organ of the circulation, and if it resulted that the left side of the 
heart contained blood warmer than that of the right side, we should be driven 
to the conclusion either that during the process of absorption and combina- 
_ tion of the oxygen of the air a very perceptible evolution of heat had oc- 


* Report of the Liverpool Meeting, p. 228, 


138 REPORT—1871. 


curred, or that within the pulmonary vessels considerable oxidation processes 
of the blood contained in them had taken place. If, on the other hand, the 
temperature of the left side were the same as that of the right side, or lower, 
the question would still remain an open one; for heat might be evolved in 
the lungs, and yet the quantity might be insufficient to counterbalance the 
loss of heat due to the evolution of large quantities of watery vapour, of car- 
bonic acid, and to the heating of the air which we daily inspire. 

The first method, or that which consists in ascertaining the temperature 
of the two sides of the heart, need scarcely be touched upon at present; and 
I shall merely confine myself to the statement that, in the hands of the most 
experienced and reliable physiologists, and specially in those of Professor 
Claude Bernard, it has led to the curious result that the blood which 
reaches the left ventricle is colder than that which leaves the right. This 
result would, at first sight, appear to prove that if any heat be evolved in 
the lungs, its amount is not sufficient to compensate the losses to which I 
have already alluded, and rendered it absolutely essential that fresh experi- 
ments should be conducted by a second method, which consists in ascer- 
taining whether, when venous blood removed from the body is agitated with 
oxygen or atmospheric air, any changes occur in its temperature, 

The first step in the inquiry consisted in ascertaining the specific heat of 
blood, for none of the experiments previously made had led to trustworthy 
results. Dr. Crawford had, in the last century, advanced a theory of animal 
heat which was based upon an assumed difference in the specific heat of 
arterial and venous blood: he supposed that the former possessed a very high, 
and the latter a comparatively low specific heat ; so that in becoming arte- 
rialized in the lungs, the heat resulting from the condensation, solution, and 
probable chemical combination of oxygen with the blood became latent, 
being, however, evolved as the blood circulated through the body, when, 
becoming venous, it acquired a continually diminishing specific heat. Dr. 
John Davy, in his ‘ Researches, Physiological and Anatomical,’ vol. i. p. 141, 
in a chapter entitled “ On the Capacities of Venous and Arterial Blood for 
Heat,” described experiments which contradicted the hypothesis of Crawford 
as to the difference in the specific heat of the two varieties of blood, although 
the extraordinary discrepancies between different experiments rendered it 
impossible that any calculations could be based upon Dr. Davy’s results. In 
his experiments, Dr. Davy made use of defibrinated blood, employing for the 
determination of specific heat the methods of mixture and rate of cooling. 

In the experiments which I performed last year, and which are published 
in the last volume of the Reports of the British Association, I made use 
of the method of mixture, taking care to adopt all the precautions which 
modern experience has suggested. Making use of the perfectly fresh blood 
of the ox, which was sometimes venous, sometimes arterial, I obtained re- 
markably concordant results, the mean of which gave 1:02 as the coefficient 
of the specific heat of blood. Having made this determination, I could pass 
to the experiments intended to determine whether, in being arterialized, 
blood which is perfectly venous becomes hotter. 

As a preface to my own researches on this subject, it is incumbent upon me 
to allude to all the observations which have been made on this subject. In 
the second volume of Dr. Davy’s ‘ Researches, Physiological and Anatomical,’ 
at p. 168 a section is devoted to the following question :—“ When oxygen ts _ 
absorbed by the blood, is there any production of heat?” 

«To endeayour to determine this point,” says Dr. Davy, “ of so much in- 
terest in connexion with the theory of animal heat, a very thin vial, of the 


ON HEAT GENERATED IN THE BLOOD. 139 


capacity of eight liquid ounces, was selected and carefully enveloped in bad 
conducting substances, viz. several folds of flannel, of fine oiled paper, and 
of oiled cloth. Thus prepared, and a perforated cork being provided holding 
a delicate thermometer, 2 cubic inches of mercury were introduced, and im- 
mediately after it was filled with venous blood kept liquid as before described. 
The vial was now corked and shaken; the-thermometer included was sta- 
dionary at 45°. After five minutes that it was so stationary the thermometer 
was withdrawn ; the vial, closed by another cork, was transferred to a mercu- 
rial bath, and 13 cubic inch of oxygen was introduced. The common cork 
was returned, and the vial was well agitated for about a minute: the ther- 
mometer was now introduced; it rose immediately to 46°, and, continuing 
the agitation, it rose further to 46°-5, very nearly to 47°. This experiment 
was made on the 12th of February, 1838, on the blood of the sheep. On the 
following day a similar experiment was made on the venous blood of man. 
The vial was filled with 11 cubic inches of this blood, its fibrine broken up in 
the usual manner, and with 3 cubic inches of mercury; the temperature of 
the blood and mercury was 42°:5, and the temperature was the same after 
the introduction of 3 cubic inches of oxygen. The temperature of the room 
being 47°, a fire having shortly before been lit, the vial was taken to an ad- 
joining passage, where the temperature of the air was 39°. Here the vial 
was well agitated, held in the hand with thick gloves on as an additional 
protection ; after about three quarters of a minute the thermometer in the 
vial had risen a degree, viz. to 43°°5.” Dr. Davy relates two other experi- 
ments, of which the first was performed on the venous blood taken from the 
jugular vein of asheep, the second on arterial blood. The three experiments 
with venous blood showed that when agitated with mercury and air for the 
space of a minute, venous blood was heated to the extent of 1° Fahr., whilst 
the arterial blood was heated only half a degree. 

Dr. Davy quotes Sir Charles Scudamore, who, in his ‘ Essay on the Blood,’ 
at p. 59, states that venous blood cools much more slowly in oxygen gas than 
in atmospheric air; that the same blood divided into two cupping-classes, 
“ after an interval of eight minutes from the beginning of the experiment,” 
exhibited a difference of 8°,—that exposed to oxygen being 85°, that to atmo- 
spheric air 77°. 

H. Nasse, in his article on Animal Heat in the fourth volume of Wagner’s 
‘Handworterbuch der Physiologie’ (1842), quotes Marchand to the effect 
that when oxygen is shaken with blood the latter is heated. 

In a paper entitled “ On the Relative Temperature of Arterial and Venous 
Blood,” Mr. W. B. Savory, having described at considerable length observa- 
tions on the temperature of the two sides of the heart, describes others 
performed with a view to check the accuracy of the experiments of Dr. 
John Davy, and states the conclusions to which he was led by his own 
experiments, viz.:—Ist, that when venous blood is treated, as was done by 
Dr. Davy in his experiments, with oxygen, its temperature was usually raised 
from 1° to 13° or 2°; 2ndly, that when venous blood was treated in a similar 
manner with hydrogen or carbonic acid, its temperature was as frequently 
raised, and generally to the same extent ; drdly, that similar experiments 
upon arterial blood usually yielded the same results; 4thly, that in all cases 
the increase of temperature seemed to be the result of the agitation. In 
concluding his paper, Mr. Savory remarked, “‘ At present there is no evi- 
dence upon which we can safely venture further into this inquiry. If, as I 
‘conclude from my experiments, arterial blood is warmer than venous, the 
increase of temperature must occur in the lungs as a result of those changes 


140 REPORT—1871. 


which the blood there undergoes. Of the nature of those changes, little or 
nothing is known.” 

In my early researches, conducted during the months of May and June 
1869, I had attempted to determine, by means of comparatively simple con- 
trivances, whether any heat was evolved during arterialization, making use of 
delicate thermometers. At first I used a glass bottle furnished with a tubu- 
lature, near the bottom in which a cork, perforated and furnished with a glass, 
tube closed by india-rubber tubing anda clip, was inserted. The neck of the 
bottle was furnished with a cork perforated in two places ; through one of 
the perforations a delicate Centigrade thermometer passed into the centre of 
the flask, whilst into the other was inserted a bent glass tube through which 
gas might be introduced into the apparatus. The bottle which I have de- 
scribed was filled with venous blood, both the tubes communicating with its 
interior being closed. It was then maintained at a temperature varying be- 
tween 30° and 35° C. for many hours, until it had assumed the characteristic 
cherry-red coloration which indicates the complete removal of the loosely 
combined oxygen of the blood. The apparatus having been allowed to cool, 
it was invested with a jacket of felt. An india-rubber tube was made to 
connect the upper glass tube with a hydrogen gasometer, whilst the lower 
tube being opened, the hydrogen expelled any required quantity of blood. 
The apparatus was then shaken and the temperature determined. Then by 
a repetition of the process (followed in the introduction of hydrogen) pure 
oxygen gas was made to displace more of the blood, and the process of shaking 
repeated as before. The results of such experiments were eminently unsatis- 
factory, varying obviously with the amount of mechanical work which was 
formed by the experiments, and which yet did not admit of exact deter- 
mination. 

In some experiments I observed a heating which amounted to 0°-3 C.; in 
other cases the difference in the readings, before the introduction of oxygen 
and after it, seemed to point to a cooling instead of to a heating. To 
give an idea of the indefinite and perplexing results which I obtained, I 
shall cite the details of an experiment performed on the 23rd of June, 1870, 
by Professor Tait and myself, the apparatus used being a tin vessel resem- 
bling in principle-the one of glass which I have already described. This 
vessel was covered with felt, and, when shaken, it was held by means of a 
very strong iron clamp. Having been filled with sheep’s blood, it was placed 
in an air-oven and maintained for a period of twelve hours at a temperature 
which oscillated between 100° and 110° Fahr. It was afterwards placed in 
the room in which my experiments were carried on; but in order to make 
it cool more rapidly, its felt covering was taken off, and it was placed in 
water at a temperature of 15°C. It was dried, again covered with felt, 
and fixed in its clamp. Hydrogen was then made to expel 45 cubic 
inches of blood, which was found by spectroscopic examination to exhibit the 
single band of reduced hemoglobin ; after shaking the blood and hydrogen 
in the apparatus, its temperature was found to be 17°-8 C., then 18° C., the 
temperature of the air being 20°4 C. 10 cubic inches of blood were then 
drawn off and replaced by oxygen, which was brought in contact with the 
blood by shaking; the temperature rose to 18°-1 C. : more oxygen was intro- 
duced and the shaking repeated, the temperature rising to 18°25, 18°4, 18°-5, 
18°-6, 18°6, 18°-55, 18°°7, 18°75, 18°-77. At the conclusion of the experi- 
ment the quantity of blood which had been arterialized was found to be 360 
cubic centims. This experiment merely gave one of many results ; for as long 
as I followed this method I was quite unable twice to determine the same 


ON ILEAT GENERATED IN THE BLOOD. 144 


amount of heat as the result of oxygenation of the blood. The amount of 
heating in a given time depended upon several important factors, as the dif- 
ference between the temperature of the blood in the experimental vessel and 
that of the surrounding air, upon the amount of blood contained in the appa- 
ratus, and the space through which the vessel was moved during its agitation, 
no less than upon the number of the agitations. 

To describe, or even to give the results of a series of experiments so emi- 
nently unsatisfactory, would be a mere waste of time; it will be sufficient 
for me to state, however, that I clearly came to the conclusion that, like those 
who had preceded me, I had obtained no positive proof of the heating of 
blood when it absorbs oxygen, there having been as great a heating when 
water as when blood was experimented upon. 

In commencing new experiments this year, I did so with the conviction 
that, in order to obtain results of any value, my apparatus should be so con- 
structed and my experiments so conducted as to preclude the possibility of 
any appreciable rise in temperature resulting from the mechanical work of 
shaking. Then I decided upon discarding thermometers, and making use of 
thermo-electric junctions of great delicacy. 

The galvanometer employed in the research was one resembling one of 
Sir Wm. Thomson’s older forms, constructed especially for Professor Tait, 
eyery possible precaution haying been taken to avoid a trace of iron in 
the coils and framework. The wire was drawn through agate plates 
from electrolytic copper, covered with white silk and formed into four coils, 
each adjusted to produce the maximum effect with the least resistance, 
those parts of the coils nearest the magnets being made of finer wire. 
The astatic system vibrated under the earth’s force once in eight seconds ; 
but as this was much too delicate for my purpose, I placed near the in- 
strument a bar-magnet, which reduced the period of vibration to 3°-4. 

The thermo-electric junctions which I employed were made by twisting 
very thin iron and copper wire together, the free ends of the copper wires 
being immersed into the mercury pools of a very simple form of commu- 
tator placed in the circuit, which enabled me, with the greatest ease, to 
reverse the current flowing along the wires. 

The apparatus actually employed in my experiments consisted of an 
upper glass vessel, which I may call the blood reservoir, to wliich was con- 
nected a lower vessel, also of glass, and in which the blood, which was the 
subject of experiment, could be brought in contact with the gases which 
were intended to act upon it. 

The upper vessel was a glass bulb of a pyriform shape, and had a capacity 
of about 150 cubic centimetres. Above and below it was drawn out, so as to 
present two tubes, the upper of which was bent at right angles and furnished 
with a piece of india-rubber tubing, which admitted of being closed by a clamp, 
whilst the lower was furnished with a very accurately ground stopcock. In 
the side of the bulb was a round tubulature, which could be closed with a cork, 
through which passed a thermo-electric junction. The lower, or mixing- 
vessel, was cylindrical in shape, and possessed four apertures. The upper one 
was closed by a cork, bored so as to allow of the passage of a glass tube, 
attached above by means of an elastic tube to the stopcock of upper vessel or 
reservoir, and made of sucha length as to reach to the bottom of the mixing- 
yessel. Near the upper aperture was a second lateral one, into which a 
_ glass tube had been fused. This glass tube could be connected, by means of 
a metallic tube and stopcocks, either with a Sprengel mercurial aspirator or 
with an oxygen or hydrogen gasometer. A third lateral aperture was 


7 


142 REPORT—1871. 


closed with a cork, perforated (like the one which closed the upper vessel) 
by a second thermal junction. A fourth aperture in the mixing-yessel, 
closed by a stopcock, enabled it to be emptied. 

In determining with such an apparatus whether heat is generated when 
venous blood becomes arterial, the upper vessel is disconnected from the 
lower at a point below the glass stopcock previously described; it is com- 
pletely filled with water, and then the water is displaced by a stream of 
pure hydrogen gas admitted through the upper tube. 

The lower glass tube is then connected with the vessel which contains the 
blood to be experimented upon. The upper tube, through which hydrogen had 
been admitted, is now connected to the Sprengel pump, which rapidly sucks 
the blood into the vessel, without the slightest possibility of its coming in 
contact with oxygen. The upper vessel is either partially or completely filled 
with blood, but it always is ultimately left in connexion with a hydrogen 
gasometer. 

The mixing-vessel (the lowest aperture of which has been closed by india- 
rubber tubing and clip) is now connected to the Sprengel pump, and a va-~ 
cuum is formed into which hydrogen is allowed freely to flow. The vacuum 
is renewed three or four times consecutively, hydrogen being allowed to flow 
into the apparatus each time. The object of this is to exclude traces from 
the lower vessel of atmospheric oxygen. 

The stopcock which connects the upper and lower vessels is opened, and 
venous blood is allowed to flow into the lower vessel. In actual work both 
the upper and lower vessels are thickly covered with wadding. The upper 
one is firmly fixed in a clamp, and constitutes a reservoir, which, except 
when the atmospheric changes in temperature are abnormally sudden, main- 
tains during limited periods of time a constant temperature. The lower tube 
being connected to the stopcock of the upper by means of a flexible india- 
rubber tube, admits of being completely tilted, or, if necessary, shaken. 

As soon as the lower vessel contains the blood to be experimented upon, 
the thermal junctions are brought in connexion with the galvanometer, 
The amount of deviation on the graduated scale, and the direction of the 
deviation, at once tells the experimenter whether the upper or the lower 
junction be the hotter. The lower vessel is thoroughly shaken, then, after 
some time, the temperature of its contents is determined by reading on the 
scale placed in front of the galvanometer. The tube and its contents are 
then repeatedly tilted, a reading of the galvanometer being taken after each 
set of five tilts. After a certain time the lower vessel has assumed a constant 
temperature, and readings, at the interval of two or three minutes, show no 
perceptible change. I may remark that the galvanometer which, through 
the kindness of Prof. Tait, was placed at my disposal was so set that in my 
various experiments one division of the divided seale corresponded to the 
100th or the 120th of a degree Cent. The first observations made with my 
apparatus were intended to determine whether such an amount of agitation 
as would be required to communicate a thoroughly arterial colour to perfectly 
venous blood would heat the fluid to a perceptible extent, in consequence of 
the mechanical work expended in the agitation. 

In preliminary experiments I found that venous blood assumed a beauti- 
ful arterial hue, when it was mixed with oxygen contained in the mixing- 
vessel, by successively tilting the tube twenty times. In each tilt the tube 
containing blood and oxygen was completely reversed. In other preli- 
minary experiments I found that when the tube contained thoroughly arte- 
rialized blood or water, the process of tilting had no influence on the 


a FY 


eres 


ON HEAT GENERATED IN THE BLOOD. 143 


temperature of the contained fluid. It was, therefore, obvious that any heat- 
ing which might occur in the process of tilting or shaking in subsequent 
experiments could not be referred to the mechanical work expended in the 
tube and its contents. 

My next experiments consisted in determining whether, when agitated 
with a neutral gas, as, for example, hydrogen, any material change in the 
temperature of the blood occurred; they led to the result that when agi- 
tated with hydrogen gas no heating of the blood results, it being always 
remembered that the mechanical agitation to which the blood and the 
neutral gas were subjected was the same as in my experiments with blood 
and oxygen. 

In my systematic experiments on the heat generated during the process 
of arterialization, the following observations were always made :— 

1. The temperature of the lower as contrasted with the upper vessel was 
determined after the latter had been exhausted. 

2. The temperature-observations were repeated after shaking with hy- 
drogen. 

3. After the renewal of a vacuum, 

4, After admission of oxygen in the mixing-vessel. 

5. After oxygen had been thoroughly shaken with the blood. 

The results of my experiments on very numerous samples of venous blood 
have led to the conclusion that whilst, as I have previously mentioned, no 
heat is evolved on agitating blood with hydrogen, there is, on agitation with 
oxygen, always a slight evolution of heat. 

To determine the exact heating, when venous blood of varying gaseous 
composition is arterialized, appears to be most desirable. We should espe- 
cially attempt to determine the heating observed when the average venous 
blood contained in the right ventricle and directly drawn from it is ar- 
terialized. The first and most important datum to be ascertained appeared 
to me, however, to be the heating which takes place when blood which has 
been thoroughly reduced, 7. e. which contains no loosely combined oxygen 
and exhibits Stokes’s spectrum, is completely arterialized. 

From five sets of experiments on the heat developed during the arteriali- 
zation of perfectly reduced blood, I arrived at the conclusion that the mean 
rise of temperature during the absorption of oxygen amounted to 0°-0976 C, 
The maximum heating found was 0°111 C., and the minimum 0°:083 C. 

The research, of which the above are the results, was conducted in the 
Physical Laboratory of the University of Edinburgh; and I have to express 
my thanks to Professor Tait for the uniform kindness with which he helped 
me by advice, assistance, and apparatus in ascertaining the facts which are 
recorded in this Report. I intend to extend these researches very greatly. 
It is most desirable that in future experiments venous blood of known com- 
position be employed, and that the amount of oxygen absorbed and CO, 
evolved be ascertained after each experiment. I propose likewise to increase 
the period during which the blood is agitated, making use of an arrangement 
whereby the mechanical work performed in the agitation may be precisely 
determined. 


144. REPORT—1871. 


Report of the Committee appointed to consider the subject of 
Physiological Experimentation. 


A Comurrren, consisting of ten individuals, having been appointed at the last 
Meeting of the British Association, held at Liverpool, to consider the subject 
of Physiological Experimentation, in accordance with a Resolution of the 
General Committee hereto annexed, the following Report was drawn up and 
signed by seven members of the Committee. 


Report. 

i. No experiment which can be performed under the influence of an anas- 
thetic ought to be done without it. 

ii. No painful experiment is justifiable for the mere purpose of illustrating a 
law or fact already demonstrated ; in other words, experimentation with- 
out the employment of anesthetics is not a fitting exhibition for teaching 
purposes. 

iii. Whenever, for the investigation of new truth, it is necessary to make a 
painful experiment, every effort should be made to ensure success, in 
order that the suffering inflicted may not be wasted. For this reason, 
no painful experiment ought to be performed by an unskilled person 
with insufficient instruments and assistance, or in places not suitable to 
the purpose, that is to say, anywhere except in physiological and patho- 
logical laboratories, under proper regulations. 

iv. In the scientific preparation for veterinary practice, operations ought not 
to be performed upon living animals for the mere purpose of obtaining 
greater operative dexterity. 

Signed by :—M. A. Lawson, Oxford. G. M. Humpury, Cambridge. 
Jonun H. Batrour, : 
ARTHUR GAMGEE, \ Aa tied. 
Wirt1aM Frower, Royal College of Surgeons, London. 
J. Burpon Sanperson, London. 
Grorce Roxiuston, Secretary, Oxford. 


Resolutions referred to in the Report. 


That the Committee of Section D (Biology) be requested to draw up a 
statement of their views upon Physiological Experiments in their various 
bearings, and that this document be circulated among the Members of the 
Association. < 

That the said Committee be further requested to consider from time to time 
whether any steps can be taken by them, or by the Association, which will 
tend to reduce to its minimum the suffering entailed by legitimate physiolo- 
gical inquiries; or any which will have the effect of employing the influence 
of this Association in the discouragement of experiments which are not clearly 
legitimate on live animals. 


The following resolution, subsequently passed by the Committee of Section 
D (Biology), was adopted by the General Committee :— 

“That the following gentlemen be appointed a Committee for the pur- 
pose of carrying out the suggestion on the question of Physiological Expe- 
riments made by the General Committee,—Professor Rolleston, Professor 
Lawson, Professor Balfour, Dr. Gamgee, Professor M. Foster, Professor 
Humphry, Professor W. H. Flower, Professor Sanderson, Professor Mac- 
alister, and Professor Redfern ; that Professor Rolleston be the Secretary, 
and that they be requested to report to the General Committee,” 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 145 


Report on the Physiological Action of Organic Chemical Compounds. 
By Bensamin Warp Ricuarpson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 


Tue plan I have heretofore followed, of passing under review the practical 
results of the labours chronicled in previous Reports, cannot be carried out 
this year. The review itself would now become so comprehensive that it 
would occupy all the time allowed for the reading of the Report to the ex- 
clusion of the new matter to be brought forward. I shall therefore proceed 
at once to the description of new research. 


CutoraL HypRATE. 


It is two years since the substance called chloral hydrate (the physio- 
logical properties of which had been previously discovered by Liebreich) was 
introduced into this country at the Norwich Meeting of this Association. 
During the first year of the employment of chloral hydrate the enthusiasm 
connected with the learning of its value prevented, in some degree, all fair 
criticism as to its real values and dangers. The year immediately past 
has afforded time for calmer and more judicial observation, greatly, as I think, 
to the advantage of the public, since it has given to the professors of medical 
art the opportunity of learning that the new agent placed in their hands, 
blessing as it is to humanity, is not an unalloyed blessing, but one that has 
engendered a new and injurious habit of narcotic luxury, and has added 
another cause to the preventible causes of the mortality of the nation. 

Recognizing these truths, I have felt it a duty to devote some part of the 
labours of this Report to the elucidation of questions which haye become of 
public, not less than of scientific importance, and to these I would now ask 
attention. 

1. Ihave endeayoured to ascertain what is a dangerous and what a fatal 
dose of chloral hydrate. The conclusion at which I have been able first to 
arrive on this point is, that the maximum quantity of the hydrate that can 
be borne, at one dose, bears some proportion to the weight of the animal 
subjected to its influence. The rule, however, does not extend equally to 
animals of any and every class. The proportion is practically the same in 
the same classes, but there is no actual universality of rule. A mouse weigh- 
ing from three-quarters of an ounce to an ounce-will be put to sleep by one 
quarter of a grain of the hydrate, and will be killed by a grain. A pigeon 
weighing twelve ounces will be put to sleep by two grains of the hydrate, and 
will be killed by five grains. <A guineapig weighing sixteen ounces will be 
put by two grains into deep sleep, and by five grains into fatal sleep. A 
rabbit weighing eighty-eight ounces will be thrown by thirty grains into 
deep sleep, and by sixty grains into fatal sleep. 

The human subject, weighing from one hundred and twenty to one hundred 
and forty pounds, will be made by ninety grains to pass-into deep sleep, and 
by one hundred and forty grains into a sleep that will be dangerous. 

From the effects produced on a man who had of his own accord taken a 
hundred and twenty grains of the hydrate, and who seemed at one period to 
be passing into death, I was led to infer that in the human subject one 
hundred and forty grains should be accepted as dangerous, and one hundred 
and eighty as a fatal dose. Evidence has, however, recently been brought 
before me which leads me to think that, although eighty grains would 
in most instances prove fatal, it could, under very favourable circumstances, 
be recovered from. 

1871. L 


146 ; REPORT—1871. 


Dr. Hills, of the Thorpe Asylum, Norwich, has, for example, favoured me 
with the facts of an instance in which a suicidal woman took no less than 
four hundred and seventy-two grains of the hydrate dissolved in sixteen ounces 
of water, and actually did not die for thirty-three hours. Such a fact, ably 
observed as it was, is startling ; but it does not, I think, militate against the 
rule that one hundred and forty grains is the maximum quantity that 
should, under any circumstances, be administered to the human subject. 

2. Asecond point to which my attention has been directed is, what quan- 
tity of hydrate of chloral can be taken with safety at given intervals for a 
given period of time, say of twenty-four hours. To arrive at some fair con- 
clusion on this subject, I calculated from a series of experiments the 
time required for the development of symptoms from different doses of the 
hydrate, the full period of the symptoms, and the time when they had entirely 
passed away. Great difficulties attend this line of investigation; but I may 
state, as a near approximation to the truth, that an adult person who has 
taken chloral in sufficient quantity to be influenced by it, disposes of it at the 
rate of about seven grains per hour. In repeated doses, the hydrate of chloral 
might therefore be given at the rate of twelve grains every two hours for 
twenty-four hours, with less danger than would occur from giving twelve 
times twelve (144) grains at once; but I do not think that amount ought, 
except in the extremest emergencies, to be exceeded even im divided 
quantities. 

38. A third point to which I have paid attention is, the means to be adopted 
in any case when, from accident or other cause, a large and fatal dose of 
chloral hydrate has been administered. I can speak here with precision. It 
should be remembered that this hydrate, from its great solubility, is rapidly 
diffused through all the organism. It is in vain, consequently, to attempt its 
removal by any extreme measures after it has fairly taken effect. In other 
words, the animal or person under chloral, like an animal or person in a 
fever, must go through a distinct series of stages on the way to recovery or 
death ; and these stages will be long or short, slightly dangerous or intensely 
dangerous, all but fatal or actually fatal, according to the conditions by which 
the animalis surrounded. One of the first and marked effects of the chloral is 
reduction of the animal temperature ; and when an animal is deeply under the 
influence of the agent, in the fourth degree of narcotism of Dr. Snow, the tem- 
perature of its body, unless the external warmth be carefully sustained, will 
quickly descend seven and even eight degrees below the natural standard. 
Such reduction of temperature is itself a source of danger ; it allows conden- 
sation of fluid on the bronchial pulmonary surface, and so induces apnea, 
and it indicates a period when the convulsion of cold (a convulsion which 
sharply precedes death) is at hand. 

I offer these explanations in order to indicate the first favourable condition 
for the recovery of an animal or man from the effects of an extreme dose of 
chloral hydrate. It is essential that the body of the animal be kept warm, 
and not merely so, but that the air inspired by the animal be of high tempe- 
rature. The first effort to recovery, in short, should consist in placing the 
animal ina warm air. This fact is perfectly illustrated by experiment on 
the inferior animals. In the pigeon an air of 95° Fahr. is most favourable, 
in the rabbit an air at 105° to 110°, in the dog the same. In man the 
air to be breathed should be raised and sustained at 90° Fahr. at least*. 


* T have no doubt it will be found, as the chronicle of deaths from chloral hydrate in- 


creases, that the mortality from the agent will be greatest when the thermometrical 
readings are the lowest, and vice versd. 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 147 


The next thing to be remembered in the recovery of persons under the 
fatal influence of chloral hydrate is to sustain the body by food. I find that 
under even deep sleep from the narcotic, although the process of waste is less 
than is common under natural conditions of rest, there is still a very con- 
siderable waste in progress, which, if not made up, is against recovery. I 
find also that the digestive and assimilating powers, though impaired during 
sleep from chloral, are not arrested, but may be called into fair action with so 
much advantage, that if two animals be cast into deep sleep by an excessive 
quantity of the narcotic, and one be left without food and the other be artifi- 
cially fed on warm food, one fourth of the chance of recovery is given to the 
animal that is supplied with food. In the human subject warm milk, to 
which a little lime-water has been added, is the best food. Milk is very easily 
administered mechanically, and it should be administered in the proportion 
of half a pint every two hours*. 

4. The fourth point to remember is to sustain the breathing; in the 
inferior animals the question of life or death can be made to turn on this 
pivot. But the artificial respiration must be carried out with great gentle- 
ness; it must not be done by vehement movements of the body or compres- 
sions of the chest, but by the simple process of inflating the lungs by means 
of small bellows, through the nostrils. I have devised, in the course of the 
researches conducted chiefly for the Association, various instruments for 
artificial respiration, viz. a small double-acting bellows, a small syringe, and 
a double-acting india-rubber pocket-bellows ; but I have lately made an ob- 
servation which leads to a simpler method still, 7.e. I merely attach to a 
single hand-bellows a nostril-tube, and gently inflate the lungs, letting the 
elasticity of the chest-wall do the work of expiration. A little valve near 
to the nostril-tube effectually stops all back currents from the lungs into 
the bellows. For the human subject, five charges of air from the bellows 
should be given at intervals of five seconds apartT. 

There is another subject of public interest connected with the employ- 
ment of chloral hydrate. I refer to the increasing habitual use of it as a 
narcotic. As there are alcoholic intemperants and opium-eaters, so now 
there are those who, beginning to take chloral hydrate to relieve pain or to 
procure sleep, get into the fixed habit of taking it several times daily and in 
full doses. I would state from this public place, as earnestly and as forcibly 
as I can, that this growing practice is alike injurious to the mental, the 
moral, and the purely physical organization, and that the confirmed habit 
of taking chloral hydrate leads inevitably to confirmed disease. The diges- 
tion gets impaired ; natural tendency to sleep and natural sleep are impaired ; 
the blood is changed in quality, its plastic properties and its capacity for 
oxidation being reduced; the secretions are depraved; and, the nervous system 
losing its regulating, controlling power, the muscles become unsteady, the 
heart irregular and intermittent, and the mind uncertain and irritable. To 
erown the mischief, in not a few cases already the habitual dose has been the 
last, involuntary or rather unintentional suicide closing the scene. 

I press these facts on public notice not a moment too soon, and I add to 
them the facts, that hydrate of chloral is purely and absolutely a medicine, 


- and that whenever its administration is not guided by medical science and 


experience, it ceases to be a boon, and becomes a curse to mankind. 


* This question of feeding is applicable to all forms of accidental narcotic poisoning. 
Tn every such case the poisoning is a distinct process, and the recovery turns largely on the 
sustainment of the animal force by supply of food and of external warmth. 

+ Dr. Richardson exhibited the different instruments described. 9 

L 


148 REPORT—187], 


Awnnyprovs CHLORAL. 


The hydrate of chloral, of which I have treated above, is made from 
another substance, called anhydrous chloral, by the addition to the latter of a 
certain proportion of simple water. Anhydrous chloral was discovered 
by Liebig in 1832, and is formed by the process of passing chlorine through 
absolute alcohol. It is a colourless oily fluid, of specific gravity 1502, at 
64° Fahr. It boils at 93° Cent. (199° Fahr.); its composition is C, HCl, O, and 
its yapour-density, taking hydrogen as unity, is 73. It dissolves in ether, 
alcohol, and hydride of amyl. 

The yapour of anhydrous chloral is irritating and painful to an extreme 
degree when it is inhaled, and the substance has consequently not attracted 
attention as a subject for physiological study. Having, however, a pure 
specimen of it prepared by Dr. Versmann, I thought it was worth while to 
make a research with it. The results have proved worthy of the trouble ; in 
fact I have rarely derived from so simple an investigation so rich a practical 
result. It would be inferred @ priori that anhydrous chloral in the liquid 
state would be, like its vapour, a powerful irritant to the skin and mucous 
membrane. I soon found, however, that this was not the fact, that I could 
apply the fluid freely to my own skin and to the tongue without injury, and 
that the caustic action is extremely mild, even when the substance is applied 
to a moist surface. If a quarter grain of it (anhydrous chloral) be placed 
upon the skin of the frog in adry atmosphere, there is a rather quick ab- 
sorption, followed by the formation of a white film of the hydrate of chloral 
beneath the skin, which film soon disappears by absorption, the symptoms 
following the absorption being the specific narcotic symptoms of chloral 
hydrate. The animal soon falls into adeep sleep with complete muscular 
exhaustion. 

If in higher animals, birds and rabbits, anhydrous chloral be injected sub- 
cutaneously, the same phenomena are indicated, the quantities for producing 
the specific effects being the same as are required for the hydrate. 

It is clear from these observations that anhydrous chloral, when brought 
into contact with the exposed surfaces of the body, abstracts water from the 
part with which it is in contact, becomes conyerted into the hydrate, and is 
directly absorbed into the body, producing the same symptoms as the pre- 
pared hydrate produces when it is introduced into the organism. 

As anhydrous chloral is soluble in amyl hydride, ether, and many other 
volatile fluids, I tried whether any of it could be carried over with the vapour 
of amyl hydride, and whether, if it were administered in this way, it would 
produce prolonged narcotism by being transformed into the hydrate in the 
lungs and taken up into the blood. 

The result of the experiment was to show that in frogs, guineapigs, and 
pigeons general narcotism can be so induced, and that the narcotism is pro- 
longed far beyond what follows from the simple inhalation of amyl hydride. 
But I observed that when the solution used contained so little as twenty 
minims of anhydrous chloral to an ounce of the hydride, the vapour given off 
was irritating to breathe ; and when I breathed it myself I found it caused dry- 
ness of the throat and a sense of constriction, which lasted several minutes. A 
weaker solution than that named is too slow in its action, and I therefore can 
hardly at this moment recommend that anhydrous chloral should be ad- 
ministered by inhalation. It is possible, nevertheless, that in course of time 
the agent may be found serviceable when administered in the manner de- 
scribed. It is probable that much smaller quantities, administered for a much 


eee ee se 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 149 


longer time, would be serviceable in sustaining a slight narcotism. It is pro- 
bable that in some chronic diseases of the throat or bronchial passages, where 
the effect of a local narcotic would be desirable, this mode of practice may 
find favour from its success. Again, it may be that in disease of the lungs 
themselves, where there is loss of structure (cavity), anhydrous chloral may be 
inhaled in minute quantities with advantage. I name these points in order 
to call the attention of fellow physicians to the mode of administration I 
have ventured to suggest. 

Connected also with anhydrous chloral is another reasonable suggestion ; 
I mean the plan of applying the agent as a narcotic caustic to unnatural 
growths and ulcerating fungoid surfaces. I find that by applying the fluid 
to my arm freely there is destruction of the epidermis (scarf skin), so that 
without any pain the epidermis peels off, almost dry, at the point where the 
fluid has been placed; and that when on this exposed surface some of the 
fluid is applied, the true skin is in turn affected, so that in a day or two 
what the ancients called an issue may be developed, the tissues destroyed 
coming away in the form of scales. The surgeon will at once see the prac- 
tical utility of an agent possessing these properties, and he may in some 
instances subcutaneously inject the fluid if the outward employment of it be 
too slow. 

It is a very curious experiment to subject freshly drawn blood to anhy- 
drous chloral, and to observe microscopically the changes that ensue. The 
action of the chloral is to extract water both from the liquor sanguinis and 
the corpuscles, and to form crystalline chloral hydrate. Into this formation 
the shrinking corpuscles sink, While the fibrine remains free from precipi- 
tation ; but if water be added, so as to dissolve and remove the hydrate that 
has been formed, the corpuscles are to some extent restored, and the fibrine 
coagulates and separates in the usual way. 


MeETACHLORAL. 


Under favouring conditions anhydrous chloral is converted into an in- 
soluble substance, to which the name of “ metachloral” has been applied. 
The change sometimes occurs spontaneously, as it has done in a specimen 
now on the table; but it is always effected when chloral is brought into 
contact with sulphuric acid. Dr. Versmann has made for me some beautiful 
specimens of metachloral by this last-named process. 

Metachloral is a white substance, easily reducible into a fine powder, but 
insoluble in water and in alcohol. It is isomeric with chloral itself, being 
merely different in respect to physical condition. When it is treated with 
an alkali it yields, as chloral does, an alkaline formate and chloroform. 
These facts led me to ask whether, in the animal body, metachloral would 
undergo decomposition and produce specific narcotic effects ; and here, again, 
a series of results were obtained of great interest. Administered to birds in 
the form of pilule, and to other animals either in the same form or in sus- 
pension in gum emulsion, the metachloral, so insoluble in water, is found to 

undergo solution in the animal secretions, and to produce the same narcotic 
effects as the chloral hydrate, viz. narcotism, muscular prostration, and de- 
crease of animal temperature. 

In the pigeon from ten to fifteen grains are sufficient to take full effect. 
The animal in the course of an hour becomes drowsy, and in an hour and a 
half is in a perfect sleep, from which, nevertheless, it may be roused, to fall 
back again into sleep with great rapidity; the sleep lasts from three to four 


150 REPORT—1871. 


hours. The temperature of the body undergoes considerable change, falling, 
in the pigeon, full five degrees Fahrenheit, and remaining so reduced that a 
period of eight and even nine hours is required for its complete restoration 
to the natural standard. On frogs the effect of metachloral is equally marked. 
A frog weighing ten drachms is fairly narcotized in thirty minutes by a dose 
of a quarter of a grain, the insensibility continuing many hours and closely 
simulating death. During the period of deep insensibility the muscles re- 
main in the most extreme state of flaccidity, but do not fail to respond to 
the galvanic stimulus. 

To rabbits comparatively larger doses of metachloral may be administered 
by the mouth without exciting any effect whatever. Toa large rabbit weighing 
eight pounds, ten grains may be given with absolute freedom from symptoms 
of narcotism ; but when the dose is increased to twenty grains a very distinct 
effect is produced. About one hour following upon the administration the 
animal sinks into sleep precisely as if he had taken chloral hydrate, and 
passes through all the stages of narcotism and recovery in the same way. 

The action of metachloral is full of interest in a physiological point of 
view, and goes far, I think, to sustain Liebreich’s original view of the action 
of chloral hydrate, viz. that the narcotism produced by it is due to the action of 
chloroform liberated within the body. On this view metachloral is first 
changed in the body, under the influence of alkali, into the soluble condi- 
tion, after-which it passes into the hydrate, and then into alkaline formate 
and chloroform. It is thus slower than the hydrate and slower than the 
anhydrous chloral in its action, but in the end the effects from it are the same, 
Metachloral admits of being employed medicinally; it may be combined 
with morphia, quinine, and other alkaloids, and will, I think, be found to 
possess many useful medicinal qualities. 


BromaL HypRATE. 


When bromine is made to act upon chlorine, a substance called bromal is 
the product. It is an oily substance like chloral, and when acted upon by 
alkalies is decomposed into formiate of the alkali employed, and into bromo- 
form, the analogue in the bromine of chloroform in the chlorine series, The 
composition of bromal is C,HBr,O. When it is treated with water a crys- 
talline substance, bromal hydrate, is produced. The composition of bromal 
hydrate is C,H Br, 02H, 0; it is the analogue in the bromine of the chloral 
hydrate in the chlorine series. Bromal hydrate has an odour somewhat like 
chloral hydrate; its crystals are very soluble in water, and it may be ad- 
ministered in solution by the mouth or by hypodermic injection. 

Very soon after the discovery of the action of chloral hydrate I commenced 
a research on the physiological properties of the bromal hydrate. Two other 
observers also moved in the same path, and have preceded me in recording 
what they had observed. One of these is Dr. Steinann, of Berlin, the other 
Dr. John Dougall, of Glasgow. In their researches nearly the same class of 
inquiries were instituted as in my own, the same animals were subjected to 
observation, and practically the same results were obtained. 

In order to produce marked effects from bromal hydrate, much smaller 
doses are required than of the corresponding chloral compound ; five grains 
of the former are equivalent to ten of the latter. After an efficient dose the 
symptoms produced resemble in many respects the symptoms that follow 
chloral; 7. e. there is great muscular prostration and a kind of nareotism, at- 
tended, however, with very slight insensibility, except in cases in which the 
dose has been dangerously large. In extreme cases only is there really deep 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 15] 


anesthesia ; in all cases there is sudden and extreme decrease of the animal 
temperature, In birds, rabbits, guineapigs, as well as in the human subject, 
these phenomena are observable. But there are other symptoms belonging 
to bromal hydrate which are peculiar to it, and which render its practical 
utility, according to our present knowledge of it at any rate, doubtful, It is 
intensely irritating ; it causes great difficulty of respiration ; it so suddenly 
and effectually reduces the animal temperature that the accumulation of fluid 
in the bronchial canals, from condensation, is a source of positive danger, 
and altogether its internal employment would be unwise. I agree with 
Drs. Steinann and Dougall as to the mode of its action, and, with them, 
attribute the phenomena to the effects of the bromoform that is liberated in 
the body after the dose has been administered; I agree also with Dougall 
that the cause of death, when the dose is fatal and slow, is due to asphyxia. 
I attribute the asphyxia primarily to the fall of temperature of the body, and 
secondarily to condensation of water in the bronchial passages. 

One condition I have noticed which seems not to have fallen under the 
attention of the learned observers I have named, viz. that in birds a large 
dose of the bromal hydrate may destroy life almost instantaneously by 
an intense convulsion, amounting, in fact, to suddenly developed tetanus. 

The chief interest at this moment attaching to bromal hydrate is the dif- 
ference that is seen in its action, in comparison with the action of chloral 
hydrate. It illustrates how a difference of chemical elementary constitution 
and of weight modifies physiological action; how the heavier bromine in 
combination with carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and water differs in action 
from chlorine in similar combination, The science of therapeutics will ulti- 
mately rest on these distinctions. 


Nirrire or Amyt. 


At the Meeting of the Association held at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1863, I 
introduced this curious and potent substance to the notice of the Association, 
and explained, as best I could, its history and its physiological properties. 
Every year since then some new fact of interest has attached to the sub- 
stance, and the immediate past year is not different in this respect from 
those that have preceded it. The first observer of the action of nitrite of 
amyl on the animal functions was Professor Guthrie, F.R.S., then of Edin- 
burgh, and now of the School of Mines, London. Professor Guthrie observed, 
while working in the laboratory with nitrite of amyl, that the inhalation of 
its vapour produced flushing of the face, rapid action of the heart, a peculiar 
breathlessness, such as occurs after fast running, and disturbance of cerebral 
action. These facts, most ably described by the Professor, became known 
to Mr. Morison, a dentist in Edinburgh, who thought from them that the 
substance might be made of service for the treatment of persons who were ~ 
suffering from faintness. He therefore brought some of the compound to 
the College of Dentists, a Society then existing in London, and the Council 
of that institution referred the whole subject to me, with a request that I 
would report to them. The task was readily undertaken, and the study con- 

nected with it has not been completed at this hour. 

' I take the liberty of mentioning these details for the sake of historical 
accuracy. From the circumstance that I have introduced nitrite of amyl 
_ greatly into medical practice, and have been year after year treating of its 
action, it has been all but universally believed that I made the earliest 
observations upon it; I would correct this error: I have worked industriously 
with nitrite of amyl, have studied carefully its mode of action, and have sug- 


152 REPORT—1871. 


gested many new applications of it; but the credit of the earliest observa~ 
tions, as I stated at Newcastle, belongs strictly to Professor Guthrie. 

It will be remembered by some that in one of my early papers on nitrite 
of amyl I pointed out that the effects observed were clearly due to an in- 
duced paralysis of the vascular system, of the terminal part of that system, 
and that the heart passed into vehement motion, not, as I at first had thought, 
because it was excited by the agent, but because the resistance to its action 
being removed, it ran down like a clock in which the resistance to the 
spring is broken by the removing of the pendulum or the pallets. I 
further explained that the seeming over-action produced by the nitrite was 
in truth no evidence of power or tension of muscle, but that in truth, under 
the influence of the nitrite, the muscular system is brought into extreme 
relaxation, so that the substance might be used as a remedy for the relief 
even of tetanic spasm. These views have been sustained by later observa- 
tion. It remained, however, still to discover how far the relaxation of ves- 
sels from nitrite of amyl extended to the functions of special organs of the 
body; and during the present year I have followed up this line of research 
in respect to the changes producible by it in the pulmonary organs, the lungs. 
The study has been most fruitful, and will, I think, as it is followed up, open 
quite a new field of accurate and sound observation as to the mode in which 
many diseases of the lungs take their origin. 

As there may be many here who are not conversant with the nature and 
properties of nitrite of amyl, I may say briefly, in respect to it, that it is an 
amber-coloured fluid, having the odour of ripe pears, and, although requiring 
a high temperature for ebullition, volatilizing very readily on exposure to 
the air, 

When taken into the body nitrite of amyl produces intense flushing of the 
face, throbbing and sensation of fulness in the head, rapid action of the heart, 
and in time a sense of breathless exhaustion. In my previous Reports I 
have entered at length into details of its action, of which the following is a 
summary. 

The nitrite, though insoluble in water, will enter the body and produce 
its specific action by any channel of the body, by the cellular tissue, stomach, 
blood. It produces general muscular paralysis, affecting directly or indirectly 
all the motor centres. 

It exerts no primary action on the sensory centres, and therefore does not 
produce anzesthesia, 

Its paralyzing action seems first to be directed to the organic nervous 
centres, by which the vascular tension is reduced. It acts, in fact, after the 
cM of an emotional shock, leading quickly to paralysis of the minute 
vessels. 

It prevents oxidation by its presence, and possesses distinct antiseptic 
powers. It produces a peculiar tarry condition of the blood, but does not 
materially impede coagulation. 

It neutralizes the tetanic action of strychnia, and removes tetanic spasm. 

On reviewing these inferences of former years, as thus detailed, I see no 
occasion to change one of them; indeed I believe they have, on the whole, 
all been confirmed by other observers. The admirable experiments of Dr. 
Brunton on the action of the nitrite on vascular tension call for special re- 
cognition. There is, however, one observation in my Report of 1864 I would 
like to correct. Speaking at that time of the action of the nitrite on the 
muscles, I remarked that it first excites the muscular system, and then para- 
lyzes it, Iam in doubt now whether the muscular excitement of which I 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 1538 


spoke in 1864 is a true excitement due to the influence excited by the agent 
on the motor centres. I think, from my own sensations, it is rather due to an 
indirect or mental impression, that it indicates a vehement desire to escape 
from the influence of the agent, like the excitement of fear or frenzy. 

Let me from these points turn to the observations of the past year. I 
observed long ago, in making dissections of the bodies of animals that had 
died from amyl nitrite, that the condition of the lungs varied much, that 
sometimes the lungs were of milky whiteness, sometimes of leaden hue, 
and again of deep dark red hue. It occurred to me at last that these differ- 
ences were not accidental, but that they depended upon the mode in which 
the agent destroyed the life of the animal. Thereupon I made direct inquiry 
into this subject, and was led to discover that I could, practically, modify the 
circulation of the blood, passing over the lung from the right to the left 
heart, as I pleased ; in other words, I learned that the vessels of the lungs 
are influenced by the nitrite in the same manner as the vessels of the skin. 

The observation thus stated led me naturally a step further. I inquired 
as to results of different temporary lesions that might be inflicted on the 
pulmonary organs by the nitrite, and what extremity of lesion could be 
recovered from under conditions favourable to recovery. I commenced this 
research in February last, and have carried it on without intermission from 
that time: the results of the labour have been most instructive. 

There are four distinct conditions of lung producible by nitrite of amyl; 
there may be more, but I know of these :— 

1. If the animal be destroyed by an overwhelming dose of the agent, so 
that it dies instantly, as it might die from syncope, the lungs are left 
absolutely bloodless and of pure whiteness. The right side of the 
heart is in this case paralyzed ; but exposed to the air immediately after 
death it often recovers its power of contraction. In this instance the 
death is really by syncope; the nervous paralysis is extended immediately to 
the heart, probably from paralysis of the sympathetic supply, and the right 
ventricle failing to pour out its blood to the lung, the death is so instan- 
taneous that there is no time left for the production of any organic change. 

2. If the death be comparatively slow, if it be preceded by a short interval 
of muscular prostration, and if it occur from paralysis of the muscles 
of respiration, then the lungs are left charged with dark tarry blood, 
but they contain air and are free of congestion. Here the lungs and heart 
have failed together, and the balance of the pulmonary circulation has been 
fairly maintained. 

3. If the effect of the nitrite be more definitely prolonged, there is pro- 
duced intense general congestion of the pulmonary vascular system, a con- 
gestion so intense that the lungs, full of blood, dark and heavy, will not 
float in water. The cause of death in this instance is progressive neural 
paralysis of the pulmonary vessels ; it is the equivalent of congestion of the 
lungs from long expose to extreme cold. 

4. The above may all be considered as acute changes in the pulmonary 
structures, and the two first-named changes are immediately fatal. The 
last need not be; as it occurs from prolonged and sustained action of the 
nitrite, in quantities insufficient to kill directly, the effects of sustained con- 
gestion may be traced out from day to day for many weeks. 

To be accurate in the observations made on this subject, I constructed a 
glass house or chamber of a capacity of three cubic feet, and so ventilated it 
that the air could be kept charged with the vapour of the nitrite. In this 
chamber rabbits and guineapigs were housed. They were carefully fed, 


154 REPORT—1871. 


supplied with abundance of air, and well protected from cold. The intro- 
duction of the vapour was so moderated that the same quantity was made 
to undergo diffusion each day. 

The first fact that became well established was, that cold and a low baro- 
metric pressure greatly assisted the action of the vapour, and frequently led 
to sudden death from congestion of lung and accumulation of fluid in the 
bronchial tubes. 

A second fact, of singular interest, was the degree to which recovery from 
extreme congestion of lung would take place, on simply withdrawing the 
animal from the influence of the agent. When the lungs were so obstructed | 
that what is called rale from accumulation of mucous fluid in the bronchial 
surface was most marked, there was invariably a rapid recovery on removal 
to fresh and warm air. 

A third fact relating to the lesions induced, beyond mere congestive lesions, 
is also of deep interest. The lesions were primarily all of one kind; they 
were hemorrhagic, and consisted of red spots and patches, in which blood 
was effused and coagulated in the connective tissue. The position of the 
hemorrhage was singular. In three cases it was only in the extreme point 
of the apices of the lungs; in four other cases lower portions of lung were 
involved, but in these the apices were the seats also of hemorrhagic disease. 
It would appear, in fact, as if these points of lung were least resistant to the 
force of the circulation. 

In the animals observed these distinct hemorrhagic changes were usually — 
fatal, so that the further result of the local neural paralysis could not be 
carried out as could be wished. In two eases, nevertheless, we had other 
results worth recording, 

In one instance there was clearly an cedema of the lung structure: in 
another the pleural membrane was raised in four or five granulated points, 
round each of which there was effused blood. Dr. Sedgwick, who took the 
lungs of this animal for careful microscopic inspection, reported to me that 
there were plastic exudations in various parts of both lungs, and that the 
granulations of which I have spoken consisted of effused plasma beneath 
the pleura. 

I am well content to leave these observations as I have written them 
above, with but two observations more. It has been suggested by an 
accomplished. and acute English physician, Dr. Eade, of Norwich, that 
pulmonary consumption may be’ primarily due to pulmonary vascular para- 
lysis. My experiments do not enable me at this stage to endorse Dr, 
Bade’s hypothesis as to the primary origin of consumption, but certainly 
they indicate to what extent nervous deficiency will go in favouring the 
hemorrhages, congestions, and exudations which attend tubercular disease. 

The concluding observation this year with nitrite of amyl relates to the 
fact that the nitrite atmosphere, when it is not too much charged with 
the vapour, exerts a certain curative effect. Three rabbits were brought to 
me with a skin disease resembling leprain man. They were emaciated and 
feeble, the fur on the back along the whole length of the spine had been cast 
off, and the skin was covered over this part with white ashy scales. 

Placing these animals in an atmosphere of nitrite of amyl, I noticed that, as 
the agent took effect, the scaly white skin on the back became red and 
flushed. In a day or two the scales disappeared, the fur began to extend, 
and the general health to improve. In a month all the animals had entirely 
recoyered. 

There are many local conditions of disease in man and other animals in 


\ 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 155 


which the essence of cure lies in reestablishing a good capillary circulation. 
It may be, therefore, that by administering the nitrite of amyl, or the other 
organic nitrites, secundum artem, we may make them further agents in the 
eure of disease, and thereby add another progress to physiological as distin- 
guished from empirical medicine. 


Nitrate or Ernyt, 


In one of my previous Reports I touched incidentally on certain of the 
nitrates of the organic series of compounds. These substances differ from 
the nitrites simply in that they contain an additional equivalent of oxygen. 
It is a very interesting study to follow the difference of physiological action 
upon so simple a change of chemical constitution; and this year I studied 
once more this difference from two of the representatives of the nitrate 
series, viz. from nitrate of ethyl and nitrate of amyl. 

Nitrate of ethyl, to which I first refer, is a fluid, almost colourless, and 
yielding an agreeable odorous vapour. It has a specific gravity of 1-112, a 
boiling-point of 85° C. (185° F.), and a vapour-density of 45. . Its composi- 
tion is C,H, NO,. It is made by dropping 10 grms. of absolute alcohol into 
20 grms. of colourless concentrate nitric acid in a platinum vessel surrounded 
by a freezing-mixture. Mr. Ernest Chapman was kind enough to make me 
a fine specimen of this nitrate, with which my experiments have been con- 
ducted. 

Nitrate of ethyl was used in experiment, physiologically, in 1848, by the late 
distinguished Professor of Midwifery in the University of Edinburgh, Sir 
James Simpson. Sir James considered that it possessed some anmsthetic 
properties. It has for many years, I may say centuries, also been used in 
medicine, in combination with alcohol, under the name of nitric ether, and 
so employed has been considered valuable for its diuretic properties. ; 

I find, on using it in the undiluted form, that it may be introduced into the 
system either by inhalation, by hypodermic injection, or by the stomach, and 
that the effects which follow its administration in large doses are closely analo- 
gous to those induced by nitrite of amyl, 7. ¢. it produces rapid action of tho 
heart, some pulsation of the vessels of the head, flushing of the face, and 
muscular prostration. In the strict sense of the word, it is not an anesthetic $ 
when administered in an extreme dose, there is no evidence of insensibility, 
until death is imminent. In all cases the motor force is overcome com- 
pletely long before the sensory organs are influenced. The paralysis of the 
vessels is slower than from nitrite of amyl; the danger of using the agent is 
consequently much less ; and as the effects are more prolonged, the substance 
becomes very manageable in medical practice. 

When the administration of the nitrate is carried up to death, the con- 
dition induced in all the vascular organs is an intense congestion. In 
this congestion the lungs and the kidneys specially share; and I think there 
is no doubt that the well known diuretic action of the substance is due 
altogether to the paralysis of the renal vessels it produces. It alters much 
less than the nitrites the colour of the blood, interferes in no way with the 
process of coagulation, and is eliminated rapidly from the body both by the 
lungs and the kidneys. Administered to the production of complete prostra- 
tion, it reduces the animal temperature in a definite degree. In pigeons the 
temperature goes down five and even six degrees, in rabbits three degrees, 
and in guineapigs from two to three degrees, Like the nitrites, nitrate of 
ethyl reduces the tetanic spasm of strychnia; and I would suggest that in 
tetanus, and other acute diseases of spasmodic character, it might be used 


156 REPORT—1871. 


with great advantage; but it must be given for this purpose in very different 
proportions to those in which it is now commonly prescribed. The best 
plan would be to administer it by inhalation until a decided influence over 
the motor action is manifested. In pharmacy it would be convenient to 
keep the nitrite in the pure and simple state, leaving the dilution of it, in 
alcohol, to the judgment of the physician, 


Nitrate oF AMYL. 


Nitrate of amyl, C, H,, NO,, is a pale amber-coloured fluid, of not very 
agreeable odour. It has a specific gravity of 0-992, a boiling-point of 138° C, 
(280° F.), and a vyapour-density-of 66°. It is made by acting with strong 
nitric acid, 30 grms., on urea nitrate, 10 grms., adding afterwards 40 grms. 
of pure amylic alcohol. I am again indebted to Mr. Ernest Chapman for 
a specimen of nitrate of amyl, freed as far as possible from nitrate of butyl, 
from all trace of which it can with difficulty be separated, 

In the nitrate of amyl we haye a substance differing chemically from 
nitrite of amyl in having an additional equivalent of oxygen, and differing 
physically in that it is heavier and of higher boiling-point. It enters the 
body readily by all channels, and in its general effects it agrees with the 
nitrite, except that a longer time is required for the development of sym- 
ptoms from it, and a longer time is demanded for the process of recovery from 
its influence. The quantity necessary to produce decisive results is the same 
as with the nitrite; but the nitrate is not so pleasant a substance to admi- 
nister, and when administered by inhalation is not so conveniently applied. 
Whether the nitrate of amyl has any real advantages over the nitrite is a 
question on which I would prefer not to speak at length, until larger oppor- 
tunities than I have yet had of proving it have been afforded me. 


SULPHO-UREA. 


In my last Report I treated on the physiological properties of certain of 
the organic sulphur compounds, viz. sulphur alcohol, mereaptan, and sulphide 
of ethyl. Recently a very curious and interesting sulphur compound has 
come before me for experiment; I mean a crystalline substance known by 
the name of sulpho-urea. Sulpho-urea was first made, I believe, by Prof. 
Reynolds, and it has since been produced in London, in Dr. Thudichum’s 
laboratory, by Mr. Charles Stewart, to whom I am indebted for the speci- 
mens with which I have conducted my researches. Unfortunately the 
manufacture is difficult, owing to the necessity for many recystallizations, so 
that I have only been able to work with six drachms; but the results, as 
far as they go, deserve notice. Mr. Stewart has kindly given me the fol- 
lowing note in regard to the preparation of sulpho-urea: 

*« About a kilogram of pure ammonium sulphocyanate is dried at 100° C., 
powdered, and dried again. Slight loss by sublimation occurs. When per- 
fectly dry, it is heated gradually by a paraffin bath to 170° C., and maintained 
at that temperature for two hours. The mass is then allowed to cool to 
110° C., treated with one and a half times its bulk of boiling water, decanted 
from a small quantity of black matter (it is impossible to filter it, as it de- 
stroys paper filters), and set aside to crystallize. The crystals are long, fibrous, 
satiny needles; they are drained, pressed strongly in Hessian cloth, and 
purified by recrystallization from water. The productis then dissolved in 
boiling alcohol, filtered from a little ammonium sulphate which remains undis- 
solved, and set aside to crystallize. Two more crystallizations from alcohol 


« 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 157 


render it practically free from sulphocyanate. The crystals from alcohol are 
hard, opaque, white prisms: from water they are long, fibrous, silky needles. 
Both forms are anhydrous.” I present specimens of both varieties. 

“ From the mother liquors more of the urea may be recovered by the same 
process. The last mother liquors, containing mainly sulphur urea, but also 
much sulphocyanide, may be evaporated down, and heated again to 170°, as 
above, with fresh sulphocyanide of ammonium, to furnish more urea.” 

Sulpho-urea is much less soluble in water than ordinary urea, requiring 
twice its own weight, at 60° F., for solution. It has a saline bitter taste, 
compared by some to the taste of magnesian sulphate. It differs simply from 
ordinary urea in that in it sulphur replaces oxygen. P 


Urea. Sulpho-urea. 
CN 0 CN g 
OS tte NG 


In order to determine the difference of action of the two ureas, a series of 
comparative experiments were carried out. The results may be thus epito- 
mized :— 

On frogs and rabbits sulpho-urea differs materially from common urea in 
its action, 7. e. when used in the same quantities. The first produces definite 
convulsive action, with coma and convulsion ; the second produces, in frogs, 
coma without convulsion, and in rabbits nothing more than a slight and gentle 
soporific condition, which lasts for a very short time, and can be broken at 
any moment by the simple act of moving or calling out to the animal. 

In frogs sulpho-urea induces the saline cataract, common urea does not. 

To produce any decided physiological effect with sulpho-urea, the proportion 
used must not be less than thirty grains to the pound weight of the animal. 
In three experiments n which it was administered to young rabbits, to the 
extent of producing slight soporific effects, it reduced the animal tempera- 
ture two degrees Fahrenheit within the interval of an hour. 

The impression I haye gathered in respect of sulpho-urea is, that it is a 
saline narcotic, and as such it may prove of use in medicine; but the great 
point of physiological interest in connexion with it lies in the difference 
indicated, by its means, between the action of oxygen and sulphur in com- 
bination with the same elements, C, N, H, in the same form. ‘The difference 
may be due to the difference of weight, or it may be due to difference of solu- 
bility ; the elements, oxygen and sulphur, producing the distinction by virtue 
of their physical qualities of weight or solubility ; or it may be due to the 
special qualities of the elements. I offer these thoughts as again bearing upon 
the general question of chemical composition in relation to the physiological 
action of chemical substances, 


Cunor-ErnyiiIpErne—MonocnuLorvrerrep Cunoripe or Ernyre. 


Tn the year 1852 Dr. John Snow introduced as an anesthetic the mono~ 
chloruretted chloride of ethyle. He administered the vapour of this substance 
many times to the inferior animals and to the human subject, and he came 
to the conclusion that the vapour was equivalent in value to chloroform, and 
had an advantage over chloroform, viz. that it rarely if ever produced vomit- 
ing; it did not usually excite the stomach, he observed, even if it were ad- 
ministered after food. In 1870 the distinguished Liebreich, who evidently 
was not aware of Snow’s research, reintroduced this anesthetic under the 
name of chlor-ethylidene. Chlor-ethylidene yields a sweet etherial vapour, 


158 REPoRT—1871. 


less pungent than vapour of chloroform, but still pungent ; the vapour burns 
in air. The specific gravity of the fluid is 1-174, the vapour-density 49, the 
boiling-point 64° C. (149° F.). The composition is C,H,Cl, It differs 
from Dutch liquid, which in other respects it resembles, in not being de- 
composed by an alcoholic solution of potassa (Snow). 

I had already seen chlor-ethylidene in use in 1852, and had added Snow’s 
memoir upon it (during the writing of which, by the way, he was taken with 
his fatal seizure) in my edition of his works on anesthesia, published in 
1858 ; but since the subject has come up again I have travelled once more 
over the same ground. [ obtained a specimen of chlor-ethylidene, adminis- 
tered it several times for the production of anesthesia, and am bound to say 
of it that it.is a very good anesthetic. It resembles bichloride of methylene 
very much in its a¢tion, produces vomiting as rarely, but is less rapid than 
the bichloride, being of higher boiling-point and yielding a heavier vapour. 

On inferior animals I find that when carried to extremity it arrests the 
respiration before it arrests the action of the heart; and I also find that 
recovery from its extremest effects is comparatively casy. In one of my 
lectures during the past winter session I restored life in a rabbit, by careful 
artificial respiration, seven minutes and a half after all signs of natural re- 
spiration had been abolished by the vapour of chlor-ethylidene. 

I would give to chlor-ethylidene a prominent place amongst anesthetics. 
It would take the place of either chloroform or bichloride of methylene 
efficiently ; it is safer than chloroform, and excites vomiting less frequently ; 
it is less rapid in action than methylene bichloride, not more effective, and 
possesses, I think, about the same value in matter of safety. 


HyDRAMYLE; 


At the Meeting of the Association at Exeter I placed before this Section a 
fluid called hydride of amyl. The fiuid had a specific gravity of -625, and it 
boiled at 30° C. (86° F.). Its composition was stated to be C,H,,H. I de- 
scribed then that this vapour was a quickly acting anzsthetic. 

During the present year I have experimented largely again with this 
hydride, with the view of rendering it applicable for the production of rapid 
anesthetic sleep, for short operations, such as extraction of teeth. In 
this research I found one or two difficulties in the way. The fluid was 
too light to be manageable on every occasion; that is to say, it escaped 
from the inhaler, as a gas, by the mere warmth of the breath, and the vapour 
had also an odour which to the majority of persons was objectionable. 

I set to work to obviate these difficulties, first by slightly weighting the 
fluid, and secondly by making an inhaler that should more effectually restrain 
the liquid as it was undergoing evaporation. In both attempts I have suc- 
ceeded well. 

In making good bichloride of methylene we put finely pulverized zine into 
a retort and pour upon it absolute alcohol and chloroform, using afterwards 
a heat not exceeding 120°F., in order to distil over the product. I modified 
this process by diluting the mixture of chloroform and alcohol with eight times 
the volume of hydride of amyl. This mixture is poured upon the zine, 
with the result of an instant vehement action without any application of 
heat; after a free evolution of gas, which lasts some minutes, there dis- 
tils by this method a fluid which contains pure hydride of amyl and pure 
bichloride of methylene. If the distillation be carried on at 98° F., the fluid 
that comes over has the specific gravity of ordinary ether (*720), a most 
agreeable odour, and rapid anesthetic action. I have now administered this 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL CoMPOUNDS. 159 


fluid, in vapour, forty-six times for short operations on the human subject, 
and in the average of cases have produced the required insensibility within 
fifty seconds. In one instance insensibility was produced, a firm tooth was 
extracted, and perfect recovery occurred in forty seconds. As yet there has 
neither been vomiting nor other untoward symptom during the adminis- 
tration. 

There is, however, a peculiarity in the action of this vapour to which I 
ought carefully to refer, viz. that insensibility from it intensifies after the 
inhalation of it is withdrawn. Thus in administering, whenever there is the 
least indication of its effects, such as winking of the eyelids or drop of the 
hand, the sign is given to stop the administration. The operator may now 
wait a few seconds and then proceed. The inhaler I have constructed for 
the administration of this new anwsthetic is before the Meeting. It is a simple 
hollow cone made of leather, and is furnished with two light silken valves 
for entrance of air and exit of vapour and breath. It is lined with domette 
set on a light frame or ring of metal. When the inhaler is not in use it 
forms a case for holding safely, in a bottle, four fluid-ounces of the anesthetic 
liquid. This quantity is sufficient for twenty operations, of from one and a 
half to three minutes’ duration, two drachms being the amount necessary 
for an operation not exceeding three minutes’ duration. 

The vapour described above will become, I believe, should experience 
confirm its safety, of general application as an anesthetic for short opera- 
tions; for long operations it will probably not replace the heavier anesthetics. 
I am indebted to Mr, Ernest Chapman for the suggestion of the abbreviated 
name hydramyle. 


PHYSIOLOGICAL NOTES. 


In the course of the researches detailed in the preceding pages I have again, 
as in previous researches, been led to notice certain simple facts which lie in 
the path of inquiry, and which, though not necessarily belonging to it, are 
too prominent to be passed by without notice. I shall therefore offer a few 
notes bearing on three topics ;| and this the more readily, because it is rarely 
the case that so many eminent physiologists as are now present, each one 
interested in the subjects to be named, meet together to take part in dis- 
cussion. 


Errecr oF soME Naxcortc Vaprours ON THE MINUTE CIRCULATION OF TIE BxooD. 


I have taken occasion several times to observe the effect of narcotic vapours 
on the minute circulation of the blood. I prefer to use the term ‘ minute 
circulation ” because it embraces the minute arterial and venous, as well as 
the capillary circulation. 

In these researches the web of the foot of the frog was selected for obser= 
vation, and I think on the whole with advantage. The following particulars 
were carried out in every case :— 

. (a) A large healthy frog was chosen, and one in which the web was very 
clear. (b) The same microscopic power, and that low—the inch or half-inch 
object-glass and A eye-piece (Ross)—was always employed. (c) The tempera- 
ture of the air was kept the same during periods of observation, and the work 
was conducted during the same hours each day, viz. between the hours of 
2and5p.m. (d) The observations were never hurried ; they occupied an 
average of three hours each, and every change of scene in the vessels through 
the various stages of narcotism and of recovery were carefully and systema- 


160 REPORT—1871. 


tically noted. (e) The animals were placed for narcotism in the small glass 
chamber now before the Members. The chamber as it is was finally con- 
structed, after many essays, by my friend Dr. Sedgwick, and it answered 
admirably. The animal was placed, without any restraint, in the chamber ; 
one foot was then gently drawn out on to the stage attached to the 
chamber, and the web was extended over the small glass plate. The 
animal being thus prepared, the web was brought under the microscope and 
the circulation examined. (f) The part of the circulation to be observed 
was so selected as to include a good view of an artery, a vein, and the 
smaller intermediate capillary vessels. (g) When the natural condition 
of the circulation was well observed the chamber was closed by the sliding 
cover, and through it the narcotic vapour, the effect of which upon the 
circulation was to be investigated, was gently passed. The vapour was driven 
over with hand-bellows from a small Junker’s apparatus, manufactured by 
Messrs. Krohne and Sesemann*. By counting the strokes of the bellows it 
was possible to maintain the same current of vapour at all times. (h) And 
lastly, the web was sustained in the same condition of moisture, so as to pre- 
vent errors of observation due to evaporation from the tissues. 

Such were the precautions taken; and I am inclined to think they were 
sufficient, although it will be a great satisfaction to me and an aid in my future 
labours to hear of any amendments or additions that may be suggested. 
The narcotic vapours used in the research were hydramyle, chloroform, bi- 
chloride of methylene, and absolute ether. In some particulars these acted 
precisely in a similar way, in other particulars they acted in a way more or 
less peculiar to themselves. 

The first fact I would notice as common to the action of all the vapours 
used is, that no obvious change in the physical characters of the blood-cor- 
puscles, red or white, was ever observable; neither was there any noticeable 
difference in the relationships of the red and white corpuscles to each other. 
The red corpuscles held their ways so long as there was motion in the centre 
of the blood-streams, while the white ones rolled along by the sides of vessels 
in the same manner as they did before the narcotism. 

Another fact common to the action of all the vapours used was, that the 
first sign of arrested movement of the circulation commenced in every case 
on the venous side of the circulation, and consisted of a sort of pulsation or 
to-and-fro movement of the current through the vein; soon upon this the 
venous current became obviously slower and the vein dilated, while the 
arterial current remained, often for a long time, unchanged. 

In every case the minute circulation remained long in force after the 
respiration had entirely ceased, and after all evidence of the continuance of 
life had entirely ceased. On the average the animals ceased to breathe for 
one hour and thirty minutes after the deep narcotism had set in ; yet all the 
while the minute circulation was still playing with more or less of efficiency, 
and so long as it continued the chances of recovery were nearly certain. The 
cessation of the minute circulation was, on the other hand, the sign and proof 
of irrevocable death. 

There was still another effect common to all the narcotics used. The cir- 
culation through the capillaries often stopped altogether, and for considerable 
intervals of time, when the reduction of the circulatory power was greatest. 
Under this condition the circulation, such as it was, was maintained by the 
arteries, in which the blood moved to and fro with occasional slow steady 


* Dr. Richardson here fitted up the apparatus, including small chamber, hand-bellows, 
and Junker’s bottle, and showed the method by which it was worked. 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. I61 


onward movements. In the veins, too, there were now and then short moye- 
ments, first as of impulse towards the heart, and then of retreat backwards ; 
these movements in the veins were succeeded invariably by an increased and 
more perfect action of the arteries. During this state the capillaries may be 
said to have become almost indistinct, that is to say, no movement of cor- 
puscles through them, into the veins, indicated their course ; as channels they 
were left empty and transparent, and the return of the corpuscular current 
through them was at all times proof of the speedy return of the activity 
of life. 

The changes named above were common to the action of all the narcotics 
named; but there were some striking changes peculiar to the substances 
themselves to which I must refer. The peculiarities were traceable, as it 
seems to me, to the weight, the solubility, and the chemical composition of 
the substance that was employed to produce the narcotic state. 

When the substance was very light, of low boiling-point, and insoluble, 
the effect of arrest of the circulation was most rapidly developed, and at the 
same time was most rapidly removed. Thus hydramyle, the lightest, the first 
to boil on elevation of temperature, and the most insoluble, produced the 
quickest arrest of the venous current ; but from its influence the animal was 
equally quick to recover, the general signs of recovery being secondary to 
the local return of the circulation. 

When the substance was light and of low boiling-point, but comparatively 
soluble in blood, the time required to produce the slowing of the venous cir- 
culation was prolonged after the insensibility of the animal was complete ; 
after even respiration had stopped, the extreme changes in the circulation 
were slowly developed; and although the insensibility might be deep and 
continuous, like to death itself, the actual temporary arrest of the arterial 
current was imperfectly pronounced. Absolute ether, which has a very low 
specific weight (720) and a very low boiling-point (94° F.), but which is solu- 
ble in blood to the extent of not less than eleven parts in the hundred, pro- 
duced perfectly all the effects immediately named above. When the substance 
inhaled was comparatively heavier, of a higher boiling-point, insoluble, and 
contained as one of its elements an irritant, there was introduced a new 
phase, that is to say, the arterial vessels, as the animal came under the in- 
fluence of the narcotic, were reduced in calibre. The changes of the circula- 
tion in this case were first marked in the retardation of the blood through 
the veins, then the vein increased in diameter, and there were signs of 
regurgitation of its blood; these indications were followed by what may 
be called irregular movements in the capillaries, and by reduction of calibre 
of the arteries. It was observed, nevertheless, that the narrowing of the 
arterial vessels, though well marked, was never so extreme as to prevent mo- 
tion of blood in them; that is to say, the degree of arterial contraction was 
limited. I consider this to be due to the circumstance that the animal had 
always ceased to breathe, and the further absorption of the narcotic vapour 
had consequently also ceased, by the time that the action of the vapour upon 
the arterial vessels was developed. 

_ During the period when the size of the arterial vessel was reduced, the 
motion of the blood in the capillary vessels fed by the arterial supply was 
modified; the blood flowing through the capillary channels moved less 
steadily, and was forced, if I may so express the fact, in pushes, as if there 
were intervals of relaxation of the arterial vessels during which the resis- 
tance to the impelling power of the heart slightly and slowly yielded. 
After a time the circulation of the blood through the artery became slower, 

1871. M 


TOE = 1205 --. REPOoRT—1871..- 


the capillaries were left empty, the venous current ceased, and the condition 
of temporary suspension of all circulation, except slowly, in the arterial 
supervened. The effects here named were well marked from the action of 
the chlorides; they were seen under the influence of bichloride of methy- 
lene, they were still more definite under chloroform. 

To sum up, if my observations be correct, the action on the systemic cireula- 
tion of the narcotic vapours named was seen to be primarily on the venous cur- 
rent or, I should more correctly say, was primarily manifested in the retar- 
dation of the venous current, secondly in the capillary, and finally in the 
arterial current. During recovery, moreover, the return of a steady onward 
current was manifested in the veins before it was restored in the capillary- 
channels. This order of events coincides purely with the order of pheno- 
mena of death under the influence of narcotic vapours, as obseryed both in 
man and the lower animals. It is, I think, the invariable fact that the right 
side of the heart in such fatal cases is the first to cease its action, and in 
animals, when the heart is exposed to the air soon after the death, the right 


side is the first to recommence action. From these facts the inference, I _ 


think, is clear that the arrest of the circulation begins, during the narcotism, 
in the retardation of the venous current, secondly in the capillary, and 
lastly in the arterial current. 

The course of recovery, when recovery takes place, appears to be preceded 
by some act of relief to the venous column of blood. The motion that re- 
mains in the arteries is not the first to increase, the circulation through the 
capillary is not first manifested ; that which happens, as a distinct sign of 
recovery, is @ movement onward by the veins; as this movement improves 
the movement through the arteries improves, the capillary vessels refill, and 
the circuit of the minute circulation is steadily and perfectly restored. 

From these observations on the minute systemic circulation when the 
body is under the influence of a narcotic vapour of the irritant class, I infer 
that the changes of circulation observed do not proceed immediately from an 
action exerted by the narcotic vapour upon the extreme systemic vessels, but 
form an obstruction commencing on the venous side, and in the lesser or 
pulmonary circulation. When a warm-blooded animal is suddenly killed by 
a large dose of the vapour of chloroform, the lungs are invariably found 
blanched, the right side of the heart engorged with blood, and the left side 
empty of blood. ‘We see in these conditions that of necessity, in the extreme 
parts of the systemic circulation of the animal, there has been retardation of 
the blood through the veins ; and we may infer on the fairest, nay completest, 
evidence that the return of motion, which is seen commencing in the veins in 
the systemic circuit, is due to a returning current in the breathing-organs ; 
in other words, the renewal of the active life of the animal recommences in 
passive breathing. The same order of phenomena happens, precisely, during 
the recovery of a warm-blooded animal, after apparent death from chloro- 
form, under the influence of artificial respiration ; for so soon as the animal 
recommences to breathe, however faintly, its return to life is secured. 

The position then assumed, that the primary arrest of the column of blood 
during fatal narcotism is in the lesser circulation, we have to ask whether the 
arrest commences in the heart or in the lungs. The commonly accepted 
view has been that it commences in failure of the right side of the heart; 
but I incline to think that this view is incorrect, and that the positive source 
of failure is in the peripheral circulation of the lung. The vapour inhaled 
impresses, I think, immediately the minute circulation, and acts not by 
absorption into the blood, but by simple and instant contact with the minute 


| 
: 
. 
. 
| 
' 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 168 


pulmonary vessels; so that there is immediate resistance to the passage of 
blood through them. Three well-observed facts support this opinion :—Ist, 
the fact already dwelt upon, that in cases of rapid death the lungs are emptied 
of blood; 2nd, that the arrest of the systemic circulation commences on the 
venous side of the circulation, and is attended with ‘filling of the veins; 
8rd, that immediately after the death of the animal, if the chest be opened 
and the heart exposed, the right side of the heart, relieved of pressure, will 
immediately recommence to contract vigorously, showing that it is not itself 
paralyzed, but is restrained from action by mechanical resistance to its column 
of blood. 

If the theory of the action of narcotic vapours thus propounded be cor- 
rect, we ought to draw from it this practical lesson, that in introducing 
new narcotic vapours into practice, the utmost care should be taken to select 
those only that are negative in respect to their action upon the vessels of the 
minute circulation. A gas or vapour that asphyxiates but does not irritate 
may be safer than a gas or vapour that does not asphyxiate and does 
irritate; for the former, when it kills, kills by a secondary process that is 
preceded by a series of symptoms foretelling the danger; while the latter, 
when it kills, kills often by instantly shutting off the column of blood that 
is making its way to the air, and by so oppressing the heart that every 
attempt at action, under the condition produced, increases the injury. 


On ConyutstvE Movements purtne Narcorism. 


T have endeavoured to show in the last section that under narcotism from 
certain narcotic vapours, the vapours of the chlorine series specially, there 
are two orders of cessation of the circulation,—the one primary, beginning in 
the lesser or pulmonary, the other secondary, beginning in the larger or 
systemic circulation. Coincidently with these changes I have, I think, 
obseryed, when there-has been time for the development of the phenomena, 
4+wo distinct sériés of convulsive movements or paroxysms of convulsion. 
T haye noticed the same fact in drowning, and also in fatal sudden hemor- 
rhage, as in the process of killing animals, such as sheep. The phenomena 
may at any time be observed at the abattoir; they are in fact perhaps best 
seen in cases of rapid fatal hemorrhage; and I am led to the conclusion that 
they have one common interpretation as to cause, the hemorrhagic convul- 
sions eing the purest type of all. The convulsive actions, primary and 
secondary, are due, as it seems to me, to disturbance of the balance of supply 
of blood to the‘nervous and muscular centres. As a mechanism, the mass of 
neryous matter is the centre of reserved force, while the mass of muscle is 
the moving centre, the two centres being connected by an intervening nervous 
cord, and each supplied with the same blood. The two centres are held in 
counterpoise, as it were, by the blood. If there be, then, any disturbance of 
support in either centre, it will be indicated in change of function in the 
moving centre, in change of motion. 

When we draw blood from the systemic circuit, or when through the 
lesser circulation we arrest the free current of blood through the systemic 
_ eireuit, we destroy the balance previously existing between the muscular and 
nervous centres. If we could so exhaust the body that both centres should 
be exhausted together evenly, it is possible that there would be no change of 
motion in the moving centre ; and, indeed, in some cases of disease we see the 
gradual and equal exhaustion without manifestation of the convulsive pheno- 
mena. But in cases of extreme and sudden break of balance, it follows neces- 
sarily that the balance shall-be broken unevenly. It is in the muscular system 


mu 2 


164. REPORT—1871. 


that the failure of blood is first felt. The nervous centres, protected from the 
eifects of sudden pressure by their envelopment of bony structure, feel the 
shock of the exhaustion secondarily. Thus the muscle suffering a reduced 
resistance of blood to the nervous stimulus, contracts as if it had received an 
excess of stimulus, and the phenomenon of primary convulsion is developed ; 
in hemorrhage this convulsion immediately precedes deliquium or syncope. 
In brief time, the nervous centres themselves becoming exhausted, the con- 
vulsions cease, and none but the muscular movements of the organic life, 
respiration and circulation, remain. These while they last feed still in a 
passive state the nervous centres and muscular centres ; and if the cause of 
exhaustion at this stage be stopped and the body be resupplied with means 
of life, recovery takes place without the necessary return of convulsive ac- 
tion ; but if the exhaustion proceed, then follows the secondary phase, the 
failure of the organic system, and with that a repetition of the phenomenon 
of primary failure, viz. a second general convulsion, terminating in death. 

The conyulsion of hemorrhage is, I repeat, the typical form of the condi- 
tions I have portrayed ; but in death from chloroform and similar narco- 
tics, the phenomena are sometimes equally striking. The convulsion and 
rigidity which mark the second degree of narcotism indicate the first 
break of balance between the nervous and the muscular centres; the 
period of the third and fourth degrees of narcotism, during which there is 
complete paralysis of voluntary and of conscious power, marks the interval 
when all life is suspended on the organic or vegetative nervous system; the 
final convulsion that precedes death marks and proclaims the moment when 
the organic force itself breaks down, leaving the whole organism motionless 
and, as we say, dead. 


On ConDENSATION OF WATER ON THE Broncuiat SuRFACE DURING NARCOTISM. 


It has occurred to me often to observe that the physiological action of nar- 
cotic vapours during inhalation is greatly modified by the condition of the 
atmospheric air in respect to its dryness and its moisture. When the atmo- 
sphere is extremely dry, the action of a narcotic vapour is greatly increased, 
and recovery from its effects is remarkably easy ; on the contrary, when the air 
is saturated with water vapour the action is impeded ; and ifthe air be at the 
same time cold and moist, the process of narcotism is often greatly impeded, 
while recovery after it has been established is prolonged in proportion. 
But the fact I wish particularly to bring forward is, that when the body of 
an animal becomes profoundly narcotized, and the insensibility is long main- 
tained, during conditions in which the air is cold and moist, there oceurs not 
unfrequently an actual condensation of water in the minute bronchial pas- 
sages, which condensation leads to as low asphyxia, and, if it be continued, to 
actual death. This accident is best seen in cases of narcotic poisoning from 
hydrate of chloral; it may also be observed after poisoning from opium and 
other narcotics, as well as after long exposure to extreme cold. 

There are two causes at work to produce the condensation: the one is the 
obstacle to evaporation of watery matter from the surface of the animal 
membrane into the air; the other the deficiency of force, in an animal whose 
general temperature is reduced, to raise the vapour of water from the blood, 
and to expel it from the pulmonary organs in the state of vapour. 

Whenever in any case condensation of water, from the causes named, is 
set up, the danger continues in an increasing ratio; for the condensation 
tends to shut off the air from contact with the blood, the temperature of the 


ON SECTIONS OF MOUNTAIN-LIMESTONE CORALS. 165 


body (dependent always on the perfection of the respiratory process) decreases, 
and at last the respiratory change is prohibited altogether. 

It isimportant in the extremest degree to remember the fact thus named in 
the treatment of cases of poisoning during which the animal heat is reduced. It 
will often turn the scale, in such instances, in favour of return to life, simply 
to place the body in a warm and dry air. 

The fact is also of great interest, in a practical and physiological point of 
view, in relation to the phenomena of some exhaustive diseases. The cold 
sweats that are seen on the surface of the body in syncope, in the later stages 
of phthisis pulmonalis, and on the approach of death in many diseases, as 
also the chest-rattles, are due to the cause I have named!above—condensation. 
They are evidences that the body has not sufficient power or force to produce 
a rapid natural evaporation of water from the exhaling surfaces, 


Report of the Committee appointed to get cut and prepared Sections of 
Mountain-Limestone Corals for the purpose of showing their struc- 
ture by means of Photography. The Committee consisis of JAMES 
Tuomson, F.G.S., and Professor Harxnuss, F.R.S, 


Iy our Report of last year we gave in detail the probable additions to our 
present list of fossil corals from the Mountain Limestone. 

During the past year we have had several hundred specimens cut. 
Although, many of these have been more or less spoiled, and their internal 
structure’crushed and broken to such an extent that their specific characters 
cannot with any degree of certainty be made out, yet many of them reveal 
important structural characters which will enable us to add both genera and 
species to those before indicated. Many of the specimens cut have well- 
preserved calices, which will enable us to figuré and describe both their 
internal structure and external aspect, with a degree of certainty hitherto 
unknown. 

Although much progress has been made, we are convinced that many other 
facts will be revealed by further investigation; and we hope the Committee 
will be reappointed in order that we may continue this important inquiry. 

We have not added any additional photographic plates to those exhibited 
last year at Liverpool. We were desirous of getting as large a number of 
specimens cut as the sum at our disposal would permit, in order that we 
might select the most characteristic generic forms for further plates. 

At Liverpool we indicated that we were in the hopes of reproducing the 
most delicate structures by another process, which would be more serviceable 
for the purpose of publication. In this we are glad to state that we have 
been successful. By a simple process we are enabled to transfer the details 
of both genera and species to copper plates, from which any number of 
copies can be reproduced, of which we will avail ourselves when we are ready 
to publish in extenso. (Two plates so prepared were exhibited.) 

We have placed in the British Museum and the Hunterian Museum of 
Glasgow duplicates of a number of the cut specimens which have already 
been described ; other duplicates will be sent when they have been described 
and named. 


166 er __. »REPorT—1871.. 


Second Report of the Committee appointed to consider and report on 
' the various Plans proposed for Legislating on the subject of Steam- 
Boiler Explosions, with a view to their Prevention,—the Commiitee 
consisting of Sir Witu1am Farrparrn, Bart., C.H., LL.D., P.RS., 
Joun Penn, C.H., F.R.S., Freperick J. Bramwet., C.E., Hucu 
Mason, Samurt Ricsy, Toomas Scnoriep, Cuarzes F, Bryer, 
C.E., Tuomas Wesster, Q.C., and Lavineton E. Frercuer, C.E, 


Src the first Report on the subject of “ Steam-Boiler Legislation” was pre- 
sented to the Meeting of the British Association, held last year at Liverpool, 
the Parliamentary Committee ‘‘ appointed to inquire into the cause of Steam- 
Boiler Explosions and the best means of preventing them” haye presented 
their Report. 

The consideration of the result of the Parliamentary Committee’s inquiry 
clearly becomes one of the most important duties in reporting to the British 
Association on “the various plans proposed for legislating on Steam-Boiler 
Explosions, with a view to their Prevention.” Unfortunately, however, the 
Parliamentary Report has been so recently published that there has not been 
time for its due consideration, or for the Committee appointed to treat on 
this subject to meet and confer thereon, Under these circumstances it has 
been thought best not to attempt to enter upon the subject on the present 
eccasion,. but to postpone doing so until next year, after having an opportu- 
nity of watching-the development of the measure, and its working when 
carried into actual practice ;.and therefore, in order that they might be in a 
position to report thereon to.the next Meeting of the British Association, the 
Committee.would beg to suggest their reappointment. 


Report of the Committee on the “ Treatment and Utilization of Sewage.” 
Consisting of Ricuarp B. Grantuam, C.E., F.G.S. (Chairman), 
- Professor D. T. Anstep, F.R.S., Professor W. H. Corriexp, M.A., 
M.B., J. Batter Denton, C.H., F.G.S., Dr. W. H. Giipert, F.R.S., 
Joun THoRNHILL Harrison, C.E., THomas Hawks ey, C.E., F.G.S., 
W. Hor, V.C., Lieut.-Col. Leacu, R.E., Dr. W. Ovuine, F.R.S., 
Dr. A. Voricxer, 7.R.S., Professor A. W. Witutamson, F.R.S., 
F.C.S., and Sir Joun Lussocs, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. (Treasurer). 


Tur Committee, upon its reappointment at Liverpool last September (1870), 
proceeded at once to consider the. subjects which seemed to demand imme- 
diate attention in furtherance of the investigation which had been again 
entrusted to it. ote 

The first steps taken were to endeavour to procure information from the 
towns where works have been constructed for the application of sewage to 
land by irrigation, and from the places where the dry earth or Moule’s system 
is in operation. 

In order to commence the inquiry, a list of towns was prepared, to each of 
which a printed form of queries was sent; but only eight places have answered 
the circular on irrigation, and only one that relating to the dry-earth process. 
The answers from the towns have been tabulated, and the Table will be found 
at the end of this Report (Appendix A). 

During the construction of the present tanks at Breton’s Farm in the winter, 
very accurate observations could not at all times be made; but nevertheless, 
during the extreme frost, samples were taken of the sewage and of the 
effluent water. The temperature of both, and also the temperature of the 


ee ee a oe 


— 7) oe 


ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 167 


atmosphere, was observed.’ Similar observations Were made at Croydon and 
Norwood (see Section I.). 

The observations as to the quantity and quality of the sewage and effluent 
water have been continued at Breton’s Farm, with slight interruptions, as 
stated above, from the Meeting of the British "Association at Liverpool down 
to the present time. The results of the gaugings are recorded in the Tables 
which will be found in Section IT. of this Report. 

The Committee has visited several sewage-farms, and examined the various 
methods that are pursued at them with a view to determining the practical 
conditions upon which the success of sewage-farming depends. They have 
had samples of sewage and of effluent water collected, and have had analyses 
made of them, which latter, with the remarks of the Committee, will be found 
in Section III. 

The phosphate process of Messrs. Forbes and Price has been also examined 
by a Member of the Committee, and a description of the process, with an 
analysis of the effluent water from this process, is given in Section IV. 

Analyses of the soil which has passed once and twice through earth-closets 
haye been furnished by another Member; and the manner in which this 
process is carried out at Lancaster, with the results attained there, is dée- 
scribed in Section V. 

An ox which had been fed for the previous 22 months entirely on sewage- 
grown produce was slaughtered on July 15th at Bréton’s Farm, and the carcass 
examined by Dr. Cobbold and Professors Marshall and Corfield, in the presence 
of several Members of the Committee, with a view to ascertain the presence or 
absence of Entozoa in any stage of their existence. The results of this exami- 
nation, and Dr. Cobbold’s report, will be found appended (Appendix B). 
~ The attention of the Committee has been drawn to certain anomalies in 
the figures given in the list of rainfalls in the ‘Tabulation compiled from 
returns furnished by 200 towns selected for Classification,” at the end of last 
year’s Report. 

On referring to the original returns, it has Been found that the Paes 
given in the Table are correctly taken from them, 


Sxcrion I.—A Comparison of Results obtained in the purification of Sewage at 
three Irrigation Farms during the severe frost of last winter. 
1. Breton’s Farm, near Romford. 

The following analyses show the composition of average samples of sewage 
and effluent water collected on the farm on January 2nd; each sample was 
made by collecting five portions at different times, and mixing them in pro- 
portion to the flow at the time. 


Solid matter. Ammonia. 
Nit